I'm interested in creating a tissue culture for carnivorous plants. How would I go about doing this?

Are there any good instructibles on glove boxes?

Question by Xenophile 9 years ago  |  last reply 8 years ago


kombucha

Does anybody have spare kombucha culture?

Topic by corey_caffeine 10 years ago  |  last reply 10 years ago


Discriminatory hiring/racist/culturist/personalitist

I have been doing a lot of applications recently. I have a long gap in my work history since my last job. The jobs I am applying for our all low-wage nonskilled jobs such as cashier, stocker, low-level restaurant employee, etc. I have an open availability. The thing about the jobs that I'm applying for, is that ANYBODY could do them. To not have them be first come first serve, is discriminatory. How many years of experience do you need to give someone change or make a sandwich? Furthermore I have many years of experience doing those things. But they take a look at me, listen to me, size me up, and make a snap judgment that I would be a poor employee. I'm not saying that there snap judgment is wrong, but it is discriminatory.                Some places I applied to are over equal opportunity employers, as in if you are a minority you will more likely be hired due to the company needing to meet a diversity quota. Im not saying that in the long run that isn't better for the world and equality, but in the short run it is incredibly discriminatory.         When you think about it, employers are looking for certain traits in the people that they hire. Some of these traits are professionalism, punctuality, subservience/desire to follow orders, outgoingness, etc. These traits however are not universally considered as desirable personality traits by people of all cultures. Culture is the way a group of people think, talk, dress, interact, etc. By making hiring decisions based on those factors an employer is being culturalist, which is a type of discrimination. They may not be discriminating against any obvious easily classifiable minority culture. But everyone has a culture, individual to them. And by not hiring someone who is qualified to do a job, by not hiring a person for a job in which no experience is necessary, an employer is being discriminatory. Thoughts?

Topic by avocadostains 4 years ago  |  last reply 4 years ago


Another British Contribution to the World's Cultural Richness

For the clarification of our colonial readers, "pants" are what British people wear under "trousers". From the BBC: A South Tyneside man is claiming the world record for wearing the most pairs of underpants at the same time. Gary Craig from Whitburn put on 211 pairs - 11 more than the current official record of 200. The 51-year-old, who has dubbed himself the Geordie Pantsman, completed the task in 25 minutes. By the end, he said he looked like a "giant tennis ball". He began by putting on a pair of 40-inch underpants (size large) and finished with a 60-inch (size 4XL) pair. Speaking afterwards, he said: "It feels pretty sore at the minute but I'm just absolutely delighted. "I wanted to really crack it and give the Australians something to think about. I deliberately went one over the 10 just to make sure." He added: "The great thing was I had lots of people there to support me and that made a big difference. "I felt like if I'd had more pants I could have carried on." Mr Craig has so far raised about £3,000 for the St. Simon's Drop-in Centre for the unemployed and underprivileged in South Shields, as well as the Cancer Connections charity. Gary's own website, with link to donate to the charities concerned.

Topic by Kiteman 9 years ago  |  last reply 9 years ago


Researching DIY Projects, Cultures and Communities

We want to hear from you about Do It Yourself projects, cultures, and communities. Let your opinion matter! As researchers at Carnegie Mellon University, we are conducting a brief 10 min survey to further our understanding of DIY projects and communities. In the name of science (and for fun) please complete the survey located at the website below:http://tinyurl.com/DIYCommunitiesWe hope to share the collected data at the end of the study. We thank you for your time and effort.Stacey Kuznetsovstace@cs.cmu.eduEric Paulospaulos@cs.cmu.edu

Topic by staceyk 10 years ago  |  last reply 8 years ago


Looking for an iconic Image

Hey, I'm hoping people here will be able to help me. I'm writing my final year design dissertation about making, hacking and modding culture and I'm looking for some really interesting, dynamic images to use.  I'm looking for images that you think sum up the culture of making and hacking. I'm really interested in seeing what people think the essence of the culture is all about. Preferably I'd like them to be your own images and high resolution as I'd love to put them into my dissertation.  thank you very much for any suggestions.

Topic by Monk 7 years ago  |  last reply 7 years ago


Researching DIY Projects, Cultures and Communities

Sorry for the double post, but there are only a few days left before we close the survey, so I thought I'd post it to a different forum.We are researchers at Carnegie Mellon University, conducting a brief 10 min survey to further our understanding of DIY projects and communities. In the name of science (and for fun) please complete the survey located at the website below:http://tinyurl.com/DIYCommunitiesWe hope to share the collected data at the end of the study. We thank you for your time and effort.Stacey Kuznetsovstace@cs.cmu.eduEric Paulospaulos@cs.cmu.edu

Topic by staceyk 10 years ago  |  last reply 10 years ago


Question on plant cell life?

Hey, As someone who wants to try micropropagation I would like to know how long plant cells can live when cut from the main tissue that they're found? And if the liquid that they're suspended in and the nutrients really make the difference can I be advised as to what solution to make up for transport? Any help would be great, Thanks, Tom

Question by thomas9666 5 years ago  |  last reply 5 years ago


Has anyone any actual experience of growing veg/flowers from vermi-compost (please)? Answered

Hi, Thanks for stopping by.Along with all the 'research' I'm doing as I'm building my wormery (thanks, Instructubles!), I've noticed that as everyone appears to rave about how good it is (enviroment, etc, etc) no-one, but no-one appears to have any direct experience of how well veg and flowers have grown in the compost it has produced!If you have would you mind telling me how you feel the difference has been, please?Thanks!

Question by kevinhannan 9 years ago  |  last reply 9 years ago


TEDxBaghdad - Iraq - violence, dust storms and open sourced manufacturing

Baghdad Iraq. It was once the jewel of the Muslim empire and epicenter of knowledge in the Eastern world. Now it is best known for corrupt governance, bombings, and dust storms. It was also my parents’ home. After visiting once in 1991 as a child the few memories I have of Iraq seemed to be shouting matches as my parents yelled over the phone making overseas calls. Names of Uncles I had never met were mentioned and a phone was handed to me and I was left to nervously fend for myself with my weak Iraqi slang and an Uncle who apparently knew all about me while I knew nothing of him. The country was an impenetrable black box to me that would spit out another refugee somewhere in the world every few years or so. Sixteen years later the first wall between Iraq and me was broken. In 2007 my nuclear family had traveled to Syria and for the first time I met family members who still lived in Baghdad. I knew them now. My uncles and cousins grew flesh and blood. I could feel their prickly faces as we greeted with the traditional Iraqi 4 sided cheek kiss. They could graciously give me their dishdashas as gifts. Names finally had faces, but those faces were deep, sunken and afraid. 2007 was a bad year of sectarian war in Iraq, which is why the Damascas district of Harasta was flooded with Iraqis. The sound of construction continued through the night to keep up with the massive (ab)use of the "tourist" visas. I saw something in the Iraqis in Syria that I hadn't seen before; something that scared me. I saw hopelessness. It was then I settled on a long-term project to return to the country and share something that I had just discovered around the same time: the future doesn’t come prepared -- we make the future. The do-it-yourself attitude that was growing in America was being combined with the culture of sharing that you find in hackerspaces, at instructables.com and in open source technology. This atmosphere made anything possible. You want to build a vertical generator without any spinning parts? Sure! How about a walking quadraped robot with a sofa? Do you want to quit your job, write zines and sell them in the crafting circle? Sure! Start a business! Write a novel! Organize a benefit concert! Sure - sure - sure! “Make your own future” was the message. It was a message of hope - it was the message that I wanted to share in the Middle East, and especially in Iraq. In 2011 the opportunity to work on sharing this beautiful message in the Middle East presented itself to me, so I quit my robotics job and took it (sorry Andrew). A few friends and I started a tiny organization called GEMSI - The Global Entrepreneurship and Maker Space Initiative. We funded ourselves through Kickstarter and our first project was a Three-Day Maker Space hosted at Makerfaire Africa. We were hoping to let people experience the feeling of the Maker Movement first-hand. We collaborated with Emeka and the team from MFA, Cairo Hackerspace, along with many amazing egyptians from all over the country. We had a successful first attempt at sharing the message of "Yes you can!” It was a great start, but Iraq was still an impenetrable fortress to me. It took till 2012 and a chance encounter with friends in Cambridge, MA for me to find my first avenue back into Iraq. Via my friends, I met someone who’s friend was affiliated with TEDxBaghdad. A few steps removed, sure, but when I heard about TEDxBaghdad I knew I had found my way in. I knew TEDx and the types of programs they hosted; I knew they were hopeful, inspired, and shared a vision for a brighter tomorrow. I started communicating with Emeka from MFA, who also works with TED, and he put me in touch with Yahay. After my first skype call with Yahay I knew I was going. Someone else had done it - someone broke that barrier, did amazing work in the country, and survived. It wasn't the death trap my family was telling me it was. There was a new narrative being woven and I knew what I needed to do. I booked my flights before I even finalized any workshops. I needed to meet the TEDxBaghdad team. Later, I called my parents and told them I was going to Baghdad and they said, "Shinu?! Inta Makhabal?!" That probably means exactly what you think it does. Needless to say, they had their concerns, but I was going regardless. Now that the tickets were bought, we started planning. Yahay put me in touch with Abdal Ghany, one of the Iraqi organizers living in Baghdad. He coordinated everything. It was amazing. These guys kick some serious planning butt! Ghany basically told me, “Show up and give your workshop. We'll take care of the rest.” This was a welcome change from the hours of facebooking, planning, and coordination I usually have to go through to schedule events. It really seemed like this was possible. I was going to give an Arduino and 3D printing workshop in Baghdad and I was really excited! I sent an email to Sparkfun and Makezine asking them for open source electronics donations since I knew bringing my electronics box through the airport wouldn't be a good idea. They sent me a nice goodie-bag of beautifully packaged Maker products. These two organizations have given me a tremendous amount of help throughout the years, for which I am extremely thankful. I packed a suitcase filled with 2 3D printers, 25 Arduinos, an assortment of other open source hardware and sensors and headed out looking a bit like a bomb development lab. Yeesh! Somehow I made it through China, Saudi, and Turkey without any serious interrogation. Mostly just really quizzical looks from my unzipped bag up back to me... "You're a teacher?" they ask. "Yes," I say, "yes I am." Turkey was the stop before Iraq. Turkey was brilliant, sunny, lush, and seemed to be comprised of mostly happy smiling people walking by the sea. Coming from the deserts of Mecca, this was a welcome sight. I let the green of Turkey wash away the dust of Saudi Arabia. The mishmash of cultures, sounds, foods, religions gave me a great feeling of liberation. This was a lively place and the two hackerspaces I met up with there, Base Istanbul and Istanbul Hackerspace were fantastic hosts. Furkan and I spent a lovely day together chatting about Maker culture as it spreads through the Middle East and then in the end we had a potluck BBQ with members from both hackerspaces by the rocks of the sea. It was great to see these two Turkish hackerspaces and to be reminded that this movement is truly global. My dream of hackerspaces empowering people globally is really possible – and it’s great to know that it is a dream that is shared by others. I left them full of enthusiasm and flew directly to Baghdad. Landing in Baghdad was strange and a bit concerning. Looking out of the window all I could see was a brown cloud. We were landing in a dust storm. I had heard about the turab (dust) of Iraq, but this was the first time I saw it in person, and it would be one of the things most often on my mind. Getting a visa for me was surprisingly easy, except for the fact I forgot my passport on the plane and two guards had to escort me one to each side back to the airplane to retrieve it. But once I had my passport, I told them my laqab, which is the full name that includes ancestry. Showed them a copy of my dad’s passport and my Iraqi birth certificate and I was in. I was hoping for a nice stamp, perhaps with some Iraqi relic on it. But they took my passport and wrote in it: "Originally Iraqi", so there it goes, it's official. Ahmed, my cousin, was not at the airport when I took my paper work and headed out to the lobby. The airport was sparsely populated and heavily regulated. I barely managed to snap a picture before a guard came up to me and had me delete them from my phone. In the lobby I met a man just released from a Swiss prison. The Swiss had given him the option to be sent back home to Iraq, or be jailed. He chose to leave and come back to Iraq. This becomes a theme later as I see more and more people, all of whom desire to leave the country to become refugees elsewhere. It seems that when hope runs out for the country you live in, the only option is to find a new one. This story is one of a million various stories of struggling to find a new life. Each varies in its details, but all have survival at their core. Ahmed arrives 30 minutes late, apologizing. He's wearing jeans and a polo. His hair seemed freshly cut and his face was serious. We had never met before. The only thing I knew of him was that he thought I was reckless for coming. He had been spending hours on Skype with me attempting to convince me that coming would be a bad idea: "You have no idea how bad the bugs are. Just wait till you see the dust storms. The heat will kill you... etc" But once I saw him in person it all changed. I didn't think I'd grow to like Ahmed, but I grew to appreciate his ways and he became like a brother to me before I left. He took me to Mansour, a neighborhood in Baghdad, telling me stories about Iraq as we travelled. This is the neighborhood where the house my dad designed and family built stands. On the ride home we had our car checked for bombs at least 4 times by what Iraqi's call Saytarat, which is the equivalent of a checkpoint and, to me, seemed a total nuciance. They were the reason he was late. What would normally be a 20 minute drive can become three hours long because every car is checked for bombs. They are everywhere; throughout the city, on every road. We passed the guard who watches over my family’s neighborhood, and he takes his hand off his machine gun to wave at Ahmed, and I begin to recognize that weapons, car inspections and burned out cars are normal here, so they don't think to comment on it - like an empty lot in Detroit, or the homeless in San Francisco. We got to my family home with no time to rest. I had to leave to meet up with Abdul Ghany and the crew at a Cafe in an hour and then conduct the workshop in two. Ahmed comes with me - he doesn't trust people we'd never met before and won’t let me out of his sight. I trust first till proven otherwise, he has learned to do the opposite. It’s a telling sign of how different our lives are on a day-to-day basis. As soon as I met the TEDxBaghdad crew, I felt at ease. MNA, Abdul Ghany and the entire crew were thoughtful, hardworking, and inspiring people. I was really happy to have intersected with them and they helped me in more ways than I could count. We first met up at Everyday, a local Mansour café. Everyday cafe was hyper airconditioned and everyone seemed to think it was hotter than it was. The crew was awesome, they were really a great first introduction to the excited young people of Baghdad and they certainly have the famed Iraqi hospitality. But here's a tip: do not order a fajita in Baghdad ;D. Mohammed Al-Samarraie pulled out their iPads and started showing me video production work he was doing for TEDx. Abdul Ghany comes a little late and we have head out to the workshop. The workshop was held in a two story office building surrounded by palm trees. Looking out the the tinted back window we could see the muddy river run past, winding and dark. Slowly the TEDx people started trickling in. Then I started to get nervous. The checkpoints didn't bother me, the tanks in the streets were not an issue, but here were these people coming to learn something from me. What could I share that would really matter to them when they had so much to deal with daily? What could I share that could be relevant to people who see bombings as I experience lightning storms? I have been to other places in the world to share this kind of information, and some of those places have had political problems and ongoing revolutions. But Iraq was the first country I had been to that really seemed like a war zone. I decided that first I needed to learn from them! What were their projects? What did they hope for? I hoped they would learn from each other and get excited about their projects and I wanted to be able to share things that were relevant to them. Thus, everyone was encouraged to talk about who they are, how they learned about TEDxBaghdad and to share their project, share with us their mission, or share an inspiring story. I was amazed to hear about all the incredible initiatives the crew was doing. From intercultural exchange programs, to street clean ups, to historical artifact preservation, each of them shared and I started realizing something. They were not as interested in new technology as they were interested in arts and culture and after hearing about a few of their projects I started realizing why. Learning about culture and paying attention to the arts gives people the ability to pay attention to details. They can look at another human being and see all the subtleties that make us who we are. We each fall in love, we struggle, we question, and have doubts. Arts give depth to a black and white world. Sectarianism is difficult when we pay attention to the commonalities that tie us all together. What would the world be like if anyone who wanted a weapons license was required to have visited India, could pass an art history exam and could play stairway to heaven on the guitar? We were in a sort of office building near the river which ran by dark and muddy looking through the tinted windows. One by one, they stood up in front and gave their short presentations. There were doctors, engineers, and designers in the crew. They each stood up and told the story of how they found out about TEDxBaghdad and it was incredible. Each of them had a friend recommend it to them, and it was mostly done through Facebook. Some people's projects were related to health, culture, antiquity preservation, and connecting Iraqis with the rest of the world. While they spoke I made a graph of the things that connected all of their ideas together. It was a beautiful thing to see. The common themes were to help Iraq as a country through the integration of new ideas and how to bring a new face of Iraq and present it to the world. To have the news about Iraq be about amazing things, inspiring things, rather than explosions. Being in that room with that energy made me feel like we were already on our way. I pulled out the boxes of donations given to us by Sparkfun and The Make Shed and now it was my turn. I told them about my story coming into contact with my friend Alex through instructables.com, how being in San Francisco and Cambridge opened my eyes to a new way of entrepreneurship using communities and open source technology. And how they could make anything they could imagine if they got together to do it. We discussed how sharing and collaboration was a common value that held the entire system together. I used the concept of the LED throwie, which is a simple idea by Graffiti Research Labs to connect an LED to a coin battery and a magnet. They used it to throw at ferrous buildings as a form of electronic graffiti but once they uploaded it to instructables the idea was out there and people were inspired to take it and derive many other projects. You can never know what will happen when you share something or when you create a tool and share it. People created outlined throwies, LED floaties in balloons and finally we start seeing LED floaties which are sequenced to act like a light show at a phish concert. Hahaha! We then talked about the Arduino an easy to use microcontroller designed for artists. It's a bit of technology that is a simple and easy to use platform to build interactive projects. We talked about how the open nature of the project people can use the Arduino and then use shields to add features like being able to connect to the internet or play MP3s. Open source tools make building new products a lot like using legos. We were in the middle of using some of the sensors The Maker Shed had sent us to make a DIY heart rate monitor when the power went out and all went dark except for the LED throwies we had made. It suddenly felt very intimate. We put all the LED throwies in the center of the room and huddled around it for story time. The feeling of connection was palpable for me. Sure the lack of power meant that we were not going to be able to 3D print, but being in the dark with TEDxBaghdad was one of my favorite memories of this trip. The lights went on and we had a long question and answer session / photo shoot. Some of the doctors were interested to use the Arduino based heart rate monitors to replace the broken ones in the hospital. I heard about this and was flabbergast that the most basic and cheap tools I had brought with me might have a direct impact and may even save lives. Technology might not solve the political problems of the country but it seems that there was a lot of room for development and that the crew I was with was creative and excited to make use of it. I passed out 20 Arduino kits that day, including the Lillypad which is a version of the Arduino intended to be sewn into clothing. Although there were very few engineers in the audience, everyone seemed to be buzzing with ideas and ways to use the Arduinos. What a great workshop! I was super excited because not only had they understood the message, they seem to have been infected with the feeling of capability! Now to seal the deal, we were all going to go out and eat a classic Iraqi dish Simach Masguf. Ahmed has been calling me hourly making sure that I was OK, but I felt safe enough with my new friends so we all headed out to a fish spot by the river. Hours go by, lots of fish is eaten, and lots of juice is drunk. Some of the crew smoke some sheesha. It was like I was with new old friends. My Iraqi slang was improving hourly and although we had just met I knew me and TEDxBaghdad we're going to be working together again very soon. I would have stayed all night eating and chatting about future projects and the problems to solve in Iraq, but the cerfew was about to set in and we had to jet. Yeah, there is still a curfew. On the ride home my head is filled with contradictions. Hope and confusion mix in my head as my family rings 4 more times. I get home safe and decide that the only way to deal with the complicated situation in Iraq was to act with irrational hope and optimism. That's the way TEDxBaghdad seemed to work. And that's going to be mine as well. The next day there were five explosions in Baghdad so TEDxBaghdad and I decided against going out to the Iraqi National Museum even though we had to request permission to go. We meet instead back at Everyday and there we solidify our commitment to working for a more beautiful Baghdad and a country which will become a producing nation once again. Sharing with the world it's art, science and literature like it once did years ago. +BG

Topic by lamedust 6 years ago  |  last reply 6 years ago


Instructables on NPR's Weekend Edition Sunday March 9th, 2008

A story about online DIY culture including Instructables and an interview with me aired Sunday morning on NPR's Weekend Edition Sunday. It was right after the puzzle. Instructables CEO Eric Wilhelm: The DIY aesthetic, at least sometimes, is about the subversive joy of making a prefab product "do something that it wasn't intended to."If you missed it, the web edition complete with archived audio, is here:Digital DIY: Web Helps Do-It-Yourselfers Share EthicMore news articles about Instructables here.

Topic by ewilhelm 11 years ago  |  last reply 11 years ago


Does anyone know how to make a animal tissue/ cell culture at home quickly, cheaply, and easily? Answered

I am doing an experiment that requires a cell culture, and for the question I am asking, an animal tissue culture is probably, better. If anyone knows how to make a tissue culture (preferably with brain cells but other cells work) then I need some help.

Question by ANDY! 8 years ago  |  last reply 7 years ago


Where is the best place to purchase algae cultures(preferably spirulina)?

Question by Putzer 9 years ago  |  last reply 8 years ago


how can I refurbish cultured marble sink?

My house is over 20 years old and all 3 of my bathrooms have been re-done except for the sinks. Is there anything I can do to polish up or make old, scratched up cultured marble look better?

Question by 10 years ago  |  last reply 7 years ago


Information on DIY Electronics

Hey everybody, I really hope someone can help me. I'm PJ, a social work student that's organizing a sort of DIY electronics meeting in Belgium. By school policy, i have to write something in between an essay and a thesis and i'm doing it about DIY as a scene within subcultures. Now because DIY as a scene or culture is so enormous i'm writing it about DIY in electronics/hardware fiddling/hacking/modding/bending. Now what i'm trying to ask: Do you know any essays, thesisses, papers, books about DIY as a culture, scene, phenonemon?,... Not just a link to Wikipedia I need a base, where i can start from in writing this essay so i can explore DIY some more. Thanks a lot. PJ

Topic by Peach 11 years ago  |  last reply 11 years ago


what is the reason for crack development in cultured marble block? Answered

What should be the mix of cobalt and resin and catalyst in the marble aggregates ?

Question by ashok -1955 9 years ago  |  last reply 4 years ago


Japan: The Legendary Martial Arts & Culture Center of The World!

Hello World!I am Jehosephat, a fun-loving, Japanese die-hard fan of its rich culture, interesting people, & beautiful history.This forum is mainly about anything Japanese-related subject: from samurai to tofu, videogames to anime, or music to...well, anything!I only ask of two things:1. Don't Take Things Too Seriously. This includes the hard-core fans of any particular subject; I know all of you have a plethora of knowledge, but please don't take things personally if someone disagrees with you. Just don't talk to them or something. I won't tolarate any offensive behavior & I will report you to the administrators.2. Have Fun. Self-explanatory. This is a friendly forum, not a boxing arena, so have fun with it.Thank you all whom join, subscribe, or post &/or communicate on this forum.Sincerely & with best regards,Jehosephat

Topic by Jehosephat 9 years ago  |  last reply 8 years ago


Opinions needed! Importance of DIY and amateur culture in design

Hello, I am writing my dissertation on the role of DIY and Amateur design and how/if it challenges the established professional design process. I would really love to have opinions and ideas from amateur designer's and DIYer's ( not amateur in a derogatory sense, but as the design and making process that exist outside out business and industry, for fun or nessessity) included in my essay, as it seems really contradictory and silly to be championing the role of non-professionals but only asking professionals for their input.  I would really like ideas on the motivations behind unpaid design and making, examples of sucsesful/unsucsessful amateur design practice, where you feel your output stands in the wider field of design and society, whether its importance is personal to you or has wider implications, is it about individual expression? helping others through design solutions or simply a fun way to pass the time? is it a challenge to the role of the professional designer? thankyou very much for taking the time to read this, it would be great if you could give me a quick introduction to you and where your coming from along with any opinions, anecdotes etc, just to give it some context, also my tutors don't seem to take well to anonymous quotes. any way, thanks again, hope to hear from you soon!

Topic by ruthop22 9 years ago  |  last reply 9 years ago


What cultural traditions do you have for celebrating a new year? Answered

I'm planning on doing a multi-cultural new year's eve this year, and I need some help. If you all would be so kind as to supply me with some traditions your country/family/friends use to celebrate new year's eve. I would prefer simple crafts or traditions like eating twelve grapes and casting wishes or making party crackers (both of which I've already planned.) but a few larger plans would be acceptable. And do remember, I'm short on time and money, and I have to keep this secret, so keep the loud projects quiet. Please remember to supply plenty of details.

Question by MrMystery96 9 years ago  |  last reply 9 years ago


How to make a no smell, no flies, worm compost bin?

I want to make an indoor compost bin because it's too cold for the worms in the winter. My dad says it'll smell way too much and actually i'm worried about the flies. I already made (and used) a worm compost bin last year and it was smelly so it was sent into the garage and all of them died in the winter. So is there a way to make a no smell, no flies worm compost bin? BTW the compost bin will be put in my basement that has no ventilation.

Question by Pizzapie500 8 years ago  |  last reply 8 years ago


how to avoid lump formation due to carbonates in lab slab cultured marble samples.?

When we make lab samples, small lumps are formed which is difficult to break in the mixtures. This on pressing gives spots of carbonate specks which looks very odd and damages the beauty of the samples.

Question by ashok -1955 9 years ago  |  last reply 9 years ago


Concentrated Solar Power Hits Pop Culture in the Best Way

Check out this graphic of concentrated solar collectors on Saul's new skateboard. My first skateboard had a dragon sitting on top of a pile of human skulls. We've come along way, I guess.

Topic by ewilhelm 10 years ago  |  last reply 10 years ago


Amazing piece of cultural history "Russia in color, a century ago"

Hello Chaps, I just saw this on one of my Facebook feeds and decided I would share it with you all... click me I'm not a *great photographer* and aside from knowing what I like and what I don't like, I have no vast knowledge of photography etc... ANYWAY I came across this link... and well I think It's fantastic... considdering that over 100 years ago the photographic method used made it possible for us to see these fantastic true(ish) colour images giving us an unique view at Russias cultural heratage... whilst I'm here... may I just remind Americans that it's spelt 'colour' ;) anyway, what do you think? Biggsy

Topic by Biggsy 8 years ago  |  last reply 8 years ago


Where is your home?

Where are people in this community from? I am from the cultural wasteland known as Mississauga which is a yawn bedroom community outside of Toronto, Ontario.

Topic by Naomi2969 10 years ago  |  last reply 10 years ago


Sources of bacteria?

Hi I was wondering if anyone had any good online sources of bacteria? What i mean is does any body know any companies that have bacteria cultures and can ship them?

Question by akinich 5 years ago  |  last reply 5 years ago


language programs in china?

If you had immigrated to China, but you didn't know the national language, is there any prgrams that the government has developed to help learn the languages, and also understand their culture better?

Question by the poodleo 8 years ago  |  last reply 5 years ago


Prophecies for Future Research

800 years from now, archeologists will conduct research on landfills and compare international findings concerning the wealth of an ancient culture based on the amount on disposable diapers found. Share your own.  

Topic by AngryRedhead 9 years ago  |  last reply 9 years ago


Awesome art prints

I was doing some holiday shopping online, and I found Veramar Naval Products... They are offering free shipping for the holidays on orders over $40. I found that pretty easy to do since they now have the work of Nate Ostrow, who is just incredible. They also have another site entirely devoted to music and pop culture art prints in addition to the military and naval artwork. They have like Hendrix and Hepburn and all sorts of cool stuff that's worth checking out. I thought this was quite the find and figured I would pass it along - happy holidays!

Topic by softrevolution 10 years ago  |  last reply 10 years ago


director coach outlet online

To protect show the city has higher profile than off the project as primarily ningbo intangible cultural heritage demonstrated center. The center on June 7, 2008 world heritage day celebration, located in yinzhou area should be under the village streets west of the ancient village bay, beautiful scenery, elegant environment, use the ancient village west of of primitive simplicity elegant traditional building, will the bay tourist culture and the testament mulberry traditional culture, and the combination of colliding promote each other, coordinating development. Protection exhibition center on ningbo city range about more than 60 have higher popularity and influence the programs, page display, visual illustration and field sales. Protection show center is located in a traditional siheyuan inside, indoor display surface by approximately 2200 square, outdoor available area is 1000 square, of medium professional exhibition hall, divided into sequence hall, a layer of exhibition hall, 2 hall and outdoor interact area four parts. Sequence hall to the form of layout is introduced, showcase ningbo city within the scope of the national, provincial, municipal gave the project, a layer, second floor for crafts exhibition hall hall, ZhuJin paint woodcarving, elder Mosaic, the paper-cut, root, about 30 items on display in this, outdoor interactive area is for the demo project activities sites, a stage. (2) have yinzhou district main intangible cultural heritage project of ningbo (yinzhou) museum. The museum is located in yinzhou district government south side, cover an area of 60 mu, with a total construction area of 27000 square meters, invest 250 million, 5 December, 2008 officially opening, the central, provincial and other leaders DuoCi visit the museum, the library intangible cultural heritage project elder Mosaic, ZhuJin paint woodcarving, such as gold and silver has open special exhibition hall. (3) to protect national the testament ZhuJin list show mainly paint woodcarving ZhuJin paint woodcarving gallery of art. The museum is located in the beautiful scenery of the yinfeng our lucky HengXi town south, covers an area of 8 acres, the total investment of 1000 yuan, exhibition since Ming and qing dynasties to today's ZhuJin paint woodcarving collection, the art of more than 1000 pieces. ZhuJin paint woodcarving art museum director Chen is GaiHong state-level non-material cultural heritage representative inheritance.http://www.coachoutletonlineshopping.net

Topic by luckywoyao 7 years ago  |  last reply 7 years ago


Do I need a license of some sort to give children summer drama lessons for a small fee?

They would be held at a local cultural arts center which I would rent.

Question by akettering 8 years ago  |  last reply 8 years ago


Is there anyone who knows of a Cold Frames Intructable?

Just looking for various designs and ideas to come up with some for a perma-culture installation i'm in the process of creating. Need something as a starting nursery

Question by merconious 9 years ago  |  last reply 9 years ago


Research HELP!

HELP Please: Hi everyone! I'm an Industrial Design student at the Rhode Island School of Design and am working on a project investigating DIY/Hacker culture. I'm truly inspired and fascinated with all the people posting on sites like Instructables and would love to learn a little more about the community/culture. Please please please take a few quick minutes to help me answer some survey questions! It's anonymous and I would love any input I can get! Find it here: http://www.surveymonkey.com/s/3RHH2M9 Thank you very much!! :) - Tina P.S. Let me know below if you'd be willing to help me with further questions down the line!

Topic by tinashoe 6 years ago  |  last reply 4 years ago


Research HELP!

Hi everyone! I'm an Industrial Design student at the Rhode Island School of Design and am working on a project investigating DIY/Hacker culture. I'm truly inspired and fascinated with all the people posting on sites like Instructables and would love to learn a little more about the community/culture. Please please please take a few quick minutes to help me answer some survey questions! It's anonymous and I would love any input I can get! Find it here: http://www.surveymonkey.com/s/3RHH2M9 Thank you very much!! :) - Tina P.S. Let me know below if you'd be willing to help me with further questions down the line!

Topic by tinashoe 6 years ago  |  last reply 6 years ago


Star Wars cupcakes

Flickr user lclllc makes some detailed cupcakes with pop culture themes. This Star Wars one is excellent, but check out the photostream for many more great cupcakes and cakes. lclllc's photostream via CRAFT

Topic by fungus amungus 8 years ago  |  last reply 8 years ago


Did you notice how the internet and mobile phones totally changed our culture?

Go back just 20 years and on a busy shopping street you saw the poeple walking around as they do today - or did they?I remember poeple talking to each other, standing in front of the shop windows and checking the offers.People greeting each other or stopping for a chat.Now all you see it zombies staring at their phone screen or texting.Even the dreaded "self talker" with a BT earpiece seems to die out.You like fast food don't you? ;)But did you ever bother to waste some time watching people going through the drive through?Back in the days they mostly tried to keep their cigarette going or the girls were busy with the make up.Today it is almost impossibe to spot someone making it through a drive through without playing on his or her phone.The shopping is finnished and all you want is to pay once your trolley was emptied onto the conveyor going to the register.If it were not for the person in front of you...On hand holds the phone to the ear, you hear the latest gossip you don't want to know anything about...And then painfully slow one hand tries to load the trolley again and then finally tries to find a credit with still some money left on it.My favourite are however all those people who are fully addicted to their phone and go mental if you try to tell them.You are having a cold beer with your mate and just want to reflect about the great day fishing.Hold on a second....Oh, did you see this today? ....Ok, just quickly checking FB...Your beer is already number three while your mates beer went warm and stale.Fair enough, was a long day...Then you knock at his door at 3AM to take the boat or or go on a trip.Still half asleep but the phone and all social media must be checked before even making it to the toilet...You get the picture, hopefully not by looking in a mirror now ;)When the "internet" started to be a thing I was already long on the wagon of "online".And back then some big players in the game said "One day we will all be connected in real time!".Of course everyone had a good laugh and moved on.No chance "everyone" could afford a computer, let alone get the skills to go "online".But look at today:You call your provider, tell them you need internet at home and you just plug a box in and have it.Oh, moible is prefered?No problem, just pick the phone you fancy, add a sim card and off you go minutes later.I remember libraries not just as a place to read books but also as a place to learn new things.Explore the world, see other cultures...If you could afford it you might have seen it all for yourself and in real.Today all this is replaced by a single term:"Google it!"What we have today is a simple money scheme created through the totally useless "need" to be connected.So how do you know that you are already addicted to you electronic friend and failed to realise it?Quite simple actually and in the same way as maybe your grandparents did with your parents - if they are old enough ;)Yes I mean the goggle box, the good old TV.Back in the day we said that 4 hours of TV time for a teen is already quite much.We can't escape screens for work or school needs anymore.What we can though is ask:How many hours per day do you spend on yo phone? The time that is not work or school related...How much of your daily life do you organise through your phone by texting, social media or just notes, reminders and so on?Do you complain that even the newest phone newer has enough charge for your "needs"? ;)Do you get cramps in your hands or fingers? ;)Or just plain simple: How long could you really be totally without mobile phone, computer and internet?The answers you give yourself might shock you ;)What are your thoughts on the mobile phone zombies of today?

Question by Downunder35m 3 months ago


can you make yogurt without buying any yogurt from the store?

I see that you have already a home made yogurt recipe, but it includes store bought yogurt, is there a "really" home made version? Thanks

Question by 9 years ago  |  last reply 3 years ago


Looking for a Mother!

I'm looking for a kombucha mother culture and maybe some starter brew to start my own batch! I live in SF. Anyone have some to spare? After my first successes, I'll have some to share too!

Topic by scoochmaroo 10 years ago  |  last reply 7 years ago


The Shack

According to this article over at engadget, RadioShack is rebranding as "The Shack" and attempting to change their corporate culture. I wonder if this will be the end of components being available there? Not that I particularly enjoy paying $3.49 for an 8 cent LED, but sometimes you don't want to wait for it in the mail.

Topic by Tool Using Animal 9 years ago  |  last reply 9 years ago


Super Mario theme played on bottles with RC car

The Super Mario theme keeps on truckin' through pop culture with this version done on empty bottles that are struck by an RC car.Also check the Rollerblade style this guy does via BoingBoing

Topic by fungus amungus 11 years ago  |  last reply 10 years ago


OFFF 2009

At the 2009 OFFF, International Festival For The Post-Digital Culture, I gave a talk about the DIY movement, and what drives it forward, which was part of the NERDFERENCES PANEL With Eric Wilhelm, Peter Kirn, Gijs Gieskes; curated and presented by Julia Carboneras.You can find a PDF of my slides attached below.

Topic by ewilhelm 9 years ago  |  last reply 9 years ago


How can I block wifi signals? Answered

I'm doing a science experiment to see what wifi does to health, so I need to block it. I want to make a box holding cell cultures or something to see what happens. 

Question by ANDY! 8 years ago  |  last reply 7 months ago


SF Neighbors Project Needs Intern

The San Francisco branch of the Neighbors Project is looking for an intern to work part-time posting Instructables based on their Neighbors Checklist.They're a volunteer-based non-profit dedicated to improving the quality of city life by building and supporting grassroots local culture. Check them out- it should be a fun project!

Topic by canida 11 years ago


The Evil Instructables!!!

"Inscrutable" means "impossible to understand". We wage a daily battle against the opposite of instructables, the ugly, evil twin, "INSCRUTABLES"! Inscrutables just demands to have all the knowledge and not explain it to anyone. Inscrutables, the world's biggest show-don't-tell, or a sink of information, which takes all information and obscures it forever!!! D-I-Nothing!!! Faker culture!!

Topic by stasterisk 10 years ago  |  last reply 10 years ago


Hispanic or Latino?

I cringe everytime someone uses the word Latino when generically speaking of Spanish-speaking people. I prefer to be called Spanish or Hispanic. Some people may disagree with me but I think that calling me a Hispanic describes my true ethnical and cultural origin. Although many people will bring the fact that the colonization of America by the Spanish conquerors was bloody and opressive, we still owe to Spain the origin of our countries. From Mexico to Patagonia and the Large Antilles, the Spanish conquistadores left their footprint in the form of language, architecture, religion, cooking, stories, art, crafts and culture. In contrast, a Latino is anyone who descends from people that speak a Romance language like: French, Italian, Portuguese, Spanish and Romanian. By that definition, when we speak of Latin America we include countries like Brasil, Haiti, French Guyana and, Surinam. The same definition could apply to Italian-Americans, French-Americans, French-Canadians, and Cajun people.

Topic by blkhawk 7 years ago  |  last reply 7 years ago


MAKEZINE CAN also be HACERZINE? or find a better name for spanish and diferent languages

The message can be spread, the DIY culture could grow if sites like this also had a spanish and french, and other languages versions, it can be 3 inventors working togheter we start with spanish, english and french, 3 friends where ever we are, and send eachother the proyects for translation. (sorry for my spelling)

Question by LGP 10 years ago  |  last reply 10 years ago


how do you go about hosting a music show? Answered

Me and a couple of friends are looking to bring alittle culture to our small town. We havea venue, some mics, some amps and some people who are willing to perform music for free for the first few shows.Is there anything else we need other then advertising? Am I missing something important?

Question by sgt.pepper 10 years ago  |  last reply 10 years ago


FORUM for Post Me_New ID

FORUM for Post Me_New IDCYNETart_08 festival / TMA Hellerau in Dresden | 31st October - 2nd November 2008*http://www.postme-newid.net/ International media art festival CYNETart_08 held in Dresden, Germany, will host the forum "Post Me_New ID" from 31st October to 2nd November 2008. The forum will bring together interdisciplinary practitioners in art, science and technology to discuss in various formats, from keynotes to Quickfires, issues concerning contemporary and future forms of networked creations and multi-identities. Among the speakers and performers there will be kondition pluriel (Canada), Mika Satomi and Hannah Perner-Wilson (Austria), Masaki Fujihata (Japan), Denisa Kera (Czech Republic/Singapore), Michael Takeo Magruder (Unites States/United Kingdom), Sita Popat (United Kingdom), Susanne Berkenheger (Germany) and many more.The forum is planned as a platform for reflection on how we are creatively and socially engaged in digital networks, how we perform our online and offline identities, how we have become plural and variable post human bodies. "We are asking ourselves > what is next?< applying the to-be-presented theories to our own cultural/art creating and networking practices"... says Ghislaine Boddington (United Kingdom), one of the forum organisers.Title: Post Me_New IDFormat: International forumDates: 31st October -- 2nd November 2008Place: Festspielhaus Hellerau, Dresden, GermanyCo-producers:body>data>space (London, UK) - www.bodydataspace.net CIANT | International Centre for Art and New Technologies (Prague, Czech Republic) - www.ciant.cz TMA | Trans-Media-Academy Hellerau (Dresden, Germany) - www.body-bytes.de Kibla (Maribor , Slovenia) - www.kibla.orgThere will be a call for Quickfire presentations, designed to enable speakers and delegates to present their ideas in a dynamic and innovative way. Each speaker will have chance to present their project or give an overview of their work in a Quickfire format: 14 presentation slides, 30 seconds per slide, 1 image or 10 words per slide. Please contact Thomas Dumke pmn_id@cynetart.de for more information.To receive news on Post Me_ New ID please register at: http://www.postme-newid.net/If you have any questions, please contact Thomas Dumke, head of CYNETart Festival, pmn_id@cynetart.de or +49-351-8896665****************************************SCHEDULE*FRIDAY October 31st -- Networked Creations [see]http://www.postme-newid.net/foru/fri-31-oct-networked-creations/ for full detail ]SATURDAY November 1st -- Multi-Identities [see]http://www.postme-newid.net/foru/sat-1-nov-multi-identities/ for full detail ]SUNDAY November 2nd -- Future Visions [see]http://www.postme-newid.net/foru/sun-2-nov-future-visions/ for full detail ]If you are a UK resident we really encourage you to come along to this exciting event and can help you to find a good deal on flights and accommodation.Please email leanne@bodydataspace.net for information.Post Me_New ID examines the complexity of 21st century European identity through an exploration based on the effect of digital technologies of the body and identity. An active and public Blog is fed by a series of debate led Research Engines with a Forum, Book and DVD as the end products. In addition a series of Creation Processes will result in a public Installation / Performance.Post Me_New ID forum is co-produced by an international consortium of partners coming from Czech Republic, Germany, Slovenia and United Kingdom, within an action/research project of the same name, which focuses on the future of the body, and is co-financed by the European Commission under Culture 2007 programme.****************************************Co-producers for Post Me_ New ID are:*body>data>space - www.bodydataspace.netCIANT - www.ciant.cz Trans-Media-Akademie Hellerau www.body-bytes.deKibla - www.kibla.org*Associated Funding Bodies & Institutions for Post Me_ New ID are:*European Commission DG Education and Culture - Culture 2007-2013 ec.europa.eu/dgs/education_culture/index_enArts Council England - www.artscouncil.org.ukPrague City Hall - magistrat.praha-mesto.cz/Home-PageEuropean Commission -- Culture - ec.europa.eu/culture/index_en.htmMinistry of Culture - Czech Republic - www.mkcr.czResCen - Centre for Research into Creation in the Performing Arts - www.rescen.netEZKA - European Centre for the Arts - www.kunstforumhellerau.deMestna obina Maribor - www.maribor.si/podrocje.aspxGovernment of the Republic of Slovenia - Ministry of Culture - magistrat.praha-mesto.cz/l2*The 14 Associated partners for Post Me_ New ID are:*A4-nulty priestor - Bratislava - www.a4.skBrunel University - London,UK - www.brunel.ac.ukCharles University - Czech Republic - www.cuni.czGrains and Pixels - Sweden - www.bertrandgondouin.net/post/Grains-PixelsHellen Sky - Australia - www.hellensky.comLeeds University - UK - www.leeds.ac.uk/icsrimM2F Creations - France - www.m2fcreations.frMultiplace - Slovakia - www.multiplace.ski/2007/PROJECT DCM Foundation - Romania - www.rhiz.eu/institution-9567-en.htmlRehearsal.org and Ignite - London,UK - www.rehearsal.org.ukResCen Middlesex University - London,UK - www.mdx.ac.uk/rescen/SKA CULTURE - China - www.skaculture.comSwap-Project - Portugal - www.swap-project.comTokyo National University of Fine Arts and Music - Tokyo, Japan - www.geidai.ac.jp/english/***************************************

Topic by bodydataspace 10 years ago


Post Me_New ID Forum

FORUM for Post Me_New IDCYNETart_08 festival / TMA Hellerau in Dresden | 31st October - 2ndNovember 2008*http://www.postme-newid.net/International media art festival CYNETart_08 held in Dresden, Germany,will host the forum "Post Me_New ID" from 31st October to 2nd November 2008. The forum will bring together interdisciplinary practitioners in art and technology to discuss in various formats, from keynotes to Quickfires, issues concerning contemporary and future forms of networked creations and multi-identities. Among the speakers andperformers there will be kondition pluriel (Germany/Canada), Mika Satomi andHannah Perner-Wilson (Austria), Steve Dixon (UK), Yacov Sharir (USA), Masaki Fujihata (Japan), Hellen Sky (Australia), Denisa Kera (Czech Republic/Singapore), Michael Takeo Magruder (Unites States/United Kingdom), Sita Popat (United Kingdom), Susanne Berkenheger (Germany) and many more.The forum is planned as a platform for reflection on how we are creatively and socially engaged in digital networks, how we perform our online and offline identities, how we have become plural and variable post human bodies. "We are asking ourselves > what is next?< applying the to-be-presented theories to our own cultural/art creating and networking practices"... says Ghislaine Boddington (United Kingdom), one of the forumorganisers.Title: Post Me_New IDFormat: International forumDates: 31st October -- 2nd November 2008Place: Festspielhaus Hellerau, Dresden, GermanyCo-producers:body>data>space (London, UK) - www.bodydataspace.net CIANT |International Centre for Art and New Technologies (Prague, CzechRepublic) - www.ciant.cz TMA | Trans-Media-Academy Hellerau (Dresden,Germany) - www.body-bytes.de Kibla (Maribor , Slovenia) - www.kibla.orgThere will be a call for Quickfire presentations, designed to enablespeakers and delegates to present their ideas in a dynamic andinnovative way. Each speaker will have chance to present their project orgive an overview of their work in a Quickfire format: 14 presentationslides, 30 seconds per slide, 1 image or 10 words per slide. Pleasecontact Thomas Dumke pmn_id@cynetart.de for more information.To receive news on Post Me_ New ID please register at:http://www.postme-newid.net/If you have any questions, please contact Thomas Dumke, head of CYNETartFestival, pmn_id@cynetart.de or +49-351-8896665****************************************SCHEDULE*FRIDAY October 31st -- Networked Creations [see]http://www.postme-newid.net/foru/fri-31-oct-networked-creations/ forfull detail ]SATURDAY November 1st -- Multi-Identities [see]http://www.postme-newid.net/foru/sat-1-nov-multi-identities/ for fulldetail ]SUNDAY November 2nd -- Future Visions [see]http://www.postme-newid.net/foru/sun-2-nov-future-visions/ for full detail ]If you are a UK resident we really encourage you to come along to thisexciting event and can help you to find a good deal on flights andaccommodation.Please email leanne@bodydataspace.net for information.Post Me_New ID examines the complexity of 21st century European identitythrough an exploration based on the effect of digital technologies of thebody and identity. An active and public Blog is fed by a series of debateled Research Engines with a Forum, Book and DVD as the end products. Inaddition a series of Creation Processes will result in a publicInstallation / Performance.Post Me_New ID forum is co-produced by an international consortium ofpartners coming from Czech Republic, Germany, Slovenia and United Kingdom,within an action/research project of the same name, which focuses on thefuture of the body, and is co-financed by the European Commission underCulture 2007 programme.****************************************Co-producers for Post Me_ New ID are:*body>data>space - www.bodydataspace.netCIANT - www.ciant.czTrans-Media-Akademie Hellerauwww.body-bytes.deKibla - www.kibla.org*Associated Funding Bodies & Institutions for Post Me_ New ID are:*European Commission DG Education and Culture - Culture 2007-2013ec.europa.eu/dgs/education_culture/index_enArts Council England - www.artscouncil.org.ukPrague City Hall - magistrat.praha-mesto.cz/Home-PageEuropean Commission -- Culture - ec.europa.eu/culture/index_en.htmMinistry of Culture - Czech Republic - www.mkcr.czResCen - Centre for Research into Creation in the Performing Arts -www.rescen.netEZKA - European Centre for the Arts - www.kunstforumhellerau.deMestna obina Maribor - www.maribor.si/podrocje.aspxGovernment of the Republic of Slovenia - Ministry of Culture -magistrat.praha-mesto.cz/l2*The 14 Associated partners for Post Me_ New ID are:*A4-nulty priestor - Bratislava - www.a4.skBrunel University - London,UK - www.brunel.ac.ukCharles University - Czech Republic - www.cuni.czGrains and Pixels - Sweden - www.bertrandgondouin.net/post/Grains-PixelsHellen Sky - Australia - www.hellensky.comLeeds University - UK - www.leeds.ac.uk/icsrimM2F Creations - France - www.m2fcreations.frMultiplace - Slovakia - www.multiplace.ski/2007/PROJECT DCM Foundation - Romania - www.rhiz.eu/institution-9567-en.htmlRehearsal.org and Ignite - London,UK - www.rehearsal.org.ukResCen Middlesex University - London,UK - www.mdx.ac.uk/rescen/SKA CULTURE - China - www.skaculture.comSwap-Project - Portugal - www.swap-project.comTokyo National University of Fine Arts and Music - Tokyo, Japan -www.geidai.ac.jp/english/***************************************

Topic by bodydataspace 10 years ago


Learn about Britain, or Scotland, or Irland, directly from those that live there.....

For those that do not live in one of the countries mentioned in the title, did you ever want to learn, first hand, what that country and the people are like? Well, here is your chance ! At a link Known as Be a Brit Different they present a few persons willing to answer questions and share what they and their country are all about.

Topic by Goodhart 10 years ago  |  last reply 10 years ago


George Carlin - 06/22/08

For those that are familiar with him and his comedy: Carlin, who had a history of heart trouble, went into St. John's Health Center in Santa Monica on Sunday afternoon complaining of chest pain and died later that evening, said his publicist, Jeff Abraham. He had performed as recently as last weekend at the Orleans Casino and Hotel in Las Vegas. He was 71....More on Carlin...

Topic by Goodhart 10 years ago  |  last reply 10 years ago