nickel plating question

Hi. There is instruction on this address how to make high quality and safe nickel plating,and i have some question about that. When he showed to add salt to the vinegar in order to make the vinegar  more conductive,isnt the salt become Na and Cl ions? Will the Na positive ion stick to the negative nickel plate?(while making the nickel solution-step 3)? Will the Na positive ions stick to the item that we are plating besides the nickel( in the plating process-step 5)? will it spoil the object that we are plating with nickel? I see in the supermarket vinegar which said"synthetic vinegar" 5% acetic acid,water.(for food).Is it ok? when he said(step 4)"You can further clean your object by reverse electroplating (ie "electrocleaning") it for a few seconds.  Hook your object up to a negative voltage, a WIRE to the positive voltage, and drop them both in a vinegar salt solution for 10-30 seconds.  This will remove any left over oxidation" What wire did he mean? and the last one:how pure is the nickel should be?because i notice that most of the nickel sheet are about 99%-99.7% it ok? can i use pure nickel strip(97% pure nickel)that is used for battery welding? Thanks in advance.  

Posted by xchcui 4 years ago

NIckel Acetate Creation from Nickel II Oxide for Nickel Plating

Chemistry question here.  I wanted to play around with some nickel plating, and I started to follow a popular recipe that I saw on YouTube.  It started with Nickel II Oxide, placed in a malt vinegar for a week to create a solution of Nickel Acetate that you could then use as a bath to plate things with Nickel.  I purchased 100 grams of 99% grade Nickel II Oxide, and let it sit in 2L of vinegar for a long time.  After 2 weeks there's no hint of the emerald green Nickel Acetate.  So I purchased some glacial Acetic Acid, and added it to a liter of distilled water to make a 50% weight solution of Acetic Acid to make a stronger solution, and still a week later nothing green.  Solution is in a clean glass vessel.  A local chemist at work said it would be slow, but man, this is taking forever.  What am I doing wrong, or what could I do different? I know Ni Acetate can be achieved with pure nickel and electricity in vinegar, but I really want to try to convert the nickel oxide. 

Posted by monteypython 4 years ago

Nickel sponge+Soldering tip cleaner

Hello, I am a computer engineer and interested on making instructables ! Since i bought my soldering iron like 2 weeks ago i am on the making of one soldering station (with helping hands and such),I bought a sponge but i didn't noticed that wasn't copper (it writes nickel on it). Should be oki for my soldering iron (I mean to keep my tip clean)? Greetings from the sunny and bankrupted Greece ! Xristos.

Posted by Deithomen 6 years ago

What's in your money collection?

I want to know what is in your money collection. Here is what in mine. I had just started getting serious about it though. Tell me what you think.Paper Money=- 5 Yuan from China- 5 Dollars from Cayman Islands- 5 Dollars from Canada- 2 Dollars from Canada- 1000 Dollar bill from 1922 from Germany. I got it for a dollar at a local coin store.- 1 1935 blue seal dollar billCoins=Pennies- A bunch of pennies from 1979 and earlier just because they're old. A 1979, a 1978, a 1977, a 1976, a 1975, a 1974, a 1973 with a 7 stamped into it, a 1972, a 1970, a 1969, a 1967, a 1975, 1964, a 1961, a 1960.- 10 Wheat pennies, 3 1943 steel pennies all in very good condition, a 1952, a 1941, a 1950, a 1919, a 1925, a 1910, and a 1929.- a few souviner pennies. A Hulk, a Trump Plaza, a Hershey Park, and a Jungle Cruise.- A 1952 wheat penny PROOF.- 3 indian head pennies. They are all in a suprisingly (wowful) condition. A 1903, an 1888, and a 1899.Nickels- 4 old nickels, a 1946 (So close to being a war nickel) a 1969, and a 1985 (I know, you find alot of those), and an uncirculated 1964.- A bunch of different nickels from a series: 5 of the nickels with the boat on the back (2004), 2 of the nickels with the Shaking hands and crossing axes on the back (2004), 5 Indian Head/Bison nickels (2005), 2 Indian Head/Ocean view nickels (2005), and 3 jefferson head nickels with the original back (2006). Dimes2 mercury dimes. 1 from 1923, in poor condition, and a 1941 in a fine or very fine condition.Quarters- 1 Bicentennial- 2 silver quarters, one from 1953, and one from 1941.Dollars- 11 Sacajewaea dollars.- 5 Susan B. Anthony- 1 Morgan Dollar- 2 Eisenhower dollars. One is 1972, and the other is a 1976 - 1 1961 Franklin dollar, in UNCIRCULATED condition!Bicentenial.Half Dollars- 3 original half dollars, a 1971, a 1972, and a 1973 Commemoratives- 1 2006 5th anniversery of 911 with gold, and parts of ground zero.Foreign- 25 cents from Bermuda- 3 25 cents from Cayman Islands- 1 5 cents from Cayman Islands- 2 1 dollars from Jamaica- 1 20 dollars from Jamaica- 1 1 Franc from France- 1 Unknown amount from an Unknown Country.- 1 50 Pfennigs from Germany.- 17 1 cents from Canada.- 1 1 cent from The Republic of Trinidad and Tobago.- 1 1 cent from BermudaPlease note I have not been to all of these countries.Other=- 1 Roooofus the Roller Roo token. (I don't know where I got it).- 1 1972 proof set with a penny, a nickel, a dime, a quarter, and a half dollar. - 1 Showboat Token. Worth 1 dollar- 1 carwash token9/6/06 Edit: As some of you might see, I had updated a few. There are lots more that either my dad gave me, or I bought from the coin store.

Posted by Flumpkins 10 years ago

Need to build a circuit board

I need to build a small circuit board, with a timer and a led light, small as a nickel, I will provide more details. any idea?

Posted by danielm 10 years ago

coin/penny battery

Can i make a ''coin/penny battery'' with ''Bronze and Aluminium'' alloyed coin????. well my country's currency coins have following Composition: 1: Bronze and Aluminium       1 rs 2: Brass and Aluminium         2 rs 3: Cupro-nickel                      3 rs can i use any of them to make coin/penny battery?????please tell me if any of them will work.....

Posted by usama1994 4 years ago

electro cleaning before electroplating

Hi. I made the instructable of A_Steingrube"high quality and safe nickel plating" address: and i want to be sure that i did the elctro-cleanning that is mention on step 4 correctly. I try to ask A_Steingrube through the comment place and the private message but i have not get any answer i try to ask here. I made the elctro cleaning while my object was connected to the positive voltage and the wire connected to the negative voltage.I did that ,because i understand that the object sould be dissolved abit and this should be happens on the anode(connected to the positive voltage) but in step 4 he mention to connect the object to the negative voltage in order to make the electrocleanning.SO,is there something that i miss here? Thanks in advance.

Posted by xchcui 4 years ago


I have a very good coin collections my father left me.  I'm not really into coins, and would like to unload them to someone who has a good knowledge about coins.  He collected these coins while how was in WWIi.  Here is a description of what I have:   I have around 20 silver dimes that are so old, the dates have rubbed off. There is one dime dated 1907.  I have one Morgan dollar-date 1917.  I have several buffalo nickels.  I have the following silver quarters: 1952' 1954, 1947, 1942, (2) 1943, 1956, 1941, 1946, 1944, 1942, 1954, 1963, 1961, 1957, 1950, 1944, 1960, 1924, 1907, 1951, 1964, 1936, 1955.  I have several silver dimes, nickels, and quarters where the date has been rubbed off.  I have not "clean" the coins or "polished."  I would just like a "ballpark" amount of the coins I have....

Posted by wareaglesusanbf 5 years ago

Jammed locking type RCA Audio Interconnect

Hi  I have these Straightwire Rhapsody S RCA interconnects . They have a threaded sleeve over the RCA plugs. Mine are totally jammed !!! and any attempt to turn them is loosening the RCA plug on the AMP itself !!! the RCA plug is supposedly Gold - meaning gold plated copper mostly the sleeve is nickel looking  I tried pliers ! no avail ! Help!!! thanks  NEO

Posted by neo.aureus 7 years ago

The end of the energy crisis? This is the wikipedia page to a cold fusion (low temperature fusion) device that uses powdered nickel as fuel to produce free energy... It's supposed to be totally eco-friendly and it's planned to be sold out as commercial cold fusion device. Just thought to share this with others on Instructables. I like it and am looking forward to seeing this in my hands when it's made commercial. How about you?

Posted by ZokiS 7 years ago

Update! Nominating Instructables to be Featured Group

Hello again. A little background on the NIF (Nominating Instructables to be Featured) Group, it is a group where people can nominate their favorite instructables to be featured in the group profile page. Click here to visit the group. New members are always welcome. This time there is a lot of exciting news to report: Newly joined members!! Thank you for participating. I can't wait to see your nominations! Locket Rocket The Ideanator Goodhart Hiyadudez Also there are newly nominated instructables. Drumroll please! Living Tealight holder made from hard drive parts by ChrysN Personalized Cards by gergi11 Technology Making a brass pocket flask by Vidar_76 (nominated by The_Ideanator) How to Make Your Own Screen Protector (for less than a nickel!) by jen7714 Put images inside QR codes by killerjackalope Workshop Sugru Soft-Jaw Pliers by mattthegamer463 (nominated by The_Ideanator) Some more news: Instructables such as Cinnamon and Sugar Apples by miso_soup, DIY Calligraphy by mhudnall, and How to Make Your Own Screen Protector (for less than a nickel!) by jen7714 got featured by a feature team member. That means that they were actually featured on the homepage. Congratulations! (A note: I forgot to add this to the groups forum topic post. Is there any way I can add it now?)

Posted by SkysTheLimit 8 years ago

Forum topics that go nowhere

Has anyone noticed some forum topics look like by Grampa Simpson rambling?  They are usually by new members, and I often flag them as spam,  they often look like this....... But less funny We can't bust heads like we used to, but we have our ways. One trick is to tell 'em stories that don't go anywhere - like the time I caught the ferry over to Shelbyville. I needed a new heel for my shoe, so, I decided to go to Morganville, which is what they called Shelbyville in those days. So I tied an onion to my belt, which was the style at the time. Now, to take the ferry cost a nickel, and in those days, nickels had pictures of bumblebees on 'em. "Give me five bees for a quarter," you'd say. Now where were we? Oh yeah: the important thing was I had an onion on my belt, which was the style at the time. They didn't have white onions because of the war. The only thing you could get was those big yellow ones. Three wars back we called Sauerkraut "liberty cabbage" and we called liberty cabbage "super slaw" and back then a suitcase was known as a "Swedish lunchbox." Of course, nobody knew that but me. Anyway, long story short... is a phrase whose origins are complicated and rambling.

Posted by liquidhandwash 3 years ago

Can you make a super small waterproof prototype mp3 player?

I am looking for someone to build a prototype mp3 player that would have the following specifications.  - circular housing and no larger than a U.S. nickel in diameter. - top of the housing would have an insertion for a 1/8 headphone jack. - the height could about 1/4 inch to a 1/2 if need be.  (the smaller the better) - the housing must be waterproof. - the player will autoplay one song when headphone is inserted. Please feel free to contact me here: Thanks, Jimmy

Posted by jacobaa 6 years ago

Is it possible to feel a zap from a watch battery and LED?

Here's the setup: one LED with its leads tied by conductive threads to magnets which stick to a watch battery, in contact with skin for multiple hours.  I had somebody say that this somehow was zapping them (enough to leave a rash).  Is this possible?  I've handled lit LEDs with watch batteries a lot (even underwater) and never felt a thing!  No spark, no zap, no shock, nothing.  So have I just been lucky?  Can this setup actually zap you enough to feel it, or even irritate your skin?  Or was the zapping perhaps an allergic reaction to the nickel magnets which was mistaken for being sparked?

Posted by aliasjanedoe 6 years ago

lets trade kits

I will trade for your random parts i mostly very big LED's or LED displays or any electronics you dont need that are in OK or acceptable condition for upcoming school science fair (don't live near radio shack) i will trade my electronics kit to you it includes.2-POSITION ROTARY SWITCH condition=mint about the size=of the tip of your thumb to the middle joint.3 pin stereo jack 2 peices condition=mintsize= of a nickel.mono and disk capacitor condition=OK (sightly scratched leads)1 film capacitor condition=mint1 resistor 260 Ohms condition=good1 toroid with copper wire 1 without condition=mintsize= 2cm in circumferencesize=a dimeIR RECEIVER FOR REMOTE CONTROL condition=okand 5 other unknown peices (sensors and capacitors)

Posted by albylovesscience 9 years ago

Noob Q about inverter for an ornithopter

I was looking in the back of my Jameco catalog the other day and they listed a product called "Muscle wire". It's apparently a nickel-titanium alloy that shrinks as it heats up. It occurred to me that I could flap ornithopter wings with it (a really small ornithopter). I was trying to figure out how I could switch voltage from one pair of wires (the flap UP wires) to the other pair of wires (the flap DOWN wires) without a microchip. I came up with something I'm sure wouldn't work involving a couple transistors, a diode and a cap. Today on wikipedia I figured out that what I was doing was something close to an inverter.So here's the question: Anyone know of a simple switching circuit that runs on a/c power and does not have square-wave switching characteristics?I'll keep researching this myself, but sometimes 'tis quicker to ask the big-brained and kind hearted (you know who you are).

Posted by royalestel 11 years ago

Green isn't all that green after all

While the color green has been the hue of choice for environmentalists and companies wishing to show that they care about nature, making a product green is actually toxic. Due to the difficulty of making a green dye and all the chemicals that are used, it contaminates anything it touches. So when a product is simply putting some green to make it look a little more nature-friendly, it's actually making things worse. Yay! From the NY Times: Take Pigment Green 7, the commonest shade of green used in plastics and paper. It is an organic pigment but contains chlorine, some forms of which can cause cancer and birth defects. Another popular shade, Pigment Green 36, includes potentially hazardous bromide atoms as well as chlorine; while inorganic Pigment Green 50 is a noxious cocktail of cobalt, titanium, nickel and zinc oxide. The Toxic Side of Being, Literally, Green

Posted by fungus amungus 8 years ago

Coin Collectors

Hey guys, I was just wondering if anyone here collected coins. My brother, and my dad, and I all collect coins as a side hobby. What coins do you collect? What types do you have, and the oldest ones? I have many books for nickels, dimes, and pennies. I just love the feeling when I can open up the book and find it full! My brother and I just bought some old Indian Head pennies, as well as some Steel Pennies from 1943. (During WWII) I have many foregin coins, as well as about 20 Susan B. Anthony's. I have about 10 Sacajawea coins, and a few Kennedy Half-Dollars. I just love the feeling of the profit that will be made in the future. Today I collected about 6 brand new 2007 Pennies, and took them out of circulation. Share your tips, tricks, and cool places to find your coins! As well as your coin collections!

Posted by Brennn10 11 years ago

Ceramic capacitor in air conditioner DPAC12010H

Hi there,  I received a not-working air conditioner model DPAC12010H from someone who didn't need it anymore, and I took it to a friend who works with refrigerators to see if we could find the problem. We took it apart, and we found that a fuse mounted on the main PCB was shot. The fuse is 120V and 3.75A so I suppose it's only for the control circuit as the whole air conditioner runs at more than 9A on max capacity. Anyway, we temporarily bypassed the fuse with a copper wire to continue testing. We plugged it in, and immediately a component on the PCB (which I now believe is a ceramic capacitor) spew sparks and melted it's insulation. However after this incident the air conditioner works perfectly, and it blows very cool air (its a 12000 BTU machine after all). However I'm still concerned about that capacitor. I can not post a picture right now, maybe when I get back from work. It was brownish yellow, about 3/4" in diameter roughly same shape as a nickel. Does anyone have any idea what that capacitor might be for? Since the air conditioner is working now I'm guessing the sparks made it conductive, or maybe it's used for the dehumidifier which I have not tested.  I will buy a new fuse today and see what happens. The air conditioner draws about 9 A at full operation. Any help would be greatly appreciated.

Posted by colorex 5 years ago

Maker Faire 2007 - may 19-20 - instructables show-n-tell-n-try

Hey all, if you are in california area i'm sure you are already planning to be at the amazing Maker Faire may 19-20. i will be hosting a "show-n-tell-n-try" booth with all my instructables projects and non-instructables projects. i invite anyone with a project here on instructables to come by and bring your project for show-n-tell-n-try! i am allocating some booth space for unannounced instructables projects that show up by any means - bring your project and you can show it! also i will have free stickers for any project author.i will have: the beanbag sofa, wobble bike, nickel ring, ultimate headlamp, ultimate bike lamp, polyhedron lampshades, secret message shadow sculpture, any-color lighting make-over booth, digital video microscope, plastic bike, led wheel, firefly sculpture, and more!my booth will be part of the main instructables booth where the instructables team will be doing similar things. i'm not sure the plans for the instructables team this year but last year we had lots of our projects, plus laser cutting, plus $5 t-shirt pricing. i'm sure it will be even better this year! i expect to see projects from canida, ewilhelm, fungusamungus, randofo, noahw, rachel, timanderson, and probably 10 more people. canida should be saying more here, what is up canida!

Posted by dan 11 years ago

Toyota Will Offer a Plug-In Hybrid by 2010

If you make it, they will come. Or something.CalCars, the California Cars Initiative, has not only been campaigning for plug-in hybrid vehicles, they were the first to build a plug-in Toyota Prius. CalCars longstanding, and really quite simple, thesis is that plug-in hybrids can achieve 100+ MPG using today's technology:We promote plug-in hybrids (PHEVs). PHEVs are like regular hybrids but with larger batteries and the ability to re-charge from a standard outlet (mostly at night). They're the best of both worlds: local travel is electric, and you always have a gas-tank backup. More details here.Toyota seems to have finally received the message, now pledging to offer a plug-in hybrid by 2010: Toyota Will Offer a Plug-In Hybrid by 2010 (NYT). From the article:DETROIT -- The Toyota Motor Corporation, which leads the world's automakers in sales of hybrid-electric vehicles, announced Sunday night that it would build its first plug-in hybrid by 2010.The move puts Toyota in direct competition with General Motors, which has announced plans to sell its own plug-in hybrid vehicle, the Chevrolet Volt, sometime around 2010.Katsuaki Watanabe, the president of Toyota, announced the company's plans at the Detroit auto show as part of a series of environmental steps.Mr. Watanabe said Toyota, best known for its Prius hybrid car, would develop a fleet of plug-in hybrids that run on lithium-ion batteries, instead of the nickel-metal hydride batteries that power the Prius and other Toyota models.Plug-in hybrids differ from the current hybrid vehicles in that they can be recharged externally, from an ordinary power outlet. In a conventional hybrid the battery is recharged from power generated by its wheels.Mr. Watanabe said the lithium-ion fleet would be made available first to Toyota's commercial customers around the world, like government agencies and corporations, including some in the United States. He did not say when they would be available to consumers.Another case of hackers' solutions becoming mainstream? Definitely!

Posted by ewilhelm 10 years ago

Acrylic Heating Element - Questions for an electrician and acrylic expert

I'm trying to build a heating element suspended 1" from an aluminum surface, and 2" below what will be a piece of acrylic (hopefully up to 1/2" thick) suspended by aluminum covered 2x4's. I want to have a rheostat (I think that's what they're called) for variable control of the heating element. The width of the element is undetermined, although 1/2" is probably close and this may be of little relevance. The aluminum case itself is 21"x6" and 3" deep So far, I've harvested a coil of Nickel Chromium from a cheap space heater but in trying to create a suspended piece, I've done little but destroy my NiChrom. It was cool, sparks and all, but I'd like to get it right this time. I do not wish to use a torch or heat gun as the pieces are to be wide and the heat must be even over the width to create an aesthetic bend. I will post some photos of the pieces tomorrow. Feel free to throw your hat in on any questions you want to answer. Electric Questions: How much NiChrom. do I need to heat 1/2" acrylic to around 400 degrees (F) for malleabiity? What is the best way to mount or suspend the nichrom.? What is the appropriate method to attach NiChrome to the wiring? (My home made coil using 1/16" copper wiring as a cast was sound in theory, but practice yielded sagging of the strip when active, and eventually sparky explosions at the mounts, after which time this question came to mind.) What kind of Rheostat do I need? What kinds are there? What's the difference? Can I get away with using a 120v/600w Dimmer switch instead (please say 'yes')? Acrylic Questions: What is the ideal heat for bending thicker acrylics? Would a fan below the heating element help disperse the heat evenly over the acrylic, or mess up the dispersion? Can a heating element such as this create sufficient heat to 'weld' 2 pieces together? Is this even possible? Thanks. I'm sure I'll have more questions before you can answer those. Peace - Ian.Wms

Posted by Ian.Wms 10 years ago

A basic (very basic) description of a Brushless DC motor.

So... before I start... I am not a physicist, nor am I an electrical engineer. Hopefully someone within one of those (or both) professions will chime in and enrich this discussion. That said... I'm going to be using leyman's terms. This thread is specifically meant to explain how a brushless DC electric motor exerts a force, and how that force is used to generate work. To start off, I'd Like to explain the components which comprise a brushless DC motor: First... You have an axil. The axil's purpose is to spin. Next you have natural magnets, or solid state magnet; I use the terms somewhat incorrectly, since a natural magnet refers specifically to nickel or ferrous base magnets, but there exist a large variety of compounds and composites that exhibit the ability to produce magnetic fields. In practice you have many in a motor, but for our purposes... we can pretend we have one. The natural magnet's job is exert a magnetic field while attached to the axil. After that we have an electrical coil. Once again, in Brushless DC motors, we have many of these, but for our purposes we'll use 3. The electrical coil's job is to produce a magnetic field which can move in a circle. Finally we have the engine housing. The purpose of the engine housing is to hold everything together. Note: I'm intentionally leaving out the computer control mechanism. there are alot of great instructables on microcontrollers. Most Brushless DC motors requrie one to work since there is no mechanical timing device, as there is in a brushed engine. So... how does this fit together? In this setup the natural magnet produces a force when next to the electrical coil (This coil is also known as an electromagnet). This is because the charge of the coil is opposite to the charge of the natural magnet. Once the Natural magnet and the electromagnetic coil align with each other, the first coil shuts off and the second turns on. Once again the natural magnet is drawn towards the magnetic pole. This process repeats until the natural magnet has spun in a circle (note: usually you want it to continue to spin beyond a single revolution.) That's the basic (very basic) idea behind a Brushless DC Motor.

Posted by Qcks 10 years ago

A Hybrid of Coil and Rail gun

So I said i'd throw this up in the comments section on Youtube not too long ago, and I don't like it when something easy and free doesn't happen. This is some ideas and observations that have to do with coil guns (mostly). I'm in the process of finishing up several projects, so my resources are kinda spread out. I should have a prototyped coil gun finished in 2-3 weeks though, so if this doesn't clear things up, hopefully that video will. I should point out, I am a chemist with expertise in biochemistry, not electrical engineering. Basically my idea is to combine a railgun and a coil gun for the expressed purpose of avoiding the pitfalls that a pure coilgun or a pure rail gun have. At present, none of the designs out there would be capable of competing with an actual gun. By mixing the two, i'm hoping to get something that might eventually be capable of doing so. So.. I've included a very poor drawing (I'm not an artist). The barebones circuit is sketched in the lower right hand corner. The gun barrel, which is a piece of aluminum tubing split into two pieces to sever as a rail system, is sketched in the upper left, and again in the middle figure to show how to integrate the coil and rail system. Looking at the circuit design, you can see that this starts off as a very basic capacitor-inductor circuit. The charge is purposefully allowed to trickle through the circuit until the coil reaches saturation and the capacitor(s) are charged. When the trigger is pushed, the inductor side of the circuit has to dump into the rail system to complete the full closed loop. Because of the ferromagnetic material (the brown stuff), the magnetic force persists for a while (that is to say, it has high reluctance). The ferromagnetic material does one other thing that is important here. It forces the middle of the coil to be far off center. The coil is pulling the projectile into the middle of the magnetic field, but that is not necessarily in the center of the winding. Adding ferrite, or other high reluctance material, towards the end of the barrel biases the field towards that end.  At the same time that the coil stops getting current, the rail system become active. This allows a charge to pass through the bullet/projectile, and, even though the majority of the force is going to be caused by the inductive coil, the rail system allows an eddy current to setup in the bullet. This does several things. First the bullet doesn't have to be iron, nickel, or cobalt. With a stray eddy current in the projectile, any conductive material will work. The advantage here is that once the current stops, the non-magnetic material stops being  to the magnetic field, preventing backwards acceleration of the projectile as it exits the barrel.  Second, Rail systems and coil systems are not often used because they are perpendicular to one another, but, this can be used to put spin on the projectile, in a similar manner to rifling in a barrel.  After the projectile is fired, the circuit is open, preventing excessive electrical discharge.  My circuit design is really badly drawn... =T if it needs more explanation please post up questions. 

Posted by Qcks 4 years ago

Electrolytic vs supercap for CD spotwelder?

I need to make a cheap spotwelder to rebuild some battery packs(e.g,. welding thin nickel strips).My options are:(a) Try to find most of a farad at up to 25V or so on eBay. This could take a while. (Buying new electrolytics in the 0.1F range and above at these voltages is pretty expensive.)(b) Go for supercaps from Digikey (e.g). They've got some 5V 1F models for only a few bucks, and some "fast-discharge" ones for 10x more. Of course, if I go for more than 10V or so, I'll have to build some sort of charge-balancing circuit around the series caps, and I'd rather not unless it's really the best way to go--- though it might be as simple as a resistor in parallel to each cap.(c) Try one of these weirdo "digital supercapacitors" that are all over eBay for the crowd who fill their entire trunk with stereo amps. These look like they're rated at 1-5F at 13.8V and (I would hope) include some sort of charge balancer. Dunno if they're suitable for the sort of instant-discharge I want for a welder, though.I'm having difficulty figuring out:(a) How fast a discharge I need for a spotwelder anyway; I'm going to be using an SCR to trigger it and presumably want the lowest-inductance arrangement I can get, but are we talking milliseconds or microseconds?(b) What can I get out of a supercap? Milliseconds or microseconds? I haven't worked with supercaps before, and most people who seem to be designing circuits with them are using them as batteries.Other random questions:My reference design had 0.5 to 1F at 0-25V through a 600V 50A TO-65 SCR; whatworries me are things like,whose page 3 shows that non-ultra-low-ESR supercaps (e.g., theaffordable ones) seem to have virtually no capacitance for pulsewidths of 10ms or less. (The BestCaps in that datasheet claimsomething like 60% of nominal instead, which is pretty good!)I dunno how narrow the pulse width needs to be to get good welds,but I'm guessing pretty narrow---for example, one guy claimed in that just the difference inputting the SCR on the low side and not the high side (so the triggerfor it didn't have to go through the wires, electrodes, and workpiece)worked a whole lot better, which implies to me that he might betalking microseconds. But I just don't know.]Of course, I also don't know whether I need 0.5 F at 10V or 1F at25V for the things I'm considering.Not to mention---the 50F caps at of which claim ESR's of 0.025 ohm at 1kHz) have these skinny little0.5mm leads on them. How in hell would these leads not be vaporized if Icharged up the cap and then shorted it, as a spot-welder would be doing?(And sure, I could try to attach #4 copper wire to them---somehow---andsend that to the sharpened tips on my welding electrodes, but boy I feelsilly doing that---seems like whatever part of the cap's leads aren'tattached to the heavy wire will just evaporate when shorted, if they canreally dump that kind of current, even if it -is- just for milli-to-microseconds.)The Instructables site has some rambling about using supercaps for CDspotwelders, but it's just rambling---nobody who's actually built oneusing them, for example, or who seems to talk about discharge rates,etc.

Posted by HilaryGage 11 years ago

unfinished,5 DOF Robotic Mechanical ARM

5 DOF Robotic Mechanical ARM Required Material of project:- 1. Basic Servo Tower pro 9g*4 2. Header pins Male female*2 3. Arduino Nano*1 4.10kΩ Resistor resistance*2 5. Trimmer Potentiometer track Linear; maximum resistance 10kΩ*4 6. Tactile push button*2 7. Blank circuit board*1 8. Acrylic strips for Robot & potentiometer body*2 9. Wires, Button, Switch 10.Balsa wood, Metal, Plastic Procedure:- Arrange all necessary items.. Please go through the attached images  for better understanding.. I divide whole project in two parts 1) Servo Motor assembly 2) Potentiometer assembly 1) Servo motor assembly: – Servo motor as J1, J2, J3, J4 fix the servo motors as shown in image use 3M tape to glue servo, use thin flexible plastic strip to make griper, make hole in center of each finger tie thread in that hole pass this thread from center hole and tie knot at the other end of thread with 4th servo motor’s knob, as you stretch thread finger get close vise versa. Fix whole arrangement on strong rigid base. 2) Potentiometer assembly: – Fix potentiometer as shown in figure name potentiometer as do previous R3, R4, R5, R6 this time place R6 separately for easy access this potentiometer control gripper to pick and place. Potentiometer arrangement symmetry must be same as servo arm. Fix whole arrangement on strong rigid base. Moving a little bolt from one side to the other side:- 1. Actuators / output devices: 4 micro servos 2. Control method: controlled by a PIC16F690       assembler firmware 3. CPU: PIC16f690 micro controller 4. Operating system: self made assembler code 5. Power source: 4.8V to 6V from 4 battery cells 6. Programming language: PIC Assembler 7. Sensors / input devices: teach in system with                         4 potentiometers       Making Processer:- The Potis are standard types and are screwed to the white plastic parts with their nuts. The axles are pressed into the transparent plastic part. The handle to move the teach-in-arm is a M3-Spacer and the socket is a plastic part with is normally used to fix balloons on a stick to hold it.                     move the motor itself by hand a little force is needed due to its permanent magnets, which create a small holding force. But inside the servo a lot of gears increase the force which you have to apply. If you move the servo by hand, you have to apply a much higher force. If you overcome the motors holding force, it starts to rotate an acts as a flywheel. So moving a servo by hand needs a high torque and its not easy to turn it to the position where you want it. ( Fan control modules for engine cooling of real cars have some extra parts to clamp the voltage which is generated, when you drive at higher speeds. In that case the fan works like a windmill and creates higher voltages than normal inside the power stage of the module.) And there were also a lot of other "problems" which had to be solved using my PIC Controllers. i.e. self made electronics for a RC-Excavator which works similar to the digital system used in slot cars. To replace a lot of wires between the rotating part of the excavator and the track unit, a small PIC 12F629 reads the pulses from up to 5 channels of a RC-Receiver and leads their information via a 2 wire connection to a second PIC12F629. At the second board the power is separated from the data. The PIC is reading the data, and generates the PWM output for the 5 Servo output connector. the 2 wire connection is made with a cheap 6,3mm mono microphone plug which is also used as the axle for the rotating part. The arm of the excavator is also powered by standard servos and so it was necessary to change the control behavior from proportional to integral so that the servos move like real hydraulic cylinders which are controlled by valves. I used the same 12F629 type for that job and added some features like adjustable limit positions and starting point programmable by one jumper, and automatic return to park position when missing the pulses for some seconds. The Software is simple:- Its working like a servotester for four axis. That means, every poti is connected to an analog in of the controller and all servos are connected to GPIOs. The controller reads each poti, does some scaling, so that the angle of the poti equals to the angle of the axis and finally he creates the PWM output 1-2ms pulse every 20ms for all servos. Teach mode:- After a reset the robot arm follows the teach in arm while simple mapping the analog inputs every 25ms to the servo motors. Pressing the button stores each servo position in a array. Play mode: The sketch reads the array step by step and moves the robot arm. For cool looking movements I added a routine calculates different micro steps for each servo to have moving start and end sync on all axis. Also added a ramp for soft increase/decrease velocity. Shorter travel distances the robot does slow, longer distances with faster speed.           The program moves the servos at full speed to the next position and a short delay time after each command allows all of the servos to reach their final position. That means that it is possible to increase the speed a little bit more by doing some fine tuning of the delay times after each command. The final thing which is still not implemented is the routine which saves the "Teach In" data 5 or 10 times per second, so that the controller is able to replay it in a loop with the original speed or with a lower or higher speed. Electrical Connection:- Provide separate power supply (5V DC 1amps) to the Servo motors . Don’t forget to short ground of both power source ( arduino + servo) 5 DOF Robotic Mechanical ARM :- 1. Use of Fiber on upper side 2. wooden spoon is a part of side body 3. cable tie *12 pieces use the robotic. 4. Some pices of wires 5. use scraw*4 6. Glue 7. some small clips Because to attached body 8. small size of plastic box 9. One pieces of  square fiber stand and one pieces small & medium  circular fiber  10.  L293D Motor Driver IC+IC Base KG143 11. Generic Elementz High Quality Nickel Plated 24*18 Points Bread Board*(2 pieces) and one plastic 12. Push Button Switch. Play Mode version 1.1 The gripper input is used to set the delay (0,1,3,15,60,300 seconds) after a loop is done. The switch (it was left from the project start) pauses the robot.        Thanks you:

Posted by aarif1234 1 year ago