Tips to mod a single basin kitchen sink into a double-basin?

Greetings All, I have a largish single basin sink in my kitchen. I don't have a dishwasher, and I find that its easiest to do dishes with two basins - one for washing, the other for rinsing. I beleve this is also an efficient use of water and energy (to heat the water). Since I rent, I can't replace the sink itself, which is the most direct solution. I have tried using various tubs and buckets in the sink. To date I haven't found any that work well. Usually the geometry is all wrong. The bucket is either too small to be useful, or too big to fit in the sink. Or, the shape of the bucket or tub makes an awkward fit, and won't lie flat, etc etc. My dream solution would be to make a custom tub whose outer dimensions match exactly one half of the existing basin. Ideally out of pliable silicone. Is this feasible? THanks!

Topic by gionwhorphin 8 years ago  |  last reply 8 years ago


How to clean stinking kitchen tubes?

Get chemicals from supermarket, pour it into the basin, pour hot water, clean everything with acid, or? I'm looking a green way to clean the basin, the tubes are open but there is a smell coming up from the tubes. edit:as an answer to bleach I'll recite from grist.org:"The corrosive ingredients in these products can severely irritate eyes, skin, and the respiratory tract, and can be fatal if swallowed. Chemical drain cleaners are among the most dangerous of all cleaning products, containing sodium hydroxide and sodium hypochlorite (bleach) that can permanently burn eyes and skin. In oven cleaners, lye and sodium hydroxide can burn skin, eyes, and the respiratory tract."the p-trap in the kitchen is made of metal, anyway I guess it can be removed and cleaned manually which seems like the best way. the air valve in the kitchen is the yellow one, so I think it's not the water that blocks the air blow.I don't think I have a disposal ( is it the machine with knifes under the sink? i don't have that one)but I'll try to pour a some lemon juice, too.I think the enzyme cleanser is this one:http://www.thisthatotherthings.com/bacoutfoamer.html?productid=bacoutfoamer&channelid;=FROOGbut I live in Italy, so I'll try to find another one at least in Europe.as I live in an apartment, I can't clean more than the pipes under the sink, not to mention to change them.other solutions I've found are: *Pour down half a cup of sodium bicarbonate (or baking soda or sodium carbonate) and half a cup of vinegar, wait 15 minutes, pour down 1 lt. boiling water. I translated it from another language and there is a confusion here about sodium bicarbonate, baking soda and sodium carbonate, I didn't get which one to use.this works for opening blocked drains or the toilet. BAKING SODA IRRITATES YOUR SKIN, USE GLOVES. it makes a chemical reaction and you should be careful when it boils. but the ingredients are harmless to nature.to disinfect:*Mix 2 spoons of borax, 1 cup of vinegar and 500ml hot water, use it for toilet, and similar surfaces.I don't know how/where to find borax (water+O2+sodium+bor) but this solution might help for the smell.

Question by iovsjupiter 10 years ago  |  last reply 6 years ago


Whats the easiest way to make a height adjustable wash basin?

 I would like to make a height adjustable wash basin for someone in a wheelchair. It needs to be capable of being adjusted with one hand and must be able to lock in position. I already have the flexible plumbing supplies and waste fittings. I know that it can be done with electrics but am looking for a cheap alternative. Thanks.

Question by despooner 8 years ago  |  last reply 8 years ago


what is digging in my garden?

Found my lily bulb neatly dug up and left at the edge of a basin shaped hole. Garden is at rear of house and not easily accessible.

Question by ann pinch 7 years ago  |  last reply 7 years ago


how to make a bathroom cupboard under the washbasin?

Measurements are as follows height 31inches width 34inches depth 17 inches. instructions on how to cut the top peice of wood to fit around the basin would be most helpful

Question by 10 years ago  |  last reply 10 years ago


Does anyone know where I can find plans for a bicycle powered washing machine?

I've seen old pictures of the contraptions at work but need detailed plans on the gearing, inside of the barrel, and the basin in which it sits. I volunteer at a site where we don't have the standard washer/dryer hookups and if I could get and make this, it would save us a couple of hundred dollars in laundry bills. Also plans for a decent water filter to separate the dirty, soapy junk in the water so I could send the filtered water down the storm drain would be great.

Question by javajunkie1976 7 years ago  |  last reply 7 years ago


The Eco Powerplant

  Creating a Permanent IcePack in the Eastern Sierra A permanent Ice pack in a north south valley of the Carson Basin could insure constancy of water supply to Fallon area farmers and ranchers. Creating a permanent icepack in Northern Nevada is technologically and economically feasible, given the right location . This project will be solar powered, and serve as a peaking unit during times of high electrical demand. This technology will produce energy from solar by PV Panels mounted on a giant spanning grid over a north south valley in the eastern Sierra. A properly excavated mine could also serve as a location. Proximity to gas distribution and an electrical sub line are also important . This facilities' economic importance as a producer of LNG from surplus stock cannot be overstated. The upper part of the oval consists of a space grid spanning the valley or excavation. It is covered with steerable PV panels. The PV panels may be inserted into the grid or used to create liquid air , which in turn can be used to produce LNG. The thermal energy storage as liquid air would be contained underground in the mountainside itself.In Northern Nevada, these mountains are usually solid rock formations imbedded in sandy detritus, an excellent insulating material. Vast amounts of wind power are also available during spring and summer.   During summer peak demand, liquid air could be re expanded to run generators.   And most importantly , this plant will produce as a by product of its operation large amounts of water in the desert by freezing the ground on which it operates. Wet air passing over an expanse of frozen mountain rock will condense, and either form ice or rain. The production and maintenance of a liquid air production and re-expansion facility will also produce large amounts of water during times of high humidity.   Suitable locations in the Eastern Sierra would by necessity by close to either the Truckee or Carson River Basin.    

Topic by Mud Stuffin 6 years ago


Proposed Evaporative Air Conditioner

Have an idea for a Evaporative Cooler.  In most conventional coolers a fan pulls warm air through a panel that is constantly soaked in water, the water pulls the heat from the air.  Another form of this system is the simple "Mister Jets" that spray a fine mist into the air which pull the heat from the air dropping the temperature.  My idea is a combination of the two... See Image. The concept is simple... - Fan pulls warm air in and forces it into the body of the cooling unit. - A mister sprays a fine mist that combines with the air pulling the heat out. - To remove the fine air molecules a synthetic membrane (like pond filter material) is used to collect the vapor and allow the air to pass freely through. - The resulting water will make its way down the membrane and drip into the water basin below. - The pump will then recirculate the water back through the system. Seems like an easy enough system, the only problems I can see are... - Mildew - Leaks - Filter doesn't remove all the water So let me know if you guys think this will work.

Topic by scubaru 8 years ago  |  last reply 8 years ago


Black powder is more of a reaction than a burn of fuel and oxidizer.

I did some experimenting with charcoal and saltpetre. While making a charcoal fire i threw in some saltpetre, usually saltpeter alone burns slowly with a molten residue left over, but when i added it to the fire it created a slow burning but intense and bright light that almost melted the steel basin the fire was in. So I did some investigating, firstly I took some 3mm charcaol chips and lit one, then I threw some saltpetre on, again a intense, bright flame appeared, while observing i found that the saltpetre creates a molten pool in which the charcoal 'dissolves', I tried this with sugar, to simulate a smoke mix, but nothing close happened. So it turns out that saltpetre burns sugar when mixed with it, but actually chemically 'reacts' with charcoal. I have a question to add to this, is there any other item in the world that reacts this vigourisly with saltpetre? And if you have some charcoal and saltptre to spare can you pls try this, its really amazing.

Topic by mitchells 8 years ago  |  last reply 8 years ago


Fitting a hydrogen/oxygen reactor into a thermos? Or at least in a container about the size of a birdbath stand? Answered

EDIT: I decided that starting with steam instead of hydrogen would be much more efficient, much safer, simpler, and cheaper than reacting hydrogen. So if anyone knows if there is a way I can compress steam in a canister and not have it turn to water, and where to get the supplies for relatively cheap, that would be great! Merci! So my last question was how to bond hydrogen and oxygen to make water and condense it, and I got how to do that, but how hard would it be to fit this whole thing into a homemade thermos that has a screw-on hydrogen canister on the bottom? The hydrogen storage would be outside of the thermos in the canister, but there's still the reactor, condenser, and pressure release valve for safety. How hard would it be to fit it into the thermos (the thermos is about 1.5-2x the height of a store-bought thermos and about the same width, maybe a little bit wider)? If that isn't possible or logical, how about a birdbath stand? It would be a wide PVC tube reminiscent of a stone birdbath support, and would have a basin on top that contains the water after exiting the condenser. 

Question by ALogan97 7 years ago  |  last reply 7 years ago


How to save an oiled penguin (with knitting!)

Biologist Jeremy Gray explains how penguins are cleaned up after the New Zealand spill: First the penguins must be warm and happy. Most are kept overnight before washing, as it is very stressful and they need to get their strength up. Then the birds are brought into the cleaning room and put on the table. Normally detergent is used to clean wildlife caught in an oil slick.  But the fuel oil that's spilled from the Rena is really thick, so we first rinse the birds with canola oil, sold as cooking oil at the supermarket. This helps soften the fuel oil and get off the really thick stuff. Then the penguin is washed multiple times in 25L basins of warm water - about 41C, to match the bird's body temperature - with 100ml of dishwashing detergent in each basin. We use specially imported dishwashing liquid that's the best for the job. We change water four or five times. One vet holds the bird, while the other scrubs it. We have toothbrushes for the delicate bits. Once the oil is gone, the bird gets a final rinse in warm water only, and is then checked for any missed spots, and the detergent is washed off. It takes about 45 minutes to an hour for each bird to be washed. The birds are then taken to a clean room and put under heat lamps and blowers to dry. The clean room is strictly oil-free - no-one who has touched any oil is even allowed in, in order to prevent recontamination. Once clean and dried, the birds are kept in a water tank until healthy enough to be released. And swimming in clean water lets them preen their feathers back to their natural condition. During my shift - we're only allowed to work eight hours - I helped clean three penguins. And as I was sent home they were gearing up to do the rest. At the time there were six dirty penguins (seven until one died before cleaning), seven clean penguins, one clean seal and two clean shags. More penguins and seals have since arrived. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Now for the knitting... The penguins are in danger from the cold (they're penguins, duh!), but they do need jumpers.  A full-body woolly jumper stops them preening contaminated feathers  and ingesting the toxic oil. Volunteers have been using this pattern from Skeinz.com and knitting jumpers to keep the Little Blue penguins safe. So far, I have only seen photos of the jumper being worn by stuffed toys - if you come across one being used for real, could you let me know? More links: Oiled Wildlife Response Jeremy Gray's Flickr (the original source of the penguin photos)

Topic by Kiteman 7 years ago  |  last reply 7 years ago


What would be the VERY BEST way for me to TRANSITION into my newly adopted off-grid, survivalist, subsistence lifestyle? Answered

A 16'x16'x16', 256-square foot, A-frame cabin on an elevated 3' concrete paver floating DekBlock foundation with a 3'x 6'8" front flush door, one rear 48"x 48"horizontal slider window, and another upper 24"x 24" horizontal slider window for the sleeping loft.I'm thinking that one of those standard U.S. Stove designs might provide just a little too much heat for my needs up in the Copper River Basin region of ALASKA's rural backcountry. Who knows? What are your suggestions for the above described "habitat"? Where can I find the best deals for my 256-square foot space? (Heating/ventilation-wise, we're speaking of subzero temperatures and heavy snowfall, so, I don't believe that "opening a window" is a practical solution for me if it gets too hot and smokey inside my A-frame.) Plus, I've done the HEATING ESTIMATE for the A-frame I'm going to build and the numbers come out to about a 620,000 btuh (heat loss) for the new dimensions I'm finally settling on: 16'x16'x16' or 256sq.ft. This calculation is for -50 degrees F with cold floor, ceiling, and glass surfaces taken into account. (Insulation isn't a factor this early in the design.) "Wow!" I thought at first. "A 620,000 btuh HEAT LOSS! I reckon you can never have too much stove even for an A-frame design." (Being that A-frame cabins retain heat so well, and that my sleeping loft may get really HOT in the Winter, this was a preliminary concern.) Foundation:(4) 8"- diameter cardboard cylindrical concrete forms for pin-point piers;(4) 84" reinforcement rods for pin-point concrete forms;(16) Bricks for base of footing;(24) Layout stakes;(8) 5' batter boards;(1) Spool of wire for joining the two 14" reinforcement rods for each footing base;(1) Spool of line for marking building layout lines;(?) Bags of cement;(?) Bags of gravel;(?) Bags of sand...*A few questions about the amount of concrete needed for the four footings and the four concrete piers: "How much concrete will be needed for four 8"-deep concrete footings poured into four 16"-diameter, 44"-deep holes with each containing four bricks and the four reinforcement rod supports? How much concrete will be needed to fill four 8"-diameter pin-point concrete pier forms to an estimated height of about 80"-inches? How many total bags of cement, gravel and sand (aggregate) will my foundation require? Most importantly, how much will it all cost?"A-Frame Structural Triangle (Theoretical Dimensions):Sides = 16'Base = 16'Angles opposite sides = 60 degreesAngle opposite base = 60 degreesArea = 110.85125168441 sq. ft.Perimeter = 48 ft.Framing:(2) 2"x 10"x 16' girders;(12) 2"x 6"x 12' rafters;(6) 2"x 6"x 8' joists;(4) 2"x 4"x 4' collar beams;(10) 4'x 4' plywood sheets for subflooring;(2) 16' framing braces for structural support against wind damage;(?) 3200-square feet of roof/wall sheathing material for exterior surface areas...*A few questions about the amount of roof/wall sheathing material needed to cover the 3200-square foot exterior surface area: "How much exterior sheathing will I need? How much will it cost? I understand that metal sheathing is preferred in the Copper River Basin region for its snow-shedding ability, so, given everything I've just said, what are my options for the A-frame I recently designed?"My total approach to this whole subsistence lifestyle (i.e. living off the land within a small, confined space) is probably all wrong. I understand that I might need to change my complete "mindset" and adopt a sort of NAUTICAL (or MARITIME) theme with my decor, furnishings and appliances.Since I'm really getting into boats anyway (my one chosen option for escaping the bitterly harsh winters of ALASKA's COPPER RIVER BASIN if all else fails), I feel that marine stoves, composting toilets, and an overall nautical aspect in the "finish work" might help me cope since sailboat cabins tend to be tiny, and I may need to transplant a lot of what I have to my seagoing vessel, "Vera Essie".www.geocities.com/wduncanbinns

Question by Herr VOLKMAR 9 years ago  |  last reply 9 years ago


how to build a mount to hold a a roller wringer for drying clothes?

I recently purchased a roller wringer, but having trouble finding a place to secure it to which will remain stable while i crank. The oval washtub i have id small around 30quarts, it fits , i use a piece of wood so the clamps aren't  on the washtub.. however the tub id too light weight and falls over if there is no water or clothe in the tub.i will truy and edit this later with a picture and measurements, but off hand i think between the screw clamps it is 14 inches,  i would really like ti mount in on my bathtub, outer rim which is 6inches.,since i would  have no stability and movements.he vendor i bought ot from said it was normality monuted on a upside down T shaped wood setup, i am not sure what that means. i also  don't want to get a bigger wash basin, since i l live in an apartment and space is really limited/ these are the specs from amazon " Clamps open to 1 3/4". The wringer's metal frame size is 15.5" wide. With the crank handle attached it extends the length to 29". The frame height is 8.5" but extends to 10.25" counting the tension screw knob on top. The metal frame is 2" deep with a 6" drip tray the slides into the frame under the rollers. The usable inside width is 11.25" from one side of the roller to the other. Weighs about 15 lbs assembled."

Question by escapefromyonkers 7 years ago  |  last reply 7 years ago


Global Warming Experiment #1

(I slightly changed the instructable into a forum topic and an instructable)The Instructable Half"Global Warming" Experiment #1:As you can tell by my quotes around "Global Warming", I personally don't believe that this theory is happening. Theres facts I can use to prove this. However, even I believe that no matter how you put it, there's going to be some bias. Also facts are boring :PSo, what I have planned, is to do a series of experiments on what global warming might cause if it were real.I'm doing this because I've heard people claim some extraordinary things, which based on data won't happen.I could post an instructable with a bunch of facts, and I might. But for now, I want to set up a couple collaborative experiments. One reason I want collaboration is I'm biased. The other, is so you can't complain about my methods.I haven't done the experiment yet, I really don't know if this will help, or hurt, my case.The experiment is to determine if "global warming" could melt glaciers, thus cooling the ocean. Notice here I'm assuming global warming is happening. It isn't. But when people make claims on the news and stuff, they are assuming that too.Please comment if you would like to change my methodology, OR you want to do the experiment.I'm going to describe how the Instructable (and hopefully the rest in the series) will work.1) I, or anyone, proposes a framework for an experiments and writes up an Instructable. (Will be referred to as "I" in the following steps)2) I monitor the suggestions, editing and fixing as needed. After about a week or so, I go onto step 3.3) I preform the experiment to the best of my ability, and write up an additional 2 steps.3a) The first outlines my changes. This could mean I didn't have a 4x8 loaf pan, and I had to use a 3x8. Or it was plastic. Whatever. These small details are important3b) The second outlines the data and conclusion. This may have images of the experiment, graphs, tables, sensor data, Whatever. I also make a note of my previous bias.4) Wait for more people to run through the experiment, adding them as collaborators.5) Write up a conclusion to everything, OR do some more investigating.Its not that bad, however the whole process might take a few weeks. (I don't know)Scientific MethodThere are seven steps to the Scientific Method, which we will follow:1. Define the question2. Gather information and resources3. Form hypothesis4. Perform experiment and collect data5. Analyze data6. Interpret data and draw conclusions that serve as a starting point for new hypotheses7. Publish results(Thanks Wikipedia!)#1 was done in the introduction.#2 I've already done, however you only have to look into data you'll need during the procedure.#3 I've done it, but I'm not telling you (I don't want a bias, even though I've hinted towards my guess)#4 - We're going to expand this out. More later!#5 and #6 sort of come together in this format, will be done as we go along.#7 is done as we go!Okay, #4. Remember back to High School, remember Lab Reports? Well basically there will be a step for each segments (leaving some out). We sort of do this already in most instructables "What will happen", "What you need", "How you do it"; this time more formally. Due to Lab Reports being unstandardized, I'm breaking it down into:IntroductionMaterialsProcedureDataIts shorter than your average one, due to the fact in Data, you have hypothesis and stuff I don't want to reveal yet ;-)The following is the framework, you can also see my instructable:(This is a framework, remember. Its not supposed to be "done" and perfect)Materials*Large basin of some sorts.*Water*Ice*Lamp + Light bulbs (100W & 40W)*ThermometerProcedure1) Fill large basin/pan with water.2) Take and record standing temperature of water.3) Add ice off to one side of the pan.4) Take temp. of water every five minutes until it starts to level out, at least 4 readings.5) Replace water, and repeat steps 2&36) Shine lamp w/ 40W bulb off to the non-ice side of the pan, but allowing some light & warmth to reach the ice. (Roughly 20-35%)7) Repeat steps 4&58) Repeat step 6 with a 100W bulbTake pictures throughout!What now?Okay, I'll be updating this with your comments over the next week or so. If somethings wrong with it, POINT IT OUT!!! I'm going to add my thoughts in as well. (I still feel its missing some things, I can't put my fingers on them, though!)

Topic by zachninme 11 years ago  |  last reply 4 years ago


Make Fireworks, RFID Pet Feeder, LED Jellyfish Costume...

Sign-up for our newsletter here. Sept. 13, 2007 Welcome back! The iRobot Create Challenge has just finished up with over a dozen cool and we're still seeing some cool Launch It! Challenge entries come in on top of the usual cool projects. Check them out! Halloween LED Jellyfish Costume Using LED rope lights and a plastic washing basin to create a deep sea bioluminescent jellyfish thing.posted by deadinsect on Sep 11, 2007 How to Make a RFID Pet Food Feeder Make sure dogs aren't stealing food with an RFID alarm.posted by mlarsen on Sep 5, 2007 Creative Discontent: Squalk (Squirt Chalk) Non-destructive communication tool for mass public discourse. Erasable graffiti at its finest.posted by pdip_stiffi on Sep 9, 2007 How to Make Monkey Bread The ultimate finger-licking, finger-picking dessert of all time. Soft balls of dough, coated in a cinnamon sugar crust of sweet goodness.posted by trebuchet03 on Sep 9, 2007 Colossal Cannon: Building a Behemoth Piston-Valved Pneumatic Launcher Sometimes you think to yourself, "Hmm...I wonder just how far I can hurl stuff, maybe even into the next county." posted by DeusXMachina on Sep 9, 2007 Contest ends on Sunday! Answer our burning questions! Get a free shirt! See who won the $1,500 top prize! How to Make Fireworks Learn how to make your own aerial shell and wow the neighbors.posted by pudi.dk on Sep 7, 2007 eyeRobot - The Robotic White Cane How to hack an iRobot to guide blind and visually impaired users through cluttered and populated environments.posted by shrimpy on Sep 8, 2007 Piano-wire Slingshot A small but powerful slingshot made using 1mm gauge piano-wire and ordinary rubber bands.posted by chluaid on Sep 9, 2007 Gliding/Floating Laptop Dock A floating laptop dock that moves back and forth, eliminating the need to station the laptop on your lap. posted by Romado12187 on Sep 8, 2007 How To Build A Pit Oven (And Cook A Salmon) Learn to do a little backwoods cooking with a pit oven. posted by Mr. Nova on Sep 11, 2007 Now go build something awesome, and I'll see you next week! -Eric

Topic by lebowski 11 years ago


how to add a bathroom in the house

each and every home renovation challenge can be an thrilling time. not just that, it's fun, bad improve a home getting a new, but at the same time to include worth to some home and produces it additional handy for family people and guests. at any time you include a bathing room within your house, there are many factors that contractors will should look at preceding for you go out and lease one. right listed here are some recommendations for adding a bathing room in the house; 1. among the probably the most crucial considerations when adding a> Bad, problems relating in the direction of hydraulic system. should know in which the pipes and fittings are installed. You also should look at in which the pipes in relation in the direction of septic method will very likely be run. As well, you appear in the situation with regard in the direction of current plumbing related pipes within your bathroom. It 'important to be aware the fact that additional apart from current pipes, the higher the cost. It 'best to include a producer new bathing room nearbyexisting bathing room as above or below the bathroom. 2. at any time you include a producer new bathroom, look in the sizing in the bathing room so des approach to expand the home to preserve a tremendous bathing room or any space within your home at current allocated? you must also look in the fixtures and bathing room furniture. For example, you must look in the sizing in the tub and shower, if it is used into account. You must also create a graph that isshows the place in the window, sink, toilet, shelves, vanity with drawers and cupboards, linen cupboard … etc., make specific the space is huge enough to include each of the equipment you need to keep. 3. at any time you include the bath, you must confirm space the appear and design. offered the qualities such as color-resistant to moisture, type of floor, like vinyl, marble or granite, and ventilation. In contemplating the views in the bathroom, you mustIn determining no issue whether this kind of the setting up fixtures, bathing room with current and traditional with an old-fashioned look. As well, when preparing in which to set up equipment, you must maximize space, but do not create a crowded bathroom, in which consumers have problems moving. 4. energy performance can be an extra thing to consider at any time you include a bathroom. Consider, for example, reduce flow toilets, wall insulation, energy effective windows, energy saving The lighting, surroundings friendly wooden and setting up materials, as well as the range in the boiler away from your bathing room again. 5. The character in the sink and bathtub can be an extra important consideration. For bathrooms, you have individuals decisions, such as porcelain, fiberglass and metal. To sink, you can in the sink with vanity, pedestal sink and even a sink which has built attached to some wall. Bathtubs and sinks in numerous shapes, styles, sizes and colors. No issue what sort of> bad add, consider your time and spending budget for that challenge that money and spend less time. It will be also beneficial at any time you clarify in the direction of contractor precisely that which you want, and will reduce the probability of errors. As well, it is very crucial that you take advantage of pros to set up the plumbing related and electrical.

Topic by chilli0627 8 years ago  |  last reply 7 years ago


Technology Makes Cheap Drinking Water from Air

INTRODUCTION:   How can we best apply basic technology to help the underprivileged and/or disaster-hit countries like Haiti? Daily hygiene and nourishment are among the top needs for disaster ridden regions!  Simply put, no water means no hygiene. The Romans understood that over two millennia ago and created their complexly beautiful aqueduct networks for handling both fresh and wastewater! Other ingenious water systems like “air wells” have been found in the city of Theodosia (cf: discovered in 1900 by Zibold, see Zibold’s Collectors/Dehumidifiers) dating back to Greco-Roman times during the Byzantine Empire. These were strictly passive systems that naturally dehumidified air, collecting its potable water in underground basins. All air, even in relatively dry desert regions, will precipitate or release its natural water content (initially in the form of vapor) through condensation when it hits its dew-point temperature and below. That means you “chill” it to an appropriate level that is anywhere from 5F to 50F below its current air temperature, depending upon how much water content (relative humidity) it has locally absorbed. The condensation of the water vapor releases its internal latent heat (reheating the cooled air) which must be constantly dissipated (absorbed by something) in order for water formation to steadily continue. So how do we dissipate this resultant vapor-heat and chill our air without any infrastructure or electricity, in an underprivileged or disaster-ridden region? We simply bury a long cast-iron or any metallic drain-pipe sufficiently underground where the temperature of the earth is naturally held to a constant at around 45F to 55F. That’s our “free” chiller gift from nature. One end of the pipe, Figure-1,  sticks out of the ground to suck-in local outside hot air, and the other end dumps cooled dry air and water into an underground cistern where it gets collected and is piped to the surface to both exhaust the cooled dry air and connect to a water pump. We need a hand operated water pump to lift up the water above ground, and we need an electric fan to constantly pump air through the ground-chilled piping system. We can even force the cooled piped air to exhaust into a tent-like structure where it provides air conditioning as an added bonus, but this adds the penalty of both power and the increased fan size necessary to drive our required airflow further into an enclosure! While this concept is not “passive” (requiring electricity to work) like those clever Byzantine air-wells, it will produce much more potable water and within a smaller volume than those elegantly passive historic devices. The electricity for our fan power requirements can be produced by any one of four ways using either “active” or “passive” techniques: 1) An active playground or bike-pedaling-person or oxen-driven mechanism-generator, 2) A passive windmill generator, 3) A passive solar energy collection system that directly generates electricity, or 4) A passive thermo-electric system that directly generates electricity using the Peltier effect, operating solely on temperature differences between the cell’s top and bottom surface (we jury-rig the cool pipe and hot ambient air to contact separate sides of the cell). Depending upon how much water is needed, the required air volume plus pipe length and diameter, together with the fan will be sized accordingly. We can also configure groups of parallel fan-driven air pipes that are radially fed into the cistern. The sizing of this underground network depends upon the ambient air’s local average temperature and relative humidity (how much water gets absorbed into the air) plus buried pipe depth and effective underground temperatures achieved. The basic concept is one where we “wring” water from air at some given humidity content. The higher its relative humidity the more water is recovered from the air. The air-wringing process simply chills the air as it scrubs along the cooled internal pipe surface until it starts to rain inside the pipe from condensation onto its surface. The condensation is like the dew that forms on car windows, grass or any cooled surface in the early morning, before the sun comes out and evaporates the dew back into the heating air. A further bonus is that our dew-formed water is naturally distilled and very clean. It is potable water ready to drink without the need for additional sterilizing agents. Of course, we must make sure that the interior piping and cistern network is biologically cleansed before burying it underground. The hand pump with its 10 to 15 foot extended piping to reach the underground cistern must also be cleansed. The beauty of this constantly replenishable water supply is its convenient underground installation anywhere! After the in-ground installation, we have a virtual, partially passive, no moving parts, non-breakdown system containing above ground total access to all moving parts that could breakdown, namely the water pump and electric fan. Also, it is easily maintained, with few moving parts (water hand-pump and electric fan) and basically lacking any technical complexity which makes it ideal for technologically backward regions. The example below uses a relatively small industrial fan moving air at 1500 CFM (Cubic Feet per Minute) with a DC motor rated at 1kW. This fan together with our underground piping system will conservatively generate 12 GPH (Gallons Per Hour) of potable drinking water without need for any purification chemistry. Based on an average electrical cost of 14-cents per kWh (kilo-Watt hour), the typical commercial distillation of one gallon of drinking water costs roughly 35-cents as compared to our cost of only 1.2-cents. Furthermore, if we decide to go green and use solar energy for generating our water, it would effectively cost us nothing beyond the initial installation! USING A PSYCHROMETRIC CHART TO SIZE OUR WATER SUPPLY: The following gets a little technical and is only provided for those die-hards who are truly interested in how the science works. Those non-technically schooled may skip this part and not miss the basic concept. Figure-2 shows a Psychrometric Chart for air. This chart summarizes some of the basic thermodynamic properties of air throughout its typical range of operating temperature. The chart uses six basic air properties that defines the physical chemistry of water evaporation into air:  (1) the enthalpy or total energy contained within a unit of air which is a combination of its internal and external energy, expressed as the amount of BTU-energy per unit mass of reference dry-air, (2) the specific volume or the ratio of a unit volume of local air to its mass of reference dry-air, (3) the humidity ratio or the amount (mass) of moisture in a local unit of air divided by its reference mass of dry-air, (4) the percent relative humidity per unit of local air, or the mass ratio (expressed in percentage form) of the partial pressure of water vapor in the air-water mixture to the saturated vapor pressure of water at those conditions (the relative humidity depends not only on air temperature but also on the pressure of the system of interest),  (5) the dry-bulb temperature or the locally measured air temperature, and (6) the wet-bulb temperature or saturation temperature which is the local air temperature experienced during constant water evaporation (a wet-bulb thermometer is typically used:   a thermometer that measures resultant temperature while wrapped in a water wet-gauze and spun to generate local air movement and max-evaporation)  1.0   The Process and A Sample Calculation Our Psychrometric Chart uses six thermodynamic properties that help to determine the amount of water available for extraction from the local ambient air as a function of its temperature, pressure and relative humidity.  Let’s assume the following local ambient conditions for the region we plan to construct our water system at:  (1) Typical daily air temperature Td = 106F and one atmosphere pressure assumed at sea-level, (2) Relative Humidity, RH = 55%, and (3) Typical underground temperature down at six feet is measured at Tu=55F (at 12ft. it drops to ~45F). This yields the following calculated results for obtaining a steady-state supply (changes at night) of water to fill the cistern:      1)      In our example, the “local” air (dry-bulb) temperature is Td=106F, at a relative humidity of RH= 55%.  Fig-2 indicates that the resultant Humidity Ratio is HR= 0.0253 Lbs-water/Lb-Dry-Air (intersection of Td=106F line and RH=55% line, then horizontal to HR value).  We then determine the “gulp” of air volume containing the HR Lbs-water which corresponds to the point of intersection of Td and RH. Interpolating on specific volume “mv” yields mv=14.7 ft3/Lb-Dry-Air (this value sets the optimum unit airflow for our given ambient conditions, and creates a ballpark pipe length to diameter ratio needed later). It represents the basic unit of air volume that will enter our underground pipe per given time, and ultimately defines the size of our fan and piping network. For increased water creation, multiples of this unit volume will scale up the additional amounts of water that can be collected. 2)      As the inlet air cools down to a temperature of Tu=55F, from contact with the relatively cold underground pipe, we follow the constant enthalpy line (red upward left-diagonal) from the intersection of Td and RH to its saturated air temperature condition of Ts= ~88F, which is its dew-point temperature where the corresponding local RH=100%.  At this temperature or under, the air precipitates and releases its moisture content, resulting in water condensation onto the pipe walls.  Since our air will chill to a final pipe temperature of Tu=~55F, we follow the RH=100% saturated curve (green) down to yield an HR=~0.009 Lbs-water/Lb-Dry-Air. This is how much water is left in the air when it gets to 55F.  Therefore for every pound of local outside air that enters the pipe, mw=0.0253 – 0.009 = 0.0163 pounds of absolute pure, distilled potable water precipitates onto the inside pipe wall (per pound of dry air that is cooled and dehydrated) to gravity-flow out the pipe exit and into the cistern. 3)      We now convert pounds of air per unit time into a unitized volumetric airflow that yields gallons of hygienically pure potable water production per unit time. For every Va=100 ft3 of local volumetric air movement per minute (CFM) through the pipe, which translates into ma=Va/mv= 100/14.7 = 6.8 lbs. of dry air per minute or 6.8 * 60 = 408 lbs. per hour (PPH), to yield a water-flow of mwf=ma * mw = 408 * 0.0163 = 6.65 PPH or 6.65/8.345 = 0.8 GPH of water.  An industrial fan rated at 1kW DC will typically move 1500 CFM at a pressure of 8-iwc, to continuously produce 15 * 0.8 = 12 GPH of pristine potable water. 4)      Not shown here are the design details of sizing our pipe, fan and solar collection system for electric power requirements using heat transfer principles coupled with a thermodynamic heat balance, and aerodynamic fan performance assessment. These details help to size the electric power generation requirements plus margin used to properly size a solar collector containing further margins for overcast days. The engineering involved here is straight forward but beyond the scope of the current project.

Topic by RT-101 6 years ago  |  last reply 1 year ago