Radioactivity

How do i tell if something is radoactive?

Topic by sci4me 9 years ago  |  last reply 9 years ago


Radioactive materials?

Hi all, i am wondering, are there any common household items that are radioactive? BESIDES SMOKE DETECTORS... Plz answer. thanx!

Question by sci4me 8 years ago  |  last reply 8 years ago


Radioactive Legos!!!!!

Help me please! Yesterday, when I got home, I found these (legos in picture) in my lego city! Luckily, little other damage was done, but what can I do?! I have never come across this problem before! And when I tried to discipline the rouge legos for their radioactive behavior, they wouldn't listen!!! How do I stop the insolent radioactive leogs?! That;s right, they're even calling themselves leogs now!

Topic by Xellers 10 years ago  |  last reply 8 years ago


Radioactive Americium 241

I have 4.4 µCi of Americium 241. Anything fun i can do with it? can i generate light or electricity or make it do something?

Topic by LinuxH4x0r 10 years ago  |  last reply 3 years ago


Neutron polarizer instructions? Answered

I need some kind of instructions for a Neutron polarizer or a quadrupole magnet. I need some divece to turn ions or alpha particles into electricty directly. If anyone finds something let me know please.

Question by Tobor 2.0 8 years ago  |  last reply 8 years ago


could my gas mask be radioactive?

Mabe it's a stupid question, or I'm paranoid, but I'd recently bought a Russian gas mask from a surplus store. It has metal parts, could it have been exposed to radioactivity? thanks

Question by russiangp5gasmask 9 years ago  |  last reply 4 years ago


Are there any non-radioactive materials that naturally have a positive or negative charge?

I'm talking about a material that has more electrons that protons (and vice versa) without  having to apply a charge to it.

Question by Super_Nerd 7 years ago  |  last reply 7 years ago


How can I tell if my watch parts are radioactive? (for cheap... can I use unexposed film?)? Answered

I heard that sometimes you can't tell if the antique watch parts you are decorating Steampunk items with have been in contact with radium paint.

Question by Nickelplate 10 years ago  |  last reply 8 years ago


Radioactive lift controls recalled in France

NEW DELHI (AFP) - India's atomic safety body said Thursday that radioactive scrap metal which found its way into buttons installed into lifts in France had been traced back to a western Indian foundry.At least four Indian firms were involved in the manufacture of the components, an official said, but it was still unclear where the contaminated scrap originated."We are tracking back the whole chain," Satya Pal Agarwal, head of the radiological safety division of India's Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, told AFP."We are taking steps in each place. Exporters have been advised to buy monitors to check their materials before exporting."France's Mafelec firm delivered thousands of lift buttons to Otis, a subsidiary of the US elevator company, which installed them in at least 500 lifts in the country over the summer.Otis has said it is now in the process of removing the buttons, after France's Nuclear Safety Authority announced Tuesday that 20 workers who handled the lift buttons had been exposed to excessive levels of radiation.The French nuclear safety agency has said the lift buttons contained traces of radioactive Cobalt 60.AFP articleSteel items imported {into Sweden} from India showing faint traces of radioactivity were found in Sweden, before the same substance was traced on Indian-made lift buttons in France, officials said Wednesday.The levels of Cobalt 60, a radioactive form of the metal, were considered harmless and the steel components have not been recalled, the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM) told AFP."Dutch customs discovered that a shipment of industrial flanges from India to Sweden showed traces of Cobalt 60," SSM spokesman Mattias Skoeld said.Focus Agency feedFrench elevator maker Otis said it would remove the buttons from hundreds of lifts it has installed after a radioactivity scare over Indian-supplied materials.The company made the announcement after France's Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) said 20 French workers who had handled buttons used in lifts had been exposed to to excessive levels of radiation.An Otis spokesman said the firm's plan to remove the buttons "concerned 500 to 600 lifts out of the 2,500 that Otis has installed, modernised or repaired between August 21 and October 9 even if there is no danger for users."The ASN classed the incident at factory of the Mafelec firm in the east-central French town of Chimilin at "Level Two" on a scale of seven because of the exposure of more than 10 people to doses exceeding the reglementary limit.SA Times article

Topic by Kiteman 10 years ago  |  last reply 10 years ago


How to ionize a lightbulb? Answered

I need to ionize the air in a lightbulb. Nothing dangerous please like microwaves or radioactive materials.

Question by joespicnictables 8 years ago  |  last reply 8 years ago


Can radioactive fallout make right turns? Answered

I know this sounds stupid, but somewhere I read that radioactive fallout cannot make right turns. Is this true?

Question by bwpatton1 8 years ago  |  last reply 8 years ago


X-Ray Polaroids

Here's a good use of old radioactive material. Use it to expose Polaroid film to create some ghostly images of old items.Why would anyone do this? The author puts it out there pretty clearly:For some time I've been fascinated with the idea of reproducing these types of images in my home lab without great cost and with relative safety. As a collector of radioactive minerals and other ephemera, I decided that I wanted to use naturally radioactive materials as the source for my 'penetrating rays' rather than an amateur electrical x-ray machine setup.Polaroid film is readily available and it develops itself. However, a workable technique needed to be developed. How to expose the film for hours or days without the need for absolute darkness? How would I develop the film reliably after an exposure was made?The answer came from Kevin Clark of the Yahoo group, "GeigerCounterEnthusiasts". It was here that Clark explained his simple, yet reliable, technique for creating inexpensive Polaradiographs.Items you'll need: 1. A Polaroid SX-70, Type 600, or Spectra camera 2. A package of unexposed Type 600 or Spectra Polaroid film 3. One metal cookie tin at least six inches in diameter 4. A few sheets/roll of aluminum foil 5. Radioactive materialThat radioactive material can include:- Old, unused lantern mantles- Salt substitute or certain rock salts (Potassium Chloride)- Vaseline glass (plates, cups, or marbles)- Fiestaware plates and dishes- Welding rods- Old camera lens or vintage prescription eyeglasses (look for yellowed or browned optical glass)- Uranium ores and minerals- Exempt, unlicensed radioactive calibration sources- Radium containing clocks, watch hands, compasses, dials, and gauges- Tritium gunsights and keychain fobsCheck out the site itself for the full story. It's a good read with plenty of information about the history of x-ray photography.via Neatorama

Topic by fungus amungus 11 years ago  |  last reply 11 years ago


Is it possible to draw energy from an ion chamber?

On a purely theoretical basis, would it be possible to harness a small sample of radioactive material and an ion chamber to produce a small trickle of electricity? I'm not sure what the practical use of a device would be, and I'm well aware of the risks and dangers involved; I'm asking to satisfy my own curiosity.

Question by jlensher 7 years ago  |  last reply 7 years ago


Nuclear Reactors and Batteries

Hydrogen fusion is a promising source of energy. They have made fusion reactors already. Though they aren't going to supply our energy needs because they consume more energy than the make. Fission reactors have been already made and are good at making energy. Unfortunately they have dangerous radioactive byproducts and wastes. Please post anything you want as long as it has something to do with nuclear reactors.

Topic by Masterdude 10 years ago  |  last reply 7 years ago


How to make a Geiger Counter?

Ok so I just read the book "The Radioactive Boyscout" and I am now interested in making a geiger counter. How would I go about doing this? I mean I am pretty sure gas is used somehow to measure radiation and such but how is it done? It cant be that hard can it? and where and what could I test it on, I was thinking possibly an old radium clock maybe ? HELPZ

Topic by jackillac92 10 years ago  |  last reply 6 years ago


What paint do I use to put a logo on a shirt that doesn't wash off? (No iron ons, I'm thinking of using a stencil.? Answered

I wanna make some logos for some shirts I bought.A radioactive logo for 2 yellow shirtsAn above the influence logo for 2 white shirts, 3 black shirts, and a jacketI want a paint or something I can use with a stencil.

Question by Keith-Kid 9 years ago  |  last reply 3 years ago


Dirt Cheap Acoustic Guitar Pickup

Hi I am concerned about the health and safety aspects of the instructable of "Dirt Cheap Acoustic Guitar Pickup by Xuthal". The project encourages people to take apart a smoke detector to obtain a piezo sounder. However no warning at all is given by the author that there may be radioactive material in the device, or how to recognise it and how to deal with it. I tried to post a warning on the article but for some reason it hasn't worked. I could not see how to flag up the item so I am posting here. Whilst the manufacturers of smoke alarms play down the dangers of Americium 241 dioxide (the radioactive material), they would most certainly not condone opening up a smoke detector sensor. Am O2 will most likely pass straight through the gut due to its insolubility, so your readers are probably safe from ingesting it. However, if the source is fractured into dust particles, it could be inhaled and will lodge in the lung for a long time. Being an alpha emitter the Am241 will very likely end up causing a lung cancer. I think this instructable is highly irresponsible and should be removed. In any case the item taken from the smoke detector, a piezo transducer, is readily available from any hobby electronics supplier and costs less than the battery to power the detector in the first place!

Topic by TCSC47 3 years ago  |  last reply 3 years ago


i got into someone else's account without logging out or in

Well, I replied to a comment, then i clicked "you". all of a sudden, I find myself logged in to someone else's account. he has not posted any comments, even when i got in. i logged out, then logged in as radioactive to report this bug EDIT-it turns out that when i replied to the comment, i was logged in under the member. Oompa Loompa, if you read this, i do not have a second account and this actually has happened before

Topic by DJ Radio 10 years ago  |  last reply 10 years ago


(newsletter) Wooly Willy Table, Self-Balancing Skateboard, Platypus Inaction Figure

  Wooly Willy Table Dead Computer Contest Winners Platypus Inaction Figure Sew Warm Contest Winners Coffee Can Alarm Clock Self-Balancing Skateboard Grout Portrait Busts Paracord Playing Card Safe Explosion Box Rear Pocket Camera Mount View Radioactive Particle Vapor Color Changing Deck Lights Ultimate Phillips Guide Cup Prank Instructables.com - 82 2nd St. - San Francisco, CA

Topic by fungus amungus 9 years ago


Ionizing vs. non-ionizing radiation, units, and safety (updated)

Note: This was originally intended as a reply in the Americium-241 Science forum topicWhen people talk about "radiation," they are referring to many different things, and are probably thinking of some things that don't even apply. "Radiation," the invisible energy given off by radioactive materials, can be either "subatomic" particles or electromagnetic. The most common particles emitted are "beta rays," high-energy electrons, and "alpha particles," helium nuclei. Some sources can emit neutrons, protons, or "positive beta rays" (anti-electrons, or positrons), but those are much less common.The units we use to measure radioactivity are becquerels (Bq, decays per second) or curies (Ci, 3.7 x 1010 decays per second). Since the effects of radiation depend on their energy, another unit of interest is absorbed dose, the energy deposited per unit mass of target, measured in grays (Gy).Safety experts classify radiation into "ionizing," meaning there is enough energy to knock electrons out of atoms or molecules, and "non-ionizing." Infrared and ultraviolet light are non-ionizing, as are neutrons. Alpha particles (helium nuclei), beta particles (electrons) and gammas (as well as lower energy X-rays) are all ionizing radiation. The three have substantially different effects on biological systems, even at the same absorbed dose. Consequently, for radiation safety purposes, scaling factors are applied to produce numerical measures (sieverts, Sv) of "effective" or "equivalent" dose, that can be compared across different kinds of sources.Here's a small table with information for some commonly encountered sources. Isotope Source Activity Dose rate Am-241 smoke detector 35 kBq (1 µCi) 11 µSv/yr @ 1m Te-99m MRI contrast 740 MBq (20 mCi) 1.6 Sv/hr @ 1cm C-14 atmosphere, body 0.23 Bq 10 µSv/yr K-40 bananas, body 4.4 kBq 200 µSv/yrWhat you should see clearly from this is that the natural radioactivity in your body is comparable or larger than that in a common smoke detector. At SLAC, the limit for exposure to sources at the lab by most staff (including me) is 20 µSv/yr (5 mrem).As I noted above, neutrons are sometimes lumped in with ionizing radiation in non-technical "radiation safety" classes (we call them "the photon is your friend" training :-). That is not really accurate -- neutrons don't interact with electrons(*), and so cannot ionize directly. They can interact with hydrogen nuclei (protons), knocking them out of complex organic molecules, and leave behind ionized fragments and free radicals. The can also be absorbed by otherwise stable nuclei, making them radioactive; those new nuclei may in turn give off ionizing radiation.Neutrons lose energy much more slowly in passing through material, and so can penetrate much farther than ionizing particles or gammas. The nuclear interaction [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cross_section_(physics) cross-section] is much more important here than dE/dx (ionization) energy loss. Materials rich in carbon and hydrogen (for example, paraffin) are far more effective at neutron shielding than dense metals like lead.(* for the expert readers) Yes, there is n-e scattering through W and Z exchange, but the cross-section and energy scales are completely irrelevant to this discussion.

Topic by kelseymh 10 years ago  |  last reply 10 years ago


A new Knex competition (And no, this is not a thread to advertise a TGKT spin-off!)

I am just going to say before I start that this is not a flame thread, and I just want to see how everyone feels about this. I do not want any immaturity or namecalling here. Any comments, from anyone, that include namecalling will be flagged.Now, a while ago Radioactive started a competition for those who were not included in the 'Grand Knex Snob Expert Contest' (Is that right, Radio?) What I am suggesting is that we run a smaller competition for those that have not earned the title of Knexpert (a term which I feel is used too loosely these days). It can run after the TGKT, and can be run by a party that would not wish to participate. People who were in the TGKT would not be able to enter, to give the less experienced a chance.

Topic by knexguy 10 years ago  |  last reply 8 years ago


Nuclear powered throwies keep Boston on terror alert for sixth decade, seventh on horizon.

OK, so it's an attention-grabbing headline, but the potential is now there.Radio-isotope batteries (the same things that have kept the Voyager craft alive since the seventies) can hold a million times as much charge as a standard chemical bettery the same size.As radioactive isotopes decay, the charged particles they emit are trapped by semiconductors and turned into useful current.  Past versions of the battery have used solid semiconductors, which suffer damage from the radiation, so need to be large to survive as long as the isotope.  Now, a team from the University of Missouri has developed a liquid semiconductor that can survive the damage whilst having much less bulk, and have put together batteries the size of a coin.  They are working on much smaller versions, capable of powering micro- or nano-scale devices.Just imagine the possibilities...University of Missouri - Nuclear battery linksBBC Story

Topic by Kiteman 9 years ago  |  last reply 9 years ago


The Future Of Nuclear Energy

p.MsoNormal, li.MsoNormal, div.MsoNormal { margin: 0.0in; font-size: 12.0pt; font-family: Times New Roman , serif; } p.Standard, li.Standard, div.Standard { margin: 0.0in; font-size: 12.0pt; font-family: Times New Roman , serif; } *.MsoChpDefault { font-size: 12.0pt; } *.MsoPapDefault { } div.WordSection1 { page: WordSection1; }                                              Nuclear energy is sometimes referred to as pollutant energy or “bad” energy. This is some what true but in the case of research  there is no “bad” waste being emitted from the reactions that undergo in theses reactors. Commercial Nuclear Reactors or CNRs do produce a lot of residue. They produce this residue by using their fuel so much to the point of radioactive waste. Small Research Reactors or SRRs do not do this, instead of using it up they produce new isotopes that can be useful instead of becoming waste.   So why don't we use SRRs? We do not use SRRs because of financial and safety. The safety concern comes in when the reactors are able to undergo Nuclear fission witch releases huge amounts of heat that no current materiel known to men kind is capable of withstanding. The other type of SRR is safe and financially friendly but does not produce electricity instead it uses approximately 1 million volts DC, but produces isotopes from elements such as Hydrogen witch is found in water.   In conclusion nuclear energy has not ended.

Topic by dcerin 8 years ago  |  last reply 8 years ago


Help...how to get more sound by ionizing a gas with high frequency?

So i am trying to make a geiger counter (if you don't know what it is...search it) and i'm kinda getting somewhere, but there is a problem. i need to get more sound out of the bulb i'm ionizing, i am ionizing it with very high frequency and low voltage (very low) and i connected it to some speakers that i have (they run on they'r own battery so i need only signal) but its very quite and i need to make it more... louder. So how do i do it? i'm kinda guessing i have to connect the input wire on parallel or in series with some batteries to the bulb so the high freq voltage or current would get up, and i also will put a potentiometer to get it to the stage before ionization so.... yeah thats all......thnx for all answers. (English isn't my first language btw)

Question by onepiece94 8 years ago  |  last reply 8 years ago


Smoke detector and ozone generators / air purifiers

I recently made a quite disturbing discover and thought I share it here so other are aware of it. We all love to protect ourself in case of a fire and the first and most vital of the information chain is a working smoke detector. In my house I had the old type installed, based on a radioactive isotope that detect smoke through ionisation. The newer types working optical or using combined optical and isonisation detection should perform better - but does not really matter for this "warning". If you do have pets, smoke in the house or just do a lot of cooking you might also use one of these fancy air purifiers that use Ozone to clean the air in your room. I only have a tiny unit for a fish tank that I also use to remove smells from my work clothes or purify some water for the plants. My discovery started with a simple cooking exercise involving a lot of onions, garlic and a big wok. To avoid filling the house for days with the smells I had the ozone generator running as well. At some stage I noticed that the whole kitchen was covered in the fumes from the cooking, nicely visible from the hallway - like fog. To my surprise the smoke detector did not the usual alarm but performed fine with the test button. So I blew some cigarette smoke directly at it - still no reaction. Next day I started to investigate and was prepared to buy a new detector but whatever I used, smoke, steam or just killing a burning candle underneath cause the alarm to go off. Then it hit me: The ozone! A quick test with the hose of the ozone generator next to the smoke detector and no matter what I blew in it the device staed silent. Ozone is ionized oxygen, the detector uses the ionized particels from the radioactive material to detect smoke. Smoke or very fine dust / steam will bind the ionized particles forcing the electronics to sound an alarm because the sensor no longer detects the ionized particles. With enough ozone entering the detector there will be always enough ionization to prevent the alarm. Conclusion: If you do use ozone in your house upgrade your smoke detector to a model that uses optical AND ionisation detection! Otherwise there is a good chance that the device is unable to detect a fire. Of course chance are slim that you would use the ozone while sleeping and a fire starts, but if it does....

Topic by Downunder35m 4 years ago  |  last reply 4 years ago


GID Vials, Tritium, TRASERS, Powders and Chemicals GLOW IN THE DARK!

TRITIUM! So I get a lot of questions from my post and instructables. Tritium Vials are Radioactive Hydrogen H3, also known as hydrogen-3 is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen. It is contained in small glass vials coated in colored phosphor then encased in glass or sealed plastics. These are commonly seen in Gun Sights, Watches (TRASERS) and some Emergency Exit Signs. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tritium_illumination Small amounts are legal and for approved uses. Read the NRC guides Typically the Trit vials are small, expensive and dim. The latest GID (Glow in the Dark) Chemsticks, LED's and GID Powders or paints seems much more effective and usable. * Cyalume, as used in a lightsticks, emits light by chemiluminescence of a fluorescent dye (also called fluorescor) activated by cyalume reacting with hydrogen peroxide in the presence of a catalyst, such as sodium salicylate. It is the most efficient chemiluminescent reaction known. up to 15% quantum efficiency. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chemiluminescence New LED low power requirements and high Lumen or light output have provided many solutions that are low cost, high power and longer lasting. GID Paint or Powders are "charged" with light or daylight sources as with your traditional kids toys or stickers. New products are brighter, glow longer and are now waterproof, have many colors and applications. http://www.4physics.com/catalog/GIDinfo.php Also this is occasionally confused with the chemical illumination. However these paints powders and materials use common phosphorescent materials include zinc sulfide and strontium aluminate. Use of zinc sulfide for safety related products dates back to the 1930s. However, the development of strontium oxide aluminate, with a luminance approximately 10 times greater than zinc sulfide, has relegated most zinc sulfide based products to the novelty category. Strontium oxide aluminate based pigments are now used in exit signs, pathway marking, and other safety related signage. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phosphorescence Hope this helps! 01/2011 - Update Source for Materials http://www.darkniteglow.com/glow-shop/ ERCK www.Candlepowerforums.com Additional Tritium Resources * U.S. NRC: http://www.nrc.gov/reactors/operating/ops-experience/grndwtr-contam-tritium.html * U.S. EPA: http://www.epa.gov/radiation/radionuclides/tritium.htm * U.S. DOE (Argonne National Lab): http://www.ead.anl.gov/pub/doc/tritium.pdf * California EPA: http://www.oehha.ca.gov/water/phg/allphgs.html * University of Idaho: http://www.physics.isu.edu/radinf/tritium.htm

Topic by erckgillis 8 years ago  |  last reply 8 years ago


Picture Quiz 2!

I PMd Lemonie a load of ideas for his next picture quiz, to follow on from the last one. It appears that it has fallen to me to make this one, with patches as prizes to be awarded by me, or by Lemonie if I run out. So.... Here are the pictures, they spell out the names of active instructablers. Post below if you think you've worked one or more out, see the previous thread if you're unsure how this works! 1)Dinner Jacket + Radioactive + Ronnie James Dio m/ - (congrats NachoMahma) 2)Fungus under a microscope + (a) + Mung Beans + Universal Studios - (congrats Hiyadudez) 3)Lithiography + Podium + Grain = Lithium Rain 4) Jeff Hardy + Cherios - (congrats Lemonie) 5) Nacho + Mother Teresa (Mahma) - (congrats Thermoelectric) 6) G-Wizz + Michael Jackson + Lord Howe Islan - (congrats gmjhowe) 7) Sun in a Jar + Snowbanks - (congrats Nachomahma) 8) Fake Troll = Froll + Yard Sale - (congrats gmjhowe) 9) Nine Inch Nails (NIN) + Zirconia + Mr Bean - (congrats NachoMahma) 10)

Topic by Jayefuu 9 years ago  |  last reply 9 years ago


Tracing Plastic Water Pipe Underground.

Earlier today, while removing tree stumps, on of my crew struck water. The theme song for the Beverly Hillbillies came up. "when up from the ground came a bubbling crude! ...oil, that is... " except it was water, and we went scrambling to find the water shutoff. Lawn Sprinkler systems usually have plastic pipe a few inches underground.  No metal.   :.   Can't find it with metal detector. Potential Options: AC wires can be tracked through walls by the electromagnetic flux around them. Stud sensors today also have a circuit for AC wiring. Could something like that be used?  Although city water has some minerals in it, does it have enough to conduct electricity well enough for an electric pulse sensor? If the water in the system was temporarily made salty enough for an EM signal to be traced, would it mess up the lawn once you dumped that salty h2o? Whata bout conductivity of a fertilizer mix? Medical scans- barium- mildly radioactive. mmmm.... yeah. right. Chemical sniffers- sniff out those semi-soft pipes? Like dogs sniffing out contraband in the airport... Use water flow to carry a fine wire through the pipe, then track an EM signal in that wire. sonic imaging (or at least detection- like the stud sensor) ground penetrating radar... That's all I can think of.  Every option I can think of has issues. Is there any precedent for something that works in this situation?

Topic by Toga_Dan 4 years ago  |  last reply 4 years ago


Ultimate Knex Contest has been changed...

Alright well this takes too long so I might as well just start it. Instead of entering and making it a contest anyone can nominate a gun that fits the category. Sorry to disappoint anyone if I did. We are still comparing guns...now we're just comparing all of them instead of entries. Alright from now on...no voting for yourself. Put it this way. What weapon from each category would you want to have and use most in a battle? Don't just put pride in your weapons. Also it would be great if you actually built the gun you vote for...don't just make assumptions...well I guess except for best replica. Weapons mentioned Best Side Arm- TheDunkis with the TDS Radioactive with the SPEC-9 Dsman with dsman's Side Arm popomaster with the glock Most Innovative Gun- popomaster with the glock Best Grenade/Explosive TheDunkis with the D model splodies/ DX8 Splody Bomb I_am_Canadian with the War Bomb flames with the F25 Anti-Personnel Grenade Best Replica of Another Weapon- TheDunkis with the AK-74 Katarukito with the Dragunov Best Gun Overall I_am_Canadian with the super cannon dsman with the DD-27 I_am_Canadian and knexgunner12 with their Battle Rifle I entered some of the guns I remembered but if you have other guns you want to vote for and they fit the category then go ahead. Just copy the form and type out the name of both the creator and their weapon under each category. Best Side Arm- Most Innovative- Best Grenade/Explosive- Best Replica- Best Gun Overall-

Topic by TheDunkis 10 years ago  |  last reply 9 years ago


Alternative Nuclear energy

p.MsoNormal, li.MsoNormal, div.MsoNormal { margin-top: 0.0in; margin-right: 0.0in; margin-bottom: 10.0pt; margin-left: 0.0in; line-height: 115.0%; font-size: 11.0pt; font-family: Calibri , sans-serif; } p.MsoHeader, li.MsoHeader, div.MsoHeader { margin: 0.0in; font-size: 11.0pt; font-family: Calibri , sans-serif; } p.MsoFooter, li.MsoFooter, div.MsoFooter { margin: 0.0in; font-size: 11.0pt; font-family: Calibri , sans-serif; } p.MsoListParagraph, li.MsoListParagraph, div.MsoListParagraph { margin-top: 0.0in; margin-right: 0.0in; margin-bottom: 10.0pt; margin-left: 0.5in; line-height: 115.0%; font-size: 11.0pt; font-family: Calibri , sans-serif; } p.MsoListParagraphCxSpFirst, li.MsoListParagraphCxSpFirst, div.MsoListParagraphCxSpFirst { margin-top: 0.0in; margin-right: 0.0in; margin-bottom: 0.0in; margin-left: 0.5in; line-height: 115.0%; font-size: 11.0pt; font-family: Calibri , sans-serif; } p.MsoListParagraphCxSpMiddle, li.MsoListParagraphCxSpMiddle, div.MsoListParagraphCxSpMiddle { margin-top: 0.0in; margin-right: 0.0in; margin-bottom: 0.0in; margin-left: 0.5in; line-height: 115.0%; font-size: 11.0pt; font-family: Calibri , sans-serif; } p.MsoListParagraphCxSpLast, li.MsoListParagraphCxSpLast, div.MsoListParagraphCxSpLast { margin-top: 0.0in; margin-right: 0.0in; margin-bottom: 10.0pt; margin-left: 0.5in; line-height: 115.0%; font-size: 11.0pt; font-family: Calibri , sans-serif; } span.HeaderChar { } span.FooterChar { } *.MsoChpDefault { } *.MsoPapDefault { margin-bottom: 10.0pt; line-height: 115.0%; } div.WordSection1 { page: WordSection1; }   Alternative  Nuclear energy. Our main source of  energy right now is nuclear energy. Although Nuclear energy  might seem to be a reliable source of energy, it is not.  Nuclear energy is not a reliable source of energy  because you need to extract Uranium ore from the earth's core which might seem as a good  source of Uranium it is not. This is not a endless supply  of uranium because it will eventually  run out of uranium .   So what can we do to solve this issue? The answer is alternative energy.  Alternative energy  is energy that can be renewed  and that is reliable. One solution is replacing Uranium fuel rods in a reactors core with Tritium. Tritium can be used  as a substitute for uranium because it has the same properties as uranium except that it has a shorter  half life.  Tritium is made by fusing solid  Hydrogen With Lithium  in a Farnsworth reactor.  This also has its problems one major  problem is the radiation and heat that is generated during the process  of fusion. Tritium can be then used as a fuel  pellet for a Nuclear reactor when it is mixed with Deuterium which is a solid. Tritium is also a good fuel pellet because it only has a life span of about 12.4 years, then  it decays into Helium 6 which is very harmless. Uranium on the other hand is not  safe because it has a life span of about 2000 years and it gradually decays into other radioactive material such as Thorium, neptunium, ECT.... This is Called the Uranium - Thorium cycle. The tritium is also ecologically friendly because it  can be made from H1 which is found in water H2O.  H1 is called Portion and is extracted through a process called electrolyses in which water is charged by a D.C current.

Topic by dciocoiu 8 years ago  |  last reply 8 years ago


A glimpse into nuclear disaster.

A team of engineers has used an endoscope to carry out the first visual inspection of Windscale 1 nuclear reactor for more than 50 years. In October 1957, it was the scene of what was the world's worst nuclear accident when it caught fire and released radioactive material into the atmosphere.Just over 50 years ago, British nuclear scientists, under political pressure from a succession of Prime Ministers, had been pushing the reactor to and beyond operating limits in an attempt to develop the UK's own independent H-bomb and achieve an "alliance of equals" with the US.When the fire occurred, the scientists were faced with a choice: let it burn, and contaminate Europe, or dump water on it, and potentially die in a nuclear explosion. They chose the latter, risking their own lives to save people who didn't even know there was a problem.That sounds heroic, but the official report into the incident blamed the scientists for the accident, rather than let the US find out about the H-bomb programme just in the days before signing a treaty to share their existing knowledge with the UK.Windscale (now known as Sellafield - the name was changed after the accident) is now in the long process of closing down. Along with jobs, buildings that marked the dawn of the nuclear age are being slowly demolished and moved ... somewhere else. They don't know where, yet, but it will probably end up remaining on site in deep holes (down in the porous sandstone that carries the local water-table).The original piles were shut down immediately after the accident, and the site's AGR reactor was closed down 27 years ago, but it is only recently that they figured out what to do with them, and they are now being decommissioned as a "UK's demonstration project (meaning; "we've never done this before, we'll work out the bugs in remote Cumbria before we try it on a reactor near a city").As part of the decommissioning work, they now need to see what is left in the ashes of the world's second reactor disaster before working out what to do next.I don't know about you, but I'm not convinced that a paper boilersuit would be enough protection. Maybe that's why the chap on the right looks like he's crossing himself...

Topic by Kiteman 10 years ago  |  last reply 10 years ago


Who's up for "The Ultimate K'nex contest/challenge"

Yo yo peoples I was just wondering who would all be interested in my super contest. My grand challenge. My...my...something else great...the coo-- the aweso--...THE ULTIMATE SHOWDOWN YEAH!! Sorry getting a little excited. Sorry if this topic kills most of your other ideas for those who start contests. OK well I basically wanted to know what people thought were the best side arms, grenades, innovative gun, etc.. We had one for snipers so I'll just leave that one out as I'm sure no one wants to build them all. Well for now I just want to see who would all be interested in joining. I need at least 5 entries in each category so if I get enough then I'll set up the contest. Here are a couple of the categories I'll be having but there may be more (#=how many judges we have)1-Best Side Arm dsman(#s), TheDunkis, popomaster, Radioactive1-Most Innovative gun Tech-king, jollex, extreme builder, popomaster2-Best Grenade/Explosive TheDunkis, I_am_Canadian, skate1-Best semi-auto TheDunkis, extreme builder -Best replica of another weapon TheDunkis, T-Man, dsman,Katarukito-Best gun overall dsman, extreme builder, I_am_CanadianWe'll see what else comes up. I'll also need quite a few judges who will judge (duh) at least one of the categories that they won't be entering. They need to build all of the guns and test them and of course I'll take word from the public as well. The rules for entering a gun will go as follow.1. You can only enter a gun that has an instructable sorry no out of instructable sites this just makes it easier2. You cannot enter a gun that isn't yours even if you made the instructable for someone else3. Your gun can't be someone elses but with mods. It has to be mostly your gun although it can contain some parts from other guns.4. You have no word on anything in the category you enter. If I see any smack talk or bragging or if I see you trying to convince the judges then you are automatically eliminated from the whole thing and...you'll be shunned by me for the rest of your life. Shun shun shuuuuuunn!If anyone has ideas for any other category be free to submit...preferbly if you'd be willing to judge it. I will not take anything relating to power.

Topic by TheDunkis 10 years ago  |  last reply 10 years ago