Difference between all the X,Y and Z axes?

Hello, I am new here and only registered to get access to a CNC build which I really like. Now m questions is, as I look at so many of the builds, what defines the axis? Some use Z to go up and down, others mentioned it being the Y-axis, even saw a few saying X. Is it up to the builder or up to the software? Kind regards, Red

Posted by redmarien 1 year ago  |  last reply 1 year ago

3 axis rotation system

Hello everyone! I was hoping someone here with better understanding of engineering or just a fresh take on the problem can help me out. Im working on this art project where I have a metal ball, aproximatelly the size of a basket ball, and i wanted to make it rotate continuously on a stand, in a way that all sides of the ball were shown eventually. I've thought about this 3 axis sytem where each axis would rotate in turns to keep the ball rolling in diferent directions. Basically its like the insides of an analog mouse where the ball would rotate the gears and give the input of the location of the pointer, except here the gears should rotate the ball. I've been trying to build something close to that with some K'NEX and a simple rotation engine that came with it but im not getting nowhere. I thought of building the gears myself but im finding it hard to come up with a plan. What would the gears be shaped like? What size? what distance between them? Even with trial and error would take me forever @.@ Anyways, any input, ideas, comments apreciated, Thx!

Posted by raposa 7 years ago  |  last reply 7 years ago

3 axis gimbal wiring?

Hi guys so i'm building a 3 axis gimbal (this one https://www.instructables.com/id/OpenSAM-3D-Printed-Camera-Stabilizer/?ALLSTEPS ) and after i bought the electronics i had a problem with the wiring here's a list of all the parts (http://opensamofficial.github.io/OpenSAM/OpenSAM_Manual.pdf ) i'm gonna add a link to the pictures of all the parts and can you guys help me with the wiring and if you can download the picture and connect all tha parts with paint or other software it would be much easier for me to understand thanks pictures : http://imgur.com/gallery/VMbJw

Asked by omarb22 2 years ago  |  last reply 2 years ago

Axis value to angle conversion

Hello all,So I have been trying to convert the values obtained from pygame joystick value (ranges from -1 to 1) and convert it to angles between 0 to 180 to drive servo motors. Can someone help me with this cuz I have no idea how to do it. Thanks in advanceCheers.

Asked by Bhabeshr 1 year ago  |  last reply 1 year ago

transform 1 rotating axis into digital counting system?

Hi i have a rotating axis which i want to transform into a digital system. With this i mean it has a disc attached to it with numbers on it, which rotates with the axis. After the first disc there is another disc, which turns only a little bit, and only if the first disc has rotated 360 degrees(so that after 9 comes 10) This way i should be able to make a third, and fourth disc, which work the same way as the second. Then it is a counting system. I have thought about how i could do it, my ideas were all so complicated i could impossible make the discs a little close to eachother. Is there an "official" technique for this or does anyone of you have an idea how i could do this? thanks ps: here is a simplified image of it for if you didn't understand what i meant

Posted by merijnvw 10 years ago  |  last reply 10 years ago

Instructables and Squid Labs in Axis Magazine

The Japanese design magazine Axis did a profile of Squid Labs and its spin out companies in their April 2008 issue. Take a look, particularly at the gorgeous pictures of our workspace.

Posted by ewilhelm 9 years ago  |  last reply 9 years ago

Hypnotizing 5 Axis CNC high speed car prototyping

Well, i just spent 5 minutes of my life watching a 5 axis CNC machine milling a prototype car out of some foam.I recommend you do the same.Right now.The Machine starts off with a massive block made from some rough shapes of foam. It then proceeds to rough it off into layers, it then adds a more defined smooth layer.To top it off, it then coats the entire thing in a epoxy layer.The entire process is both entertaining, and hypnotic.Via Makezine

Posted by gmjhowe 10 years ago  |  last reply 10 years ago

how to use bike gears to control speed of vertical axis windmill for pumping water?

I would like to use bike gears to switch gears eighter clockwise, or counterclockwise on a vertical axis windmill for pumping water. The purpose is to slow down the speed of the spinging rotor or switch it intoa idler gear, to allow the rotor to keep spinging, and to disconnect the water pump, so it wont' be damaged in high winds; Also not to slam the rotor to a sudden stop, by ingageing a brake. I am building this not only for myself, but also my church for them to give away free to needly people around the world. Thank you for any and all help in this matter.

Asked by robertbarfield 9 years ago  |  last reply 9 years ago

in your 3 axis DIY CNC

How can  the y-axis move how I can connect my y-axis motor to make it move over y-axis one thing more: should I send the picture to my microcontroller as binary matrix or what please answer my fastly with my best regard

Asked by eng_Rashad 9 years ago  |  last reply 9 years ago

2 axis cnc nibbling machine? Answered

300 * 400 X Y axis movement cnc nibbling machine. we want to made college project . plz help me out with any better idea?

Asked by umair17 7 years ago  |  last reply 7 years ago

sexy six axis robot arm

I want to thank everyone for the truly massive response to my robot arm. I have decided to launch a Kickstarter for this arm to fill a need that exsits for a low cost robot arm that anyone can program and help to automate the workplace.  https://www.kickstarter.com/projects/152911884/six-axis-robotic-arm

Posted by sparten11 4 years ago  |  last reply 4 years ago

lasers burning with out axis mod?

That is the one thing i havent seen on instructables if anyone knows share the knolage and let me know

Asked by atlas n pbody 7 years ago  |  last reply 7 years ago

Verticle Axis Wind Turbine Materials?

I've been working on a vertical axis wind turbine that uses uses 3 identical helical blades positioned around a central vertical axis. For small working models I've been using 16 gauge wire and cardstock. I'm looking to build one with 6-8 foot blades. The trouble is finding an ideal material for this. It needs to be lightweight, cheap, flexible, "malleable" (it needs to be able to be bent into a helix but then retain the shape), and come in a 4'x8' sheet. PVC/CPVC is super expensive, as is polycarbonate, and aluminum. Any suggestions? 

Posted by FLskater3696 5 years ago  |  last reply 5 years ago

3D Printer XYZ Axis Problem

So, I finished building my 3D printer. I installed the firmware, etc. Whenever I try to print in repetier the X and Y axis move really fast while the Z axis doesn't go up nor down. I have tried so much to fix but I just can't find a solution. Also, I have the MK9 Extruder and for some reason the extruder doesn't feed the filament, it just stays there. In case you ask, I have not be able to print anything. There is a video of the process, and sorry for the mess.

Posted by JoeM286 2 years ago  |  last reply 2 years ago

R/C Blimp Z-Axis?

If I wanted an R/C blimp, I could control the direction easily enough with propellers, but how could I control vertical ascent/descent?Is there, perhaps, such thing as a pump small enough, yet strong to regulate the helium pressure? (Compress to/from something like a CO2 cartridge?)

Asked by PS118 1 year ago  |  last reply 1 year ago

Amazing 3-axis LED orb

What's better than LEDs? Spinning LEDs! Laserpointer forums member FireMyLaser has decided that spinning LEDs is so much fun that he built a contraption that spins on 3 axes and creates some pretty insane effects. He also posted lots of build photos, but for now he's exceeded his photobucket bandwidth. Hopefully they'll be up again soon. NOTE: this is a forum post. Forums are where users can post links to other cool things happening in the DIY space and as such instructions aren't always available. Thanks! LED Orb 2.0 via MAKE

Posted by fungus amungus 8 years ago  |  last reply 2 years ago

how do I use the data from a ITG-3200 gyro? Answered

I have a ITG-3200 gyro on a breakoutboard from sparkfun. I got the I2C-communication working and I get a steady stream of data but I can't make anything sensible from it. Does Anyone have have experience with Gyros?

Asked by janw 8 years ago  |  last reply 8 years ago

Need ideas of object to scavenge

Hello everyone, i'm working to build some home made toy, but I am missing one important piece. To find it at minimum price, I need to find an every day object that would contain a shaft with a driving ring. The ring would also need to be able to move along the shaft. Can anyone help me to find some idea ? where can I find it? I'm sure it must exists in plenty of objects, I just can't think of any.... thanks ! :)

Posted by 1tibo2. 2 years ago  |  last reply 2 years ago

Stepper motors, plotters, millers and Arduino??? How does it work!?

So I would love to have a little help here understanding how these arduino drawing, milling, and plotting contraptions work. So I know that the stepper motor is for precision, but when you hook it up to gears and stuff, how does arduino know where the stepper motor is if its like on a track or gear? Say you have a stepper motor connected to a corkscrew gear. Some corkscrew gears may be large and others may be small. How does Arduino know where the motor is on that plane?? How do you import pictures or 3D objects to Arduino to make it draw/plot/mill? Thanks!

Posted by HavocRC 5 years ago  |  last reply 5 years ago

How to make a Three Axis computer inpite device for 3D modeling?

Does anybody know how to, or have they made an input device for 3D modeling that tracks horizontal movement, vertical, and depth?I'm looking to build something similar to this device. Link: www.youtube.com/watch

Posted by jacob5680 9 years ago  |  last reply 9 years ago

4 Axis joystick on 2 motors. HELP!

I got a 4 axis joystick that i want to hock up to 2 motors, so when i push it forward both motors turn in one direction (the same for backwards) and when i push to one of the side the motors will turn different ways? can anyone make a schematic?

Asked by mberg86 9 years ago

4 axis Joystick on 2 motors. HELP?

I got a 4 axis joystick that i want to hock up to 2 motors, so when i push it forward both motors turn in one direction (the same for backwards) and when i push to one of the side the motors will turn different ways? can anyone make a schematic?

Asked by mberg86 9 years ago  |  last reply 9 years ago

3 axis stepper controller for PC USB?

Hi all I am trying to get 3 stepper motors connected to a PC and controlled by that PC isung USB, is this at all possible? Carl

Asked by modelpilot 10 years ago  |  last reply 9 years ago


Guys need help to realise its feasiblity and pros & cons. This project will comprise of a renewable energy source which is controlled by TI msp430 controller by closed loop system. This renewable energy source will use a magnetically levitated vertical axis wind turbine with single phase permanent magnet alternator made by our team. There will be 3 stationary wind guide vanes/flaps of concave shape on the outer periphery of turbine. These vanes will be controlled by dc gear motor for constant wind flow and protection against high speed winds. Using perturb & observe MPPT algorithm on DC-DC boost converter, constant DC voltage for GRID integration is made. A lower energy Bluetooth module will send data on user computer about whole system parameter, hence making the whole system to be smart and hence data is saved in database. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fC5hYLjhO9U

Posted by nitcool 3 years ago  |  last reply 3 years ago

Coils for vertical axis wind generator (VAWT)

I've followed several instructables concerning vertical wind generators but found it hard to locate magnets of any decent size here in the UK. I'm going to have to order some that are about the size of a 2 penny piece (the cost of anything bigger is much more than I can pay for)and therefore I will have to make similarly small coils to equal the magnets size. Considering the base of the generator is 40cm in diam how much space must there be between each coil and can you have more than one row of coils. Another one inside the first. The same configuration with the magnets ofcoarse. Lastly, on these cicular magnets is there a plus and minus to give you an idea of what way round you should attatch the magnets to the bottom side of the rota. Thanks.

Posted by mr thrifty 8 years ago

3 Axis Rotating Flight Simulation Rig

I have currently started building a 3 axis rotating Flight simulation rig that can simulated any 3D motion with a pilot inside the main cabin in control. I know the project needs a lot of disciplines working together (Steel design-mechanics-electrical-electronics-control-programming) So I assembled a team of engineers who got interested in the idea but we are not all highly experienced and the issue is new to all of us. So far we managed to design the rig it self as in steel design area. when we started moving along to the next phase which is the mechanical parts and joints we faced a lot of issues regarding the weight and balance of the rigs. The attached image is for a flight simulator done by a company in Russia. We have great ideas for improving that design and building our own non expensive simulator. I didn't post our full design model done in solid works cause it's not yet perfected. All I asking is that , if there is any one out there willing to help us share the knowledge or has a bit of experience in the subject, or wants to join our collaborate work, please don't hesitate to contacts us. I don't know the forum rules so I won't post my contact information here, but please feel free to discuss the subject with us on the forum, so we might benefit all together from this experience. 

Posted by zayed_hossam 3 years ago  |  last reply 3 years ago

What is a good, cheap (free?) 3 axis CNC software? Answered

For a 3 axis, mobile x axis bed, with gantry holding y and z. Hopefully free. Thanks.

Asked by snowpenguin 9 years ago  |  last reply 7 years ago

I am building a v-axis wind turbine. I need to know what kind of DCmotor to use for a low RPM DCgenerator. Help me?

The winds in my backyard aren't extremely strong, but I want my design to work and provide a good amount of power if possible.  What kind of DC motor do I need?  Is it easy to create a DC generator from scratch for this type of thing?  Would the ideal motor have a low RPM?  (Because I'm pretty sure my turbine will have a low RPM) Low torque?  Obviously I'm just starting to wrap my head around all of these ideas.  How do I know which motor to get based off the information I am given from the site? Right now I am looking around at www.allelectronics.com , if anyone knows of a better site that would also be appreciated as well. Bottom line: I'm looking for as much power as I might be able to get, but I have low winds, and not a whole lot of money.  I was thinking I might be able to setup the axle to a pulley system with some sort of rubber band going from the axle to the motor, would this work? I know it sounds liek I haven't done my homework, but truly I have, I'm just getting drowned in the options and choices and possibilities at the moment. Thanks so much for you help!  I truly do appreciate your time to help me! Best regards, Aaron

Asked by Mr. Retro 9 years ago  |  last reply 4 years ago

Motorized Panoramic head with microcontroller

Hi All, I want to build a motorized panoramic head. It must be made in PIC or ATMEL because I have only these options. Arduino board are not available to me  How it works.  Its basically controlling two stepper motors using inputs from photographer. Photographer inputs values in parameters and than microcontroller uses these parameters to rotate camera frame and take pictures. Parameters are as under: There are two stepper motors. One motor rotates frame of camera on x-axis and one rotates it on y-axis.  1. For x-axis motor parameters    a. Total numbers of steps to rotate.    b. One motor movement = 1 stepper motor step or more. For example we can move stepper 2      steps in on movement    c. After each movement (point#2) It takes image or press camera button by using relay or optocoupler    d Time Delay : When camera takes picture it takes time to save on memory card. We can define time in seconds as per picture size.    e : When it completes total number of steps defined in step#1. It moves back to its zero position. 2. For Y-axis moto parameters     a: When first motor completes its full number of steps than y-axis motor is activated.     b: y-axis: Total number of steps      c: one movement = how much motor steps. just like x-axis motor parameter     d:   Time Delay : same as x -axis motor. time delay after tilting frame.      e: y-axis motor just performs only one movement. Than again it activates x-axis motor.     f: Panoramas are made in multi rows. so this process of x-axis and y-axis motor activation should keep on going. It is terminated when y-axis motor completes its total number of steps. So the whole process is like this Turn on microcontoller  Add parameters for x-axis and y-axis motors click on start button microcontroller starts rotating frame on x-axis Frame start moving in steps. Than frame completes its first x-axis turn now microcontroller activates y-axis motor. Y-axis motor tilts frame upper arm in one direction.   code checks it is Y-axis motor final movement or more to come. If more than it activates x-axis motor. X-axis motor starts repeating whole process which it previously did. Than after full movement on x-axis and it activates y-axis motor. This process is terminated when total movement defined for y-axis motor is achieved. CAN ANYBODY MAKE ITS CIRCUIT AND PROGRAM CODING ? I M TOTALLY BLANK IN MAKING CIRCUITS AND WRITING CODES.

Posted by diy high speed photography 8 years ago

All weather enclosure for a dual axis solar tracker

I am looking for ideas on how to modify the attached solar tracker, that it fits into an all weather container/box. also it needs  to be easily dismount/mounted during the summer month. https://www.instructables.com/id/Simple-Dual-Axis-Solar-Tracker/

Posted by Deanv1 3 years ago

Is there a good and free CNC software program available?

I'm currently using FreeMill and the related free CAD software.  http://www.cncportal.com/thankyoufree.htm  I'm not complaining, but technology changes and I'm wondering if there is anything FREE (not trial versions) that might be better.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     If anyone posts links to pay versions that cost more than $150 I'm going to delete their posts because it is blatant SPAM.

Asked by RickBeers 5 years ago

Major update

Hello all I just released a Major update to my sexy six axis robot arm go take a look.. https://www.instructables.com/id/6-AXIS-ROBOTIC-ARM/

Posted by sparten11 4 years ago

Wrapped project on Probotix 4th axis for guitar neck

How many of you use a Probotix CNC? I have one and trying to cut out bodies and necks. Working great for the bodies but I also bought their 4th axis for the guitar necks. So far I have a 3d image worked up in aspire and next going to see about wrapping it on the 4th axis. I am still in the means of learning the methods on my cnc. I have the 4th axis on my probotix cnc. Listed here. http://www.probotix.com/CNC-ROUTERS/METEOR-CNC-ROUTER

Posted by ClintonT 3 years ago

Vertical Axis Wind Turbine - What is the best airfoil?

I've always been interested in windmills. The vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) seem really cool. I discovered there is a company that (under contract) assembles them right here in my state of Michigan. So, on our summer vacation last year I diverted the family unit over to the assembly plant to see what's new, and exciting. Well, guess what, the plant is closed on weekend. Who knew. Well, for one, Momma thought I should have. Oh well, we got to see their demo unit Windspire up close anyway. It was just whipping. Anyway, to my question, if I wanted to build a really efficient VAWT, what would be the best shape for the airfoil? I've attached an old patent I found that has a drawing (Patent 4247252). I copied the drawing into Inkscape and redrew the airfoil using bezel curves. But, is this the best shape to start with? I'm hoping some aeronautical engineer out there can comment. Thanks, Jim

Posted by jimk3038 8 years ago  |  last reply 4 months ago

how to design 2 axis solar tracking system for home based energy system(It should be good professional design)?

I saw the some samples for 2 axis solar tracking system. it should be good professional design..

Asked by narayanaram 8 years ago  |  last reply 8 years ago

I am interested in building the 3 axis CNC machine How do I get more detailed instructions?

I am interested in building the 3 axis CNC machine How do I get more detai led instructions?

Asked by apollojoe 8 years ago  |  last reply 8 years ago

Transform a conventional ink-jet printer into a 8000$ laser etcher?

I believe everything is possible, with a little bit of help and that's what I need now. I can't build out those fancy CNC machine found here, since it's beyond my knowledge and skills. However, I thought about modifying a cheap ink-jet printer to make it into a DIY laser etcher this way: -Replace the ink part with a custom laser - instead of giving a current in order to flow ink, the laser will be powered. Laser requires different power level depending on the material, perhaps a potentiometer knob on the laser power supply could do it? -Remove any rolls and paper-only specification: instead, make THINGS able to go inside by simply destroying the printer, rising it up, and use the bottom paper rolls as the Y axis motorization. (The ink-jet head will be the X axis). Why would I do this? I have no idea how to programm small electronic chips, even less how to hook them up to computer or software. I, however, am able to print black and white images, and believe the black can simply be a signal to "laser on". I strongly believe this is possible. Since I can't, as stated above, mess with microcontrollers, I suggest adding potentiometers to the motors and laser and calibrate it myself, and adding physical marks (e.g: sharpie marks) to mark my settings. My question is: Do you think it is? What else could be required? Did I miss some obvious point that would render the previous idea totally worthless, and is this point solvable? Please comment :)

Asked by matroska 9 years ago  |  last reply 8 years ago

What all do I need to make the Desk Top 3 axis cnc Milling Machine?


Asked by 9 years ago  |  last reply 9 years ago

3d printer won't move Answered

Hello, I have recently hoked up the motors and sensors of my xyz printer to a ramps v 1.4 running marlin  firmware. I can't make anything but the z axis to move. I put every motor in the z axis and found the can make the motors work. So, why wont they move when they are in their correct plug for their axis? I am using pronterface to make the axis move by the way.

Asked by jbaker22 1 year ago  |  last reply 1 year ago

What kind of stepper motor should I get? - for 3 axis cnc desktop mill

I am currently working on building my first desktop CNC mill, I plan on it being 3 axis and the spindle being a dremel tool. I am searching for stepper motors that will work for my project and would like some suggestions as to what kind/which ones I should buy. I have seen ones from 96-200 steps/rev, does this make a large difference which end of the spectrum I use? I figure the more steps,the more accurate it can be but for my basic machine would 96 step/rev be sufficient? aka what kind of accuracy can I expect from 96steps/rev? Should I get bipolar or unipolar? Does it matter if the controller connects through USB or parallel port? is there even a difference Thank you for your time

Asked by slayer04 8 years ago  |  last reply 8 years ago

How is rotor overspeed contolled on a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine?

I know the rotor overspeed can be controlled with the tail on an HAWT, but how is it accomplished on a VAWT

Asked by emlandry 9 years ago  |  last reply 8 years ago

Simple 3 axis mill or 3D printer using Phidgets

Hi, Does anyone know if a milling machine or a 3D printer can be controlled using Phidgets? They do have a board that can control 4 stepper motors, but I have yet to see it used. I hope there is a way! http://www.whatisacnc.com 

Posted by crob09 7 years ago  |  last reply 4 years ago

CNC protype service. Laser cutting and 5 axis milling.

Hello. I offer cnc prototype service.Serial work is also possible. Worldwide shipping to any country. Material: any ferrous and nonferrous metals,plastics and wood. Number of axes cnc milling center: 5 axis Laser cutting any ferrous and nonferrous metals, plastics and wood. (Maximum thickness  20 mm for steel.) Wire EDM cnc machine processing. Finishing: painting, polishing, electroplating and other. Detail size : any Minimal order: 1 piece. Format for drawing: Any digital format. Better SolidWorks or AutoCad. Shipping: Worldwide (EMS,DHL or other postal service) Payment: any Please contact: cnc5axiscut@gmail.com

Posted by cnc5axiscut 4 years ago

Building a cnc controller?

I am building a homemade cnc machine that will have an X Y1 Y2 Z and eventually a lathe. And I was wondering if I could use an 4-axis Breakout board, and just run the Y-axis to two different Divers to power the Y-axis stepper motors. If not what would be a good breakout board that is able to connect e-stop, Homing switches, router on off, and touch plate. 

Asked by Rileigh Crow 4 years ago  |  last reply 4 years ago

why do commercial wind turbine generators use horizontal axis fans? Answered

I thought if they used vertical axis turbines then there would be no problem with wind direction, so there must be a reason, does anyone know?

Asked by pleb 9 years ago  |  last reply 9 years ago

Some help with camera tilt/rotating?

I am trying to make my own Pan and tilt timelapse device, to use with my camera (such as an Emotimo TB3). I want the design to be pretty feasible, but I want this to be fairly professional (in case I can market the idea.... idk about that but maybe I might be able to at some point). The problem with my design is that I want it to be pretty small and lightweight, so having the camera mount above the head seems like a good idea - (like this) However-that takes the camera away from the axis of rotation, increasing the strain on the motor (not a huge problem), but my main concern is that having the camera rotate off-center from the axis would cause issues, say, if the rig was used for gigapixel photography.  The other option is to mount the camera in line with the axis of rotation, but that causes a much larger design (which would look somewhat like this) So from someone who knows more about cameras than I, If I took a camera and used it in gigapixel photography (which would be the rigs second use), would having the camera rotate out of axis create problems in stitching, etc??

Asked by astroboy907 6 years ago  |  last reply 6 years ago

Delta robot programming help

I recently created a delta robot with 3 rc servos and controlled with the arduino duemilanove. i was easilly able to create pre-programmed movements and get it to do simple repetitive tasks. but i would like to controll it with a joystic type controller(shown i pitcures) it has a 2 axis joystick and a single linear pot.i would like to use the joystick to control the x and y axis(foreward-backward,left-right) and use the linear pot to control up and down. the problem is is that the robot has all three axis on the same plane. so i need help trying to convert thes 3 seperate axis to controlling 3 planar axis. any help would be apreciated. thankshttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J579XB_JISQhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J579XB_JISQ

Posted by budsiskos 9 years ago  |  last reply 8 months ago

How does one ensure the feed speed does not exceed the milling speed of the cutter?

When milling any material, if the speed of the axis drive exceeds the capability of the cutter/stock capability rate, the stock will deform or the cutter will overheat, or the axis will jam. Conversely, if the axis is driven too slow,well, that's too slow!  One more, all of the designs I've perused thus far are utilising phase counting to determine where the cutter is, in other words, there seems to be a lack of tracking feedback. So, how does one ensure a 4" circle is a 4" circle and not a 3.5"x3.75" ellipse?

Asked by burnerjack01 7 years ago  |  last reply 7 years ago

laser cut files

Can I have the laser cut files for the dual axis smart solar tracker.thanks

Asked by Mostafa nazmi 1 year ago  |  last reply 1 year ago