Electric Lady - High Frequency Power Supply?

I saw an electric lady in a travelling sideshow. The type where she throws sparks from the hands, makes paper  burst into flames and causes bulbs to light by holding them. I'm assuming they are using a high frequency power supply (very low amps), and I was wondering if anyone has built one and if there are any good schematics on line?

Posted by Divet 7 years ago

Electric motor

What would cause an electric motor, running a table saw, to suddenly start running at a faster speed than normal?

Posted by tablesawguy 4 years ago

What to do with an electric toothbrush?

The head of my electric toothbrush broke and replacement heads cost almost as much as I bought the toothbrush for, so I'm not going to buy a new one. I now have a headless electric toothbrush and wondered what make with it since it seems too nice to just throw away. Unlike most electric toothbrushes, this one doesn't rotate back and forth but instead reciprocates forwards and backwards about 2-3mm. Anyone think of something useful I could make of it? I tried to use it as a metal etcher, but it doesn't move fast enough for that unfortunately.

Posted by chiok 9 years ago

Replacing three 12 v batteries in an electric scooter?

I have an x-treme scooter 360 and the batteries are dead. i have 3 12v replacement batteries, but i do not know how to replace them? does anyone know...

Posted by denniswilliams 11 years ago

Need help wiring salvaged electric motor

Hello, I have an electric motor I salvaged from a clothes dryer. I would like to add a three prong plug to it. However, I'm not experienced enough to read a schematic and I can't find any other tutorials that use the same motor. It's from a 2014 Whirlpool Dryer. I need to know where to connect the black, white and green wires. Any help is appreciated.

Posted by ttemple2 1 year ago

Electric Issues and Law

Hi, I' ve created a DIY which describes how to create a lamp and how it has to be connected. I don' t know or just can' t remember where I can find kind of a 'non-warranty' text or related statements. Do I have to add them by myself? regards, fleck.

Posted by fleck 10 years ago

electric motors

I am considering motorizing my bike for my work commute. However I don't have enough knowledge about motor output as in torque / rpms to be able to determine what kind of characteristic I should be looking for. For many of the electric motors I am finding online, it doesn't really say the torque output. Is there a spec such as watts that I can judge a motor by? What specs should I be looking for in a motor that can assist in moving my weight. Or an links to good knowledge sites would be great too. Thanks.

Posted by aeneas shrike 10 years ago

electric scooter please help

Ok i just got a junk scooter and i have it running on a pair of car batteries and i wanna know how i can completely pimp it out and make it go at least 30-40 m/h (48-64 k/h) ya so if you can help me plz do so

Posted by darth acexxacer 9 years ago

Help figuring out electric motors

I'm trying to decipher the mystical language of electric motors and need some help. I was at one of my favorite stores yesterday, a place called 'Industrial Liquidators' here in San Diego, and I was looking at their vast supply of electric motors. Big ones, small ones, battery operated ones, flat one, all in latest styles and fashionable colors. I know of plenty of uses for these things but I have no idea what it is I'm looking at. I would like to make my own rock polishing tumbler, so I'd like a motor with a bit or power and a slow rotation, but how can I figure out how strong and fast a motor is?Maybe I'm starting at the wrong place. I must admit that I know next to nothing about electrical stuff. Pretty much the only thing I know about electrical equipment is that it only works when you plug it into a socket.So that being what it is, can anyone direct me to a website that explains how to read these motor labels? Ya know the ones that say how many ohms, volts, amps etc.Thanks for any help.

Posted by astro347 9 years ago

Comparative Environmental Friendliness of Internal Combustion and Electric Vehicles

I would like to know which type of vehicle is more environmentally friendly. Electric and hybrid vehicles are gaining in popularity and they are touted as green, but they clearly require more energy and resources in their manufacture due to their battery packs, rare earth metals and electric motors. On the other hand, traditional internal combustion vehicles require fewer resources to manufacture. However, I imagine that it converts fossil fuels to energy less efficiently than electrics because the conversion process is smaller, unlike in large scale power plants (not sure if this is true). Electric === More resources to create (-) Power Plant (Generates energy efficiently?) (+) -> Power Lines (A: energy loss) (-) -> Motion +,-,- Gas === Fewer Resources to create (+) Combustion Motor (Generates energy inefficiently? B: energy loss) (-) -> Motion +,- I'm pretty terrible at explaining this, but is the energy loss at A or B worse when comparing the two systems? For electrics to be viable, it must offset the higher creation cost. Just wondering which one is actually more "green" when you factor in production (disregard cost of transporting fossil fuels to gas stations and power plants).

Posted by crestind 7 years ago

Which electric motor for which project?

OK, so I got two projects for this winter. One - building a lathe for woodturning. Not a mini-lathe, but a bit more serious piece of equipment that I could use for some furniture details. Two - apple mill for cider. And I have two salvaged electric motors laying around. One is from an old Remington chainsaw, 1400 W and probably some quite serious speed. The other one is from a pump, actually water automate that sat on my 15-meter borewell. Do not have the data, but most probably slower (and it is way bigger). Problem is, I have zero experience with such stuff. For setting up the electricity side I will probably call in the cavalry, but first i need to decide, which motor I will use for which purpose. So, any advice, gurus?

Posted by wahur 5 years ago

Overpriced Stuff: Electric Motor Speed Controllers

Commercially, speed controllers for electric motors (electric car size) are very expensive, like on here.That page has a controller capable of 144v at 550a peak (about 90 horsepower peak) for $1250. I just designed a speed controller with parts off of digikey.com for about $200 that could handle 144v at 690a continuous so it could probably get over 180 horsepower peak.All things considered, their's costs over 10 times as much per amount of power.This seems like a BIG markup. I can understand shipping costs, labor costs, etcetera, but something seems a little messed up here.NOTEI am not sure that the design is quite right, and haven't done it myself, so criticism is good.

Posted by yourcat 9 years ago

Antarctica-Bound Hybrid-Electric Hummers Visit Pier 9

Drive Around the World, a nonprofit founded in the Bay Area, revealed its latest innovation, a pair of hybrid­-electric Polar Traverse Vehicles, also known as the Zero South PTVs. These two unique vehicles are bound for a history­-making expedition across Antarctica and they came to Pier 9 today to talk about it.  These revolutionary vehicles, designed using Autodesk tools, have undergone an extensive transformation from gas guzzling Hummers to open source, environmentally conscious biofuel hybrid­-electric vehicles outfitted with ice tracks and capable of standing up to the Earth’s harshest environments. Vehicle designers and leading NASA scientists discussed the expedition's logistics and the latest in climate discoveries. From the Zero South team: There is intentional irony in repurposing the Hummer H1, which many view as a contemporary symbol of gross consumer waste and inefficiency. Others view it as a remarkable multipurpose machine capable of extreme on­ and off­-road performance. But no matter which way the audience is ³polarized² by the vehicle, this adventure will appeal to everyone. Zero South Electrical Engineer Brock Winberg

Posted by xxlauraxx 3 years ago

Speed control for AC electrical motors

I want to use a GE A-C motor (5KC33GG101): Connection Type and Voltage Rating in Volts: 115.0 line to neutral single input Rotor Speed Rating in Rpm: 1725.0 single full load Frequency in Hertz: 60.0 input to run a 50' line on pulleys for a Halloween project but it's too fast. Can anybody help me figure out if I can buy/build a controller to run it slower?

Posted by mario-alonzo 10 months ago

Need help

I have a small 1/4 HP electric motor that runs @1750 rpms  I tried to put a basic dimmer switch on it to help regulate the speed but it it still runs wide open. Should this work or what can I do?

Posted by captinkickass 5 years ago

Truck Conversion Help Plz

A friend of mine, is considering converting his 1997 Ford Ranger to electric, but is a virgin to converting vehicles, but is a knowledgeable farm kid. The truck is a 2.3/4 cylinder, 5 speed, shortbed with a regular cab. Any ideas/help? Relevant links are welcome.

Posted by bumpus 9 years ago

Electric didgeridoo

Bored with traditional digeridoos, Kyle Evans made this electronically modified, Bluetooth PVC didgeridoo. The Bluetooth allows him to not be tethered to a computer and the controls on the sides allow him to modify the sounds in the middle of a performance. It takes a lot of breath to power the 4.5 foot didgeridoo, but with a feedback feature he can keep the sound going and catch a breath, which is a little easier than the typical circular breathing. This took 3 months for him to build at a cost of $300. You can hear a sample of it in action here. You Built What?! The Electronic Didgeridoo

Posted by fungus amungus 8 years ago

CHALLENGE 60% efficient solar build

I would really love to see this Instructable be done but i don't have the technical background or resources to do so. It seems like a pretty easy build and looks like it can be done with common items. If the project is done correctly it should be a very powerful source of energy for free. It converts solar energy at 60% efficiency which is almost twice as much as current solar panels. It works by converting solar heat into electricity by heating hydride (which is hard to find but i think it can be replaced with a refridgerant) into a gas, which generates pressure to run a motor which runs a generator producing electricity and then the gas is converted back into the liquid state. The project will replicate Solar Powered Electric Generator Please contribute the time to building this it will pay off tons. Thanks To Everyone Who Helps.Mark

Posted by BTBAMYEAH 10 years ago

knex guitars

Im making a flying v ill post a slide show. it's bass ans has 4 strings

Posted by doom980 9 years ago

Making a large electric motor from scratch

I searched the archived threads and found quite a bit alreadydiscussed here about making very simple and small electric motors fromscratch. What I want to do is to make a fairly large and powerful one(say, somewhere around the size of a coffee can). This is for asculpture project, and the motor will be driving a kinetic mechanism.I'm pretty handy, have a extensive range of tools and am comfortableworking with high voltage. What I am not, however, is knowledgeableabout designing or making electric motors; hence my questions.I understand that I'll need to wind armatures and so forth, but Idon't know what the advantages/disadvantages would be of making a DCversus an AC motor (either power could be supplied), nor do I reallyunderstand the differences between the various types of those two. Themotor needs to be able to start by itself under load (as opposed tosome homemade electric motors that seem to need a nudge to get going).Simplicity, low maintenance and ease of construction would be a plus.I had thought of making a homopolar motor such as they have at theExploratorium (http://www.exploratorium.edu/cmp/exnet/exhibits/group5/daisy/index.html) but it seems that homopolar motors like this cause considerable wearto the part that acts as a brush, which will work against my goal oflow maintenance. Unless...perhaps I could use a rolling conductor (like a precision bearing) as a brush? Does that make any sense?Thanks for any advice!

Posted by Bricology 10 years ago

DIY electric drum set

Here's an easy way to make an electric drum set for about 150 dollars that sounds and works great. I am going to post instructions, but this should tell you enough. Get two rock band drum sets. Open the drums. They are easy to open. Just put your hand in the little gap about halfway through the drums and carefully lift up. In the center, there would be a circular area. Keep those clean. Buy nine of those tiny recorders that you press a button to play. They are about 4 dollars each. Record a tom 1 sound, a tom 2 sound, a tom 3 sound, a bass sound, a snare sound, a crash cymbal 1 sound, a crash cymbal 2 sound, a boom cymbal sound, and a hi-hat cymbal sound. Glue each drum sound inside the center of each drum. Glue the bass one underneath the bass pedal. Turn all the volumes on high. IT WORKS! All for pretty cheap.

Posted by PineapplebobTheGreat 10 years ago

Slowing down an electric motor?

I am working on getting all the supplies together for my first instructable.  The item I am building (not giving out many details) will have 5 different motors on it.  I think all motors will be the same model.  However I want one motor to run quite slower.  Can I do this without having to run it off a lower voltage power supply.  Now that I think of it I suppose there is plenty of room in my item for a 2nd power supply.  But this will still be good information for me to have in the future.  Oh and the main power supply for the item will be either 3 - 6 volts I believe.  AA batteries in case this matters at all.  Thank you in advance for your help in this matter.

Posted by jcaresheets 7 years ago

selfcontained electric car?

I had a few ideas on how to make more efficient cars. First off why is it we have NO generators being used while stuffs rotating. Take a small generator with a rubber drive point...like there a chain or belt would go... and place that on the tires. This is a friction driven generator which means that it would not work well in the rain. These...if done right... could keep the car running and then keep the battery charged. Using the battery only for stops. I also think we need to figure out a way to put a coil in the drive train somewhere. Making it to where when the car stops the coil is wound tight, when the car takes off again the coil could unwind and help the car take off. this feature added to gasoline engines would help cut the cost of gas greatly, not to mention emissions.

Posted by NativeSs 6 years ago

Ideas anyone? Making electric coals

 Hi guys, girls 'n robots! I intend to build an electric coal (for my hookah) and I need advice from all you electronic dudes and dudettes! If I use nichrome what length and gauge should I use to achieve the following Specs: 1.  12 V power supply  OR 220 VAC (South Africa) 2. Minimum 400 Celsius / 700 Fahrenheit 3. Preferably 600 C / 1112 F The element will be wrapped around a "doughnut" which I will fabricate from heat resistant cement, it will be +/- 2 inches diameter with an inner diameter of about 3/4 inch and 1/2 inch thick, therefore keep in mind that the nichrome must be able to heat all that ceramic. If, during my testing, the nichrome expands sufficiently to short out then I'll cut grooves in the "doughnut" to keep them in their places. In the image orange represents nichrome wire ONTOP of the "doughnut" while yellow is BELOW I am in no way adept at electrickery. As a side note of lesser importance, any ideas on building a circuit to add a dimmer or potentiometer to the mix to regulate the temperature? Thanks in advance!

Posted by Baronrc 8 years ago

Electric Motors 1/6 - 1/2 hp Super Cheap!

Hey Instructable Community! I've fallen into a consistent supply of used electric motors and I'd love to offer them to the people in this community. I was going to start selling them on Ebay but I like you all much more than those randoms and I'm even willing to offer them to you for a lower price because this site has literally changed my life. Not to mention, I be you'll have a much more creative use for an electric motor. Details and Disclosures: These motors are used and are coming out of Air Conditioning Units that a buddy of mine scraps. (He installs units and takes the old ones) He was junking the motors for mixed metal scrap prices and I figured I knew some people that might value them. I have some 115v motors and many more 220v motors. These motors range from 1/6hp to 1/2hp. I test the 115v motors but don't have a current setup for testing the 220v motors. That said, they were working when the units were replaced. I am very flexible on price. Motors range from $25 - $60. (Plus shipping)  I'll go even cheaper if you want a few. After receiving payment I can usually ship within a few days. I'd also be willing to meet up if you are in the general Philly area! This is a great opportunity to power your next AMAZING Instructable. I promise to do honest business lest the Instructables staff delete my account. (I've got about 2 years of pro that I'm not willing to give up) I hope to hear from you all soon!!!

Posted by JosephR25 2 years ago

Electric Power Generation and Resistance Questions

Okay so I understand the basic concepts of power generation but I have a question pertaining to the old addage: An object in motion tends to stay in motion. Resistance is power that stops any said object if it is equal to the energy of the object in motion - this resistance is from gravity and other outside forces acting upon said object. OKAY If the force to put an object in motion was then then collected by electrical generators from multiple other sources as part of the same object - would it be able to make up for the amount of resistance from the added collection and the amount needed to put said object into motion and keeping it in motion???? If an object is designed to be in motion then it does not require as much energy to stay in motion as it does to be put in motion. Even when affected by gravity, as it is affected by gravity less when is in motion. But can technology (bearings and rotors) be designed so they offer less resistance than the amount of energy required to keep said object in motion? This is impossible as far as I am aware. Energy is NOT free - but If the energy required to keep an object in motion is less than required to put it into motion, would not the true energy of the object in motion be greater than what is required to keep it in motion and be able to be collected as excess energy? Collection would result in resistance however and since the formula of "greater or equal force" applies collecting anything other than that differential in energy would result in the objects motion being slowed. Is this true? I am concerned about going into details on the nature of my concept until I can gain a better understanding of the science behind it. As such I apologize for how vague my questioning is.

Posted by Tetsuoh 2 years ago

how to make a piezo disk wiggle?

How would you make a piezo disk wiggle so you could see it move. Short story short i ultimately want to make a dual piezo cooling jet that GE had made (www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hm5fXj-hUpk)

Posted by vzfitch 5 years ago

BIG electro magnet uses?

So i have been taking apart alot of electronics, looking for sweet pieces for my arc reactor im building and today i decided to take apart an old Goulds jet Pump.  Inside i was please to find all this coperwire. I just LOVE the look of this thing, and i know people always build coil guns and all that cool weapon stuff. There has GOT to be a cool use for this, other then giant paperweight.   Any suggestions.  Here is a photo of it.  That copper goes all the way through it. and looks the same on the other side.

Posted by valmont325 6 years ago

500W electric scooter control and instrumentation with Arduino mega

1. Introduction DC 500W motor control with an Arduino mega to limit starting current and to vary the speed of the scooter. The battery is in 24V, 10A.h. The following table summarizes their characteristics: https://i58.servimg.com/u/f58/17/56/35/17/a014.jpg https://i58.servimg.com/u/f58/17/56/35/17/a111.jpg 2. Bibliography: Link download : sketch_escooter_feed_back_reel_V1.ino https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B_fB3GAsM02FSlRTWHdyRkhuUW8/view?usp=sharing escooter_ampli_SIMULINK.mdl https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B_fB3GAsM02FOW9OdmlhdDhJZGc/view?usp=sharing escooter feed back ISIS.DSN https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B_fB3GAsM02FOXdRWFN5OWRMQkE/view?usp=sharing youtube  :  "study trotinette electric e-scooter 100W et 350W, wiring"  youtube https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QqJ2-YiE8Tg&index;=75&list;=PLfZunVn_gcq7EOurXuWU2sRFmh6CbiUiL Article: «Study of electric scooters 100W and 500W (Arduino), Revue 3EI 2017» Pdf? Book «I realize my electric vehicle» at DUNOD 3. Open loop program To test the programming, we simulate the program in ISIS, as can be seen in the following figure. In addition, we have an LCD display to display data (duty cycle corresponding to the PWM at 32Khz, motor current, motor voltage, action on the pushbuttons, 4 push buttons are used. BP1 to manually increment the duty cycle, BP2 decrement it. BP3 set the duty cycle to 0, corresponding to the brake contact. The speed of the motor is practically proportional to the duty cycle https://i58.servimg.com/u/f58/17/56/35/17/a211.jpg We made our own current amplifier called a step-down chopper but it is possible to buy a shield There are many cards for Arduino to control DC motors especially of low powers and also of great powers as can be observed on the following links.http://www.robotpower.com/products/MegaMotoPlus_info.html http://www.robotshop.com/en/dc-motor-driver-2-15a.html https://www.pololu.com/file/0J51/vnh3sp30.pdf https://i58.servimg.com/u/f58/17/56/35/17/a310.jpg But all these chopper shields measure the current internally but there is no current limitation. In order to have a current limitation, an analog current loop is required using specialized AOP or IC or a fast digital current loop. But what should be the value of the limitation current? The choice of the current value is normally for the 1-hour operation service in order to be able to carry out relatively long climbs without reaching the critical temperature of the engine. In our case, the limitation current must be Limiting motor = Power / Upper battery = 500W / 24V = 20A In addition, the power transistor of the chopper can only support 50A in our case. But in open loop, it has no current regulation, so as not to exceed the maximum current, a ramp of the duty cycle will be used. A 0.1 second interruption routine will be used to measure the voltage of the current (sample measurement, sample). This sampling time is arbitrary but does not allow to be faster than the rise time of the current because the electric time constant of the motor is L / R = 1.5 ms. Open loop operation with a 25.5s (8bit) ramp and 0.1s interrupt routine provides a good understanding of the operation of a DC motor drive. The display will only be done every 0.2s to have a stability of the digits on the screen. In addition, a digital filtering will be done on the current and the voltage on 4 values therefore on 0.4s. [b] Algo open loop [/b] Interrupt Routine All 0.1S Read voltage and current Loop loop (push button scan) If BP1 = 1 then increment PWM If BP2 = 1 then decrement PWM If BP3 = 1 then PWM = 0 Displaying variables every 0.2s Code: [Select] // include the library code: #include #include #include #define SERIAL_PORT_LOG_ENABLE 1 #define Led     13       // 13 for the yellow led on the map #define BP1     30       // 30 BP1 #define BP2     31       // 31 BP2           #define BP3     32       // 32 BP3 #define LEDV    33       // 33 led #define LEDJ    34       // 34 led #define LEDR    35       // 35 led #define relay   36       // 36 relay #define PWM10    10      //11   timer2    LiquidCrystal lcd(27, 28, 25, 24, 23, 22); // RS=12, Enable=11, D4=5, D5=4, D6= 3, D7=2, BPpoussoir=26 // Configuring variables unsigned   int UmoteurF = 0;  // variable to store the value coming from the sensor unsigned   int Umoteur = 0; unsigned   int Umoteur2 = 0; unsigned   int Umoteur3 = 0; unsigned   int Umoteur4 = 0; unsigned   int ImoteurF = 0;  unsigned   int Imoteur = 0; unsigned   int Imoteur2 = 0; unsigned   int Imoteur3 = 0; unsigned   int Imoteur4 = 0;            byte Rcy=0 ;    // 8bit duty cycle unsigned    int temps; // the setup function runs once when you press reset or power the board void setup() {   pinMode(Led, OUTPUT);   // Arduino card   pinMode(LEDV, OUTPUT);   pinMode(LEDR, OUTPUT);   pinMode(LEDJ, OUTPUT);   pinMode (PWM10,OUTPUT);     // Pin (10) output timer2   //  digitalWrite(LEDV,LOW);   Timer1.initialize(100000);         // initialize timer1, and set a 0,1 second period =>  100 000   Timer1.attachInterrupt(callback);  // attaches callback() as a timer overflow interrupt   lcd.begin(20, 4);    Serial1.begin(9600);   TCCR2B = (TCCR2B & 0b11111000) | 0x01;         //pin 10  32khz    http://playground.arduino.cc/Main/TimerPWMCheatsheet                                                   //http://www.pobot.org/Modifier-la-frequence-d-un-PWM.html   //   analogWriteResolution(bits)      https://www.arduino.cc/en/Reference/AnalogWriteResolution lcd.setCursor(0,1); lcd.print("Rcy"); lcd.setCursor(10,1); lcd.print("Um"); lcd.setCursor(5,1); lcd.print("Im"); lcd.setCursor(10,1); lcd.print("Um"); lcd.setCursor(20,1); // 4 lines display * 20 characters lcd.print("BP1+"); lcd.setCursor(25,1); lcd.print("BP2-"); lcd.setCursor(29,1); lcd.print("BP3=0"); } // Interruptions  tous les 0.1s void callback()  { temps++; //toogle state ledv for check   if ( digitalRead(LEDV)== 1 ) {digitalWrite(LEDV,LOW);}     else {digitalWrite(LEDV,HIGH);}     analogWrite(PWM10,Rcy);   // frequency Umoteur=analogRead(A0); Imoteur=analogRead(A1); Imoteur2=Imoteur; Imoteur3=Imoteur2; Imoteur4=Imoteur3; ImoteurF=(Imoteur4+Imoteur3+Imoteur2+Imoteur)/4 ; Umoteur2=Umoteur; Umoteur3=Umoteur2; Umoteur4=Umoteur3; UmoteurF=(Umoteur4+Umoteur3+Umoteur2+Umoteur)/4 ;   }// End routine // Loop corresponding to main function void loop() {    // BP + LED   if ((digitalRead(BP1))==1) {     lcd.setCursor(20,0);      // Column line     lcd.print("BP1");     digitalWrite(LEDR, LOW);        digitalWrite(LEDJ, LOW);     Rcy++;                        // PWM incrementation     if ( Rcy>254)  {Rcy=254;}     delay(100);               //8bits * 100ms = 25S increment 25ssecond slope     }        if ((digitalRead(BP2))==1) {     lcd.setCursor(20,0);     lcd.print("BP2");             Rcy--;      if ( Rcy<2)  {Rcy=2;}  // PWM almost at 0, engine stop         delay(100);      digitalWrite(LEDR, HIGH);     digitalWrite(LEDJ, HIGH);     }   if ((digitalRead(BP3))==1) {     lcd.setCursor(20,0);     lcd.print("BP3");      Rcy=2;               // PWM almost at 0, engine stop     } if (temps>=2)  { lcd.setCursor(0,0); lcd.print("                "); // Erase line lcd.setCursor(0,0);     lcd.print(Rcy); lcd.setCursor(5,0); ImoteurF=(ImoteurF)/20;     //resistance (5/1024)*(10/0.25ohm) si ACS712 66mV/A                            // For resistance 1ohm (ImoteurF) / 20; Simulation 5/25 lcd.print(ImoteurF); lcd.setCursor(10,0); UmoteurF=UmoteurF*10/38;                              //10/38   10/30 simula if (Umoteur>ImoteurF){UmoteurF=UmoteurF-ImoteurF;  }  //U-R*I lcd.print(UmoteurF); temps=0; }// End if time    } // End loop https://i58.servimg.com/u/f58/17/56/35/17/dsc_0614.jpg Since there is a limit of 9000 characters in the forum below Open loop program feature previous The interrupt routine lasts only 250 microseconds, the loop of the main program which scans the action of push buttons is 13micros and the display time of all data is 11ms. Thus, it is possible to improve the sampling period and thus the speed of the regulation of the current. The Arduino makes it possible to make the instrumentation of the scooter so to know the power, the consumption in Ah and Wh, to measure the speed, to know the consumption according to Wh / km, to measure the temperature of the engine, Have a safe operation. But for now we will see how to limit the current 4. Closed loop program, limited current control The sampling period will increase to 0.01 seconds (interrupt routine) If the current is less than the desired value, then the duty cycle can be increased or decreased to the desired value which is the setpoint. On the other hand, if the motor current is greater than the limiting value, there is a rapid decrease in the duty cycle. So as not to exceed the value of the duty cycle if it is saturated to 254 maximum and to the minimum value 6. Code: [Select] if (Imoteur<4000)                    // No current limitation at (20A * 10) * 20 = 4000   {if (consigne>Rcy)   {Rcy=Rcy+1;}   // Pwm ramp + 1 * 0.01second pure integrator    if (consigne    if ( Rcy>254)  {Rcy=254;}           // Limitation of duty cycle    analogWrite(PWM10,Rcy);   // Frequency 32kHz timer2}         } if (Imoteur>4000)  { Rcy=Rcy-5;              // No current filtering, to be faster                     if ( Rcy<6)  {Rcy=5;}       // Rcy is not signed, nor the PWM therefore Rcy minimum must not be less than 6                   analogWrite(PWM10,Rcy);   // Frequency 32kHz timer2}                        } 5. Closed Loop Program, Limited Current Control with Acceleration Handle An acceleration handle provides a 0.8V voltage when not operated and a 4.5V voltage when the handle is fully engaged. Instead of using pushbuttons to increase or decrease the speed setpoint, an acceleration handle will be used Code: [Select] Upoignee=analogRead(A3); // The relation in Upoign and the setpoint which corresponds to the duty cycle corresponds to if (Upoignee>100) { consigne=(Upoignee/2);     //0=a*200+b    et 255=a*800+b                      consigne= consigne-100;                   }                            else { consigne=0;   }               if (Upoignee<100) { consigne=0;  }     // redundancy     6. Temperature and safety program of the motor with the current measurement The outdoor temperature measurement can be easily performed by the LM35 component which charges 0.01V by degrees Celsius Code: [Select] temperature=analogRead(A2); //lm35 0.01V/°C temperature=temperature/2;       // Temperature coefficient lcd.setCursor(5,2); lcd.print("      "); lcd.setCursor(5,2); lcd.print(temperature);   // Display in ° C lcd.setCursor(9,2);      // Erasing secu display lcd.print("     ");   if (temperature>80 ) {lcd.setCursor(9,2);         // If motor external temperature is above 80 ° C                      lcd.print("secuT");                       Rcy=0;} In addition, thermal safety by measuring the motor current will be added. If the limitation current is greater than 10s then the motor will no longer be powered for 30s. A "secu" display will appear on the LCD display. This safety makes it possible to cut the motor on slope too high and when blocking the engine but it would be necessary to add the measurement of the speed in the latter case Code: [Select] if (timesecurite>=10000 ) {flagarret=1;      // If limitation current for a current of more than 10s                               timerepos=0;                               consigne=0;                               Rcy=0;                                 timesecurite=0;}       //   Then stop engine during a downtime    if (flagarret==1 ) {lcd.setCursor(9,2);         // If limiting current for a current of more than 20s                      lcd.print("secU");  }     //   Then stopping the motor for a stop time and display                                                     if (timerepos>=30000 &&  flagarret==1) {flagarret=0;                                           lcd.setCursor(9,2);      // After a rest time here of 30s                                            lcd.print("       ");   }   The display can be observed if the temperature is above 80 ° C https://i58.servimg.com/u/f58/17/56/35/17/a017.jpg Thermal safety by measuring the motor current (digital thermal relay) which allows to know the image of the internal temperature of the engine would be ideal. But for this, it is necessary to know well the thermal modeling of the motor. 7. Measurement of the energy capacity of the battery The energy capacity of a battery is in A.H, we will display the value in mA.H to have a high accuracy. The capacity will be in A.Second in the following equation. So to have in mA.H, it will be divided by capacity by3600. Capacity (A.s) n = I * Te + Cn-1 with Te = 0.01s and I multiplied by 10 So in the interrupt routine Code: [Select] capacity=ImoteurF+capacity ; And in the display Code: [Select] lcd.setCursor(0,3); // Display of energy capacity lcd.print("C mA.h="); capacity1=capacity/(18000);   //18000=3600*5  5=> Current measurement coefficient lcd.print(capacity1); To check a current of 10A with an adjustable resistor and after 30s, the capacity must be 83mA.H 8. Power and modeling with SIMULINK Modeling helps to understand the vehicle and its control. In addition, it is possible to compile the control part directly into the Arduino program from simulation under Simulink. But it will not be possible to simulate the instrumentation with the LCD display. In the following figure, we can observe the simulation of the programming of the chopper with the current limitation with Simulink. In the following figure, the green box shows the duty cycle control to vary the speed and the red border the current limitation. The controller of the control is here a simple integrator but it is possible to carry out a multitude of control. https://i58.servimg.com/u/f58/17/56/35/17/azub_c15.jpg In the previous figure, it can be observed that the current is well limited to 25A from 2s to 9.5s. Then, the current reaches 10.8A under established speed regime at 22.5km / h. The dynamics are similar to the tests carried out. With a slope of 5%, the cyclic ratio reaches only 100% as can be seen in the following figure. The speed will reach painfully 19km / h with a current of 24A and a motor power of 580W. See article: Study of electric scooters 100W and 500W (Arduino), 9. First conclusion It is easy to control a 500W DC motor with an Arduino and some components So repair many scooters that are in DC motors. But it takes some knowledge (automatic, engine) to know how to properly manage the engine and limit its current so as not to damage it The display of the speed, the distance, the operating time to know the Watt.km / km can also be realized with a menu 2. The .ino program as an attached file, But it is not possible to put an attached file in ISIS electronic labcenter? What is this forum? It would be desirable that the compiler could generate the.cof to debug in Isis and test the program line by line .... Arduino still has to make a lot of effort to be on the same level as other microcontrollers 10. speed measurement (tachometer) Velocity measurement is carried out using a hall effect sensor SS495 or A1324 which counts each revolution of the wheel. It is enough to enter the perimeter of the wheel of the scooter (130mm of radius therefore 0.816m in the case To have the speed, it is enough just to divide the number of turn of wheel on an arbitrary time of 1s to have a minimum speed of 0.81m / s therefore of 2.93 km / h. In addition, an average filter with 3 values will be used to display the speed. At 25km / h, there will be 8.5 laps. To count the turns, an external interrupt routine will be used on input INT0 21 of the mega card. http://www.locoduino.org/spip.php?article64 To simulate the speed, a pulse on input 21 will be used with a duty cycle of 10%. https://i58.servimg.com/u/f58/17/56/35/17/a018.jpg Code: [Select] void INT0b21() {   Tspeed++;   // External interruption to count the number of turns } // In the set up declare the interrupt routine when the 5V edge of the magnet detection is done   attachInterrupt(digitalPinToInterrupt(21), INT0b21, RISING );  // External interruption // In loop if (temps09>=5)  {        // 1 second loop lcd.setCursor(13,2);      // Erasing speed lcd.print("kph     "); lcd.setCursor(16,2); speed1=Tspeed*2937;      //1tour*816*3.6/1s=2.937km/h speed2=speed1;           //Tspeed (rate/seconde) speed3=speed2; speedF=(speed1+speed2+speed3)/3000;   // To put in kph lcd.print(speedF,1);    // Display to the nearest tenth Tspeed=0;   // Reset counter temps09=0;  //reset time } To improve the accuracy of the velocity measurement, it is possible that the sampling time of the velocity measurement is dependent on the velocity. For example: For speeds less than 10km / h sample at 1second, but above 10km / h sample at 2 seconds. 11. Distance measurement for autonomy The distance corresponds to the total number of turns of the wheel multiplied by the perimeter of the wheel. So do not set the number of turns to 0 for each sample. On the other hand, the reset of the distance will be done when pressing the reset of the Arduino Mega. The distance display will be displayed to the nearest second. At 32km / h, it will take 2 minutes to do 1km as can be seen in the following figure: https://i58.servimg.com/u/f58/17/56/35/17/a019.jpg Code: [Select] void INT0b21() {   Tspeed++;   // External interruption to count speed   nbrRate++; } lcd.setCursor(13,4);      lcd.print("km      ");  // distance=(nbrRate*816)/1000;  //distance m distance=distance/1000;  //distance km lcd.setCursor(15,4);      lcd.print(distance,1);  You can observe the electrical installation with the chopper, the arduino, and the display when the program is set up https://i58.servimg.com/u/f58/17/56/35/17/dsc_0613.jpg 12. Synthesis The RAM space is used only at 4% and ROM space at 3%, for an Arduino mega. So we could take an arduino a little smaller. But, there are 8 Lipo cells to make the 24V power supply to power the engine via the chopper. Therefore, the voltage measurement of each element will be on the Arduino with a JST connector. This measurement makes it possible to know if a cell with an internal resistance which begins to pose a problem and to know if the balancing of each cell has indeed been carried out. It is possible to switch to 36V with 12 cells also with the arduino mega without using an external shield that multiplex 24 analog inputs on input A0 It is possible to send all data to a smartphone via Bluetooth HC06 via pins 20, 21, RX1 and TX1. But the application under android realized under JAVA Studio can not be shared on this forum. This part will not be explained. After having made the instrumentation of this scooter, a study should be carried out on the precision of the measurements, it is possible to read "Instrumentation of a low-power electrical motor vehicle" eco marathon "type Revue 3EI N ° 81, July 2015 http://www.fichier-pdf.fr/2015/09/07/instrumentation-vehicule-faible-consommation-eco-marathon/

Posted by Iutgeiisoissons 1 year ago

Safety Shutoff Bumper on Electric Wheelchair

Friend has Parkinsons.  I'm setting him up with electric wheelchair. Best if he doesnt run it through walls, or run over anyone. need electric shutoff on bumper front and back. How, exactly? and. Go.

Posted by Toga_Dan 1 year ago

electric eye

I would like to make an 'electric eye'. When the eye's beam is broken, it will close a switch and send power to an ac/dc converter. When the beam is restored, the switch will open. suggestions?

Posted by jepalmer 9 years ago

100 hp electric motor

Is it possible to make a 100hp electric ac motor? I have a workshop so all tools are available. Using ndfeb magnets or electromagnets which are efficient for this electric motor any one know about this plz help even small help is admirable .....................

Posted by kacarot 7 years ago

electric bike

I am working on a motor bike that i had originally decided to go gas with but the motor dosent work anymore so i changed my mind and went electric. i was wondering if i would still need a jackshaft with an electric motor. it is a 24 volt motor out of  a powerchair.  i don't know specifics on tourque and hp, but it's pretty powerfull, and turns quite a few rpms. any help would be appreciated. thanks.

Posted by the mechanical engineer 8 years ago

10 hp electric start motor

I just purchaced a 10hp briggs 4cyl electric start go kart motor and im needing help figuring out how to rewire the switch. (wires were cut) anybody know where i can find a wiring diagram for it or an instructable on wiring it? any help is appreciated thanks.

Posted by kdf.inc1969 5 years ago

found possible parts for electric bike conversion ?

Hi! For €100 i can get an electric skateboard which has 3 12v 10AH batteries and a 600w motor with belt drive to the rear axle. Claimed top speed is 25km/h. Including is charger and throttle controller. could this be a good idea? I would need to mount the motor somewhere i still have no idea....

Posted by tjacobs5 2 years ago

electric house windows

If windows could be closed and opened automatically, it could extensively help regulate inside air temperature- a big boon to those of us with no AC. Coupled into a remote-control house, it might reduce electrical consumption and/or increase comfort extensively. I am imagining an add-on to the type of windows that slide up and down; seems the type that opens with a crank would be very easy to retrofit, but they aren't very common, and not very insulating, in my experience.

Posted by whittey 4 years ago

strength specs for electric conduit

Does any one know strength specs for electric conduit? as some of you have read in my previous posts, i plan on making a hammock stand and it needs to hold at least 170 lbs to be on the safe side (i plan on gaining weight during this jolly Christmas season). i have the design below so if anyone can put in some constructive input that would be great. I am thinking about going with either 1" or 3/4" EMT. if there are other metal tubes that are stronger but also relatively cheap please let me know. Thank you for your help and patience on my re-posts of the same topic.

Posted by srikar06 10 years ago

1980 fiat spyder transmission dimensions?

Does anyone have or know where to find dimensioned drawings of the engine mount on a 80 fiat spyder? I'm converting it to electric and a good accurate adapter plate would really help Thanks

Posted by LinuxH4x0r 9 years ago

speed control for A-C electric motor

I want to use a GE A-C motor (5KC33GG101): Connection Type and Voltage Rating in Volts: 115.0 line to neutral single input Rotor Speed Rating in Rpm: 1725.0 single full load Frequency in Hertz: 60.0 input to run a 50' line on pulleys for a Halloween project but it's too fast. Can anybody help me figure out if I can buy/build a controller to run it slower? Thanks in advance!

Posted by mario-alonzo 10 months ago

electric valve

Where do i buy pilot assisted diaphragm valve used on mythbusters.    it was used in the deadly straw episode. at 3:42 to 4:06 on the youtube video called ;MythBusters Season 4 Episode 18 part 1 .  I want the exact size and brand valve.

Posted by m5industriesinc 7 years ago

Help with my brainstorm

Hi everyone, I have an idea for a new gizmo that I'm trying to make a working model of. It will use a 12volt electric motor and want to spend as little as possible on it until I'm pretty sure it will work, so I'm going to scavenge for parts when I can. The most expensive parts that will go into it is the electric motor and the battery and I have a few questions: 1- Does an electric motor draw whatever power it needs or is the power forced into it? 2- If it draws what it needs, can I take a 12volt motor and use an 18v battery with it without problems? So if I scavenge an electric motor from a 12v battery powered drill can I run it with an 18v lithium battery? 3- What about the amps? If I use a 12v motor that normally runs off a 12v car battery, can I run it with an 18v lithium battery that has less amps? 4- Any other specs I need to focus on? 5- When I find the right electric motor, which I think will be a small 12v gearmotor, where should I go to find a low cost supplier? I'll have more questions later but if you could help me with this I can get started. Thank you! Bretina

Posted by Bretina 5 years ago

Electroactive Polymers

I am planning on making some elctroactive polymers. Any tips or advice?

Posted by degrooty 1 year ago

Help modding an electric lawn mower to run from a car battery?

Hi - I have an electric lawn mower that uses US standard 110v wall current. I'd like to create a battery power conversion "harness" so I can power the mower from a deep cycle car/marine battery instead of wall power. I have a converter that's intended to convert from car cigarette lighter socket power to 110v for powering things like laptops while inside a car; would it be possible to simply connect leads from the cigarette socket converter to the car battery, then plug the mower into the converter? is there another type of inverter/converter device that would more usefully work to convert battery power to 110v AC? Thanks in advance for any suggestions... Kern

Posted by kerns 8 years ago

Advice for Building My First Electric Guitar

I'm trying to build my first electric guitar. I figured building a neck is not something that I want to get into my first time, so I'm planning on buying a stratocaster neck and fitting it to the body shape I've designed. I'm probably going to use 3 single coil pickups and a typical stratocaster 5 position switch. However, I want to have the gibson style bridge and knobs. Am I in way over my head for my first time? Does anyone have any advice on how to set the neck at the perfect distance from the bridge? I'm assuming I want to 12th fret to be exactly half of the length of the string, but I'm not sure. Also, if you have any other general advice, I would highly appreciate that.

Posted by saxman42 10 years ago

electric kontiki - electronic fail safe

Has any one come up with and electronic fail safe - return to beach/ gps type system for the electric fishing kontiki's that we have here in Newzealand - and i am sure every where else... currently i understand the only controls available are timed engine run to get it to the desired distance off the shore, and the latests ones have gps correction for tides and surf out to a way point, the trouble is when the long line anchored on the beach becomes separated from the unit ( and the commercial ones are freaking expensive) you have just lost it... surely with the wizardry of electronics and the people that hang out here some one can create a system even better if its gps waypoint based ( beach) that on separation of the long line will automatically turn that hardware around and send it back to the beach, to some where near where it set off from?

Posted by agatornz 6 years ago


Here is a public discussion board where we can discuss actuators.      -how they work.      -where you can buy them. etc.  

Posted by m5industriesinc 7 years ago

Electro Magnets

If an electro magnet is suspending something in an vacuum environment, will it act as a medium? (Will sound waves be able to pass through the magnetic field?) Thanks

Posted by Weissensteinburg 11 years ago

Can it be made? electro-stim

I am wanting to make a special gift for my man this valentines day.Is it possible to make one of these with things lying around the house, or maybe a local store?This is a device that I can put on my mans "man-hood" and it will send electric waves through it.You can see it here:a ---FRIENDLY--- link here:http://www.therimbastore.com/Novelties05/ElectroPowerbox880.pdf-“Electro sex is a method of sexual stimulation involving the use of low voltage electronic signals to stimulate the nerves in the sexual organs into triggering pleasure and orgasmic response. Utilizing electronic signals to duplicate and increase normal sexual stimulation can have quite a profound effect on the sexual arousal of an individual or individuals. The nerves can be triggered in a way that never occurs, even in the best "normal" sex, or with friction or mechanical vibrators. Nerves are electrical triggers, and by applying electronic signals to activate them, the feelings are incredible.” When you realize that ALL impulses in the human body are electric impulses... it's obvious that you can stimulate an orgasm using the right equipment and tools.

Posted by heleena712 10 years ago

Light from of pinball parts

Hi All, I really need someone's help here: I have these old pinball machine parts (see pics) that I'd like to turn into a nightlight for my son, or ornamental lights. While getting the bulb and wires isn't much of a problem, building something for the bulb to sit in is a bit more difficult. Oh, did I mention that my knowledge in electrics is zero? any suggestion and/or help offers would be highly appreciated. Thanks alot Yoav 

Posted by yoavdolev 5 years ago

Starting a Class in Building Electric Cars

Hi Everyone! I've been very involved the last several years in DIY Clean Transportation at the ground level. I've built my own electric car, my own electric motorcycle, hybridized the car, and give talks at energy fairs, sustainability fairs, and post hundreds (literally, hundreds) of videos to YouTube teaching about these projects. I've also put lots of work into postings on Instructables teaching about these projects, and the audience here has been GREAT! I've also been donating my INSTRUCTIONAL DVDs to high schools, tech schools, and colleges for any teacher that will help start a class or extra-curricular at their educational institution. While I've got lots of requests from schools for the videos (and I'm going broke donating them!) I haven't heard back much on actual classes getting started. I think the reason why is that teachers don't have any SUPPORT MATERIALS. They need a curriculum, course outline, and workbooks to go with the video, so that any shop or science teacher has a ready-to-go "Class in a Box". I'm thinking about writing a workbook companion to go with my BUILD YOUR OWN ELECTRIC CAR instructional DVD which can be used by students as a text for a class. It would feature lessons, activities, and quizzes that would go along with the video. A teacher's curriculum would go with this as well. This might be a good thing to fund through Kickstarter or something similar. A small amount of money raised would go far in developing a workbook, and any money raised OVER that could be used to print workbooks and get "Class in a Box" donated to High Schools and Colleges. What are your thoughts? Do you like this idea? Is this the best way to get the most information out to the next generation of auto-builders and DIYer's? All input welcome! For more on this, see my blog. 

Posted by bennelson 5 years ago