A dangerous acid is in schools

I would like to start a poll here.Dihydrogen Monoxide is a dangerous acid that can kill in a multitude of simple ways. It is all over schools and I would like to know:Do you think it should be banned?pleases leave your comment in the appropriate area below, and at the end of the week, I'll tell you what it is. (and if you do know what it is, please don't spoil it) I would like to see your respinse before you research.======ANSWER======Ready?..................IT'S WATER!Dihydrogen mononoxide - H2O , water.Some students at ATM University sent around a research study and a poll and around 80% of the student population voted to ban it. This is an interesting effect of how ingnorance can have a significant affect on life. Moral: DO THE RESEARCH!

Posted by gimmelotsarobots 9 years ago

Carbon dioxide sensor??

Hi, I'm working on a project that measures outdoor air quality. Wondering if anyone knows a CO2 sensor that's not too difficult to use with a microchip (bs2 or arduino)? or knows of any links to air quality projects (the ones on MAKE seem to be broken links..) thanks! Kiera

Posted by kieranof 11 years ago

Study: Ethanol Worse for Climate Than Gasoline

Ethanol is under fire again: At first blush, biofuels such as corn ethanol and soybean diesel seem like they would be great from the standpoint of global warming. The crops soak up carbon dioxide from the atmosphere as they grow, and that balances out the carbon dioxide they produce when they're burned. But until now, nobody has fully analyzed all the ripple effects of this industry. And Tim Searchinger, a visiting scholar at Princeton University, says those effects turn out to be huge. "The simplest explanation is that when we divert our corn or soybeans to fuel, if people around the world are going to continue to eat the same amount that they're already eating, you have to replace that food somewhere else," Searchinger says.Searchinger and his colleagues looked globally to figure out where the new cropland is coming from, as American farmers produce fuel crops where they used to grow food. The answer is that biofuel production here is driving agriculture to expand in other parts of the world."That's done in a significant part by burning down forests, plowing up grasslands. That releases a great deal of carbon dioxide," Searchinger says.In fact, Searchinger's group's study, published online by Science magazine, shows those actions end up releasing huge amounts of carbon dioxide. The study finds that over a 30-year span, biofuels end up contributing twice as much carbon dioxide to the air as that amount of gasoline would, when you add in the global effects. The rest of the article (and radio broadcast) is here

Posted by Goodhart 10 years ago

Nanotube Tech Transforms CO2 Into Fuel

What do we think about this?http://dsc.discovery.com/news/2009/03/23/carbon-dioxide-fuel.html

Posted by SolarFlower_org 9 years ago

hydrogen peroxide

I am wanting to make some sulphuric acid because it is on of the most useful acids around and i have ran into a problem. after you burn sulphur to create sulphur dioxide you then need a catalyst to form sulphur trioxide and then dissolve in water. which catalysts could be used and could you just let the sulphur dioxide dissolve in hydrogen peroxide (so2-----so3------h20--------h2so4 or so2 ------ h202---------h2so4).if this would work how could you get a large enough concentration of hydrogen peroxide?

Posted by dellboy 10 years ago

How do I collect the oxygen from the reaction of hydrogen peroxide and manganese dioxide?

I believe that the reaction between the black, powdery manganese dioxide found within carbon-zinc batteries, and household-variety hydrogen peroxide produces oxygen. However, it is my understanding that oxygen is heavier than air, and will therefore that collecting the gas will not be as simple a matter as seen in steven07's Instructable on producing and collecting hydrogen.Unless I'm completely wrong, and a reaction that produces oxygen will inflate the balloon. :POr, does anyone else have another way of collecting the gas?

Posted by carbon 11 years ago

All right, let's clear this up: What the hell is inside of a battery?

Really frustrating: I accidentally closed the tab I had been working on for about 15 minutes, so I'll probably be missing a couple of questions I had been meaning to ask.So anyway: When I peel off the outermost metal covering of a zinc-carbon battery, I'm just taking away a protective steel covering, right? When I get rid of that, am I looking at the actual zinc "case?"What is the sticky, black material that surrounds the graphite rod? Is that manganese dioxide? Is manganese dioxide the same thing manganese oxide?Further outwards from the center of the battery, there is another black substance. Is this ammonium chloride?I haven't actually chopped open a carbon-zinc battery all the way yet. Is there a good technique for removing all of the contents?How can I tell the difference between the two black substances? Is the moist, black paste ammonium chloride? If this is so, then why, when I pull the graphite rod out of the battery, is it sometimes coated with a sticky, black substance? Do the substances mix with each other or are both substances sticky and black? Is one a powder?Is it okay to drill through one end of the battery? If I drill into the negative terminal of the battery, what will fall out?Basically, what are the physical properties of all the materials? How can I tell the difference between them?Now: On to alkaline batteries...Both types (carbon-zinc and alkaline) appear to use manganese dioxide. Is this so? On Wikipedia's article on alkaline batteries, manganese dioxide is described as Zn/MnO2, with the two as a sub-script. Does the slash mark mean that zinc and manganese dioxide are interchangeable?What will I find if I open up an alkaline battery? Is it safe to do so? What is a good, safe way to open one up?Are there any particular "fun" applications for these chemicals? Think explodiness ; )I've heard that manganese dioxide can be used to produce oxygen. How do I do this?There might be some yellow tag-box notes on these, pictures. For the context, visit my Instructable on how to make your own carbon arc light. I'm not trying to advertise, I'm just anticipating someone asking about them.

Posted by carbon 11 years ago

'Revolutionary' CO2 maps zoom in on greenhouse gas sources

Researchers now have a better view of where carbon dioxide is being emitted thanks to Vulcan, a research project led by Kevin Gurney, an assistant professor at Purdue. This map shows where CO2 is being emitted in the continental United States in 10-kilometer grids and combines data from sources including factories, automobiles on highways and power plants. The map offers more than 100 times the detail of previous inventories of carbon dioxide. The image displays metric tons of carbon per year per grid in a logarithmic base-10 scale.more at Physorg

Posted by ewilhelm 10 years ago

Is silican dioxide/diaiomaceous earth safe in energized electronics

One of the problems with bringing found items home,is bugs that live inside.  i think the powder use for crawling buggers  is the safest i know of, I sprayed a couple items with the powder after i saw a big water-bug zip across the floor. Since i also had a acme juicer on the floor near where it exited, i sprayed that to with the silican dioxide/diaiomaceous earth mix, i may give it to a friend and dont  want to give her a roach problem. I also dont want it laying eggs inside. i doubt it went into the juicer,but better be safe. i was thinking of spraying everything i find  through the vent wholes so i dont release anytthing  into my apartment.  I did that one time when i took an A?C out of the window and lreplaced it.  i let the old one sit on the floor for aq couple days.  I had yellow jackets the whole summer  in here. It was common to  get up in the am and see 50 yellow-jackets on the sunny window.warming themselves

Posted by escapefromyonkers 7 years ago

$25 Million for Capturing Carbon

Gore and Branson have teamed up to sponsor an X-prize-like competition for capturing carbon dioxide. I love these types of competitions. Is anyone here on Instructables in a position to enter? With a bit of industry-sponsorship, this would make for a series of fantastic Ph.D projects. From: http://www.nature.com/news/2007/070205/full/070205-16.htmlA multi-million dollar prize is on offer to anyone who can invent a device that will remove significant amounts of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. As one of the largest science prizes on offer, it is likely to attract huge interest globally in a bid to combat climate change.The initiative was launched today by British billionaire entrepreneur Richard Branson and former US Vice-President Al Gore in London.The US$25 million "Virgin Earth Challenge" Prize can be claimed for any invention that will remove "significant" amounts of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere - perhaps in the order of a billion tonnes a year. Current global emissions are more than 7 billion tonnes per year."The winner must be able to demonstrate a commercially viable design which will result in the net removal of anthropogenic, atmospheric, greenhouse gases each year for at least ten years without countervailing harmful effects," state the written rules of the competition. It must "contribute materially to the stability of the Earth's climate".The winning entry could be anything from manufacturing bacteria to install in industrial emissions pipes, to creating a system that buries CO2 underground, or even inventing artificial trees to breathe in the gas from the air.

Posted by ewilhelm 11 years ago

Possibility of making temporary hair colouring?

Hello there, I've always wanted to dye my hair grey but didn't want to go through the hassle and the possible hair damage of bleaching.  I came across someone selling chalk sticks for temporary hair colouring and was wondering if a cheaper, liquid version could be made to cover all the hair instead of a small part. My initial idea was to use calcium carbonate and grey food colouring with maybe a little bit of talcum powder which will then be mixed with some water so it can be applied easier. These are the ingredients in the colouring I want to use: glycerol, propylene glycol, silicon dioxide, titanium dioxide, vegetable carbon  Is there anything here I should be concerned about? As I'm going for a grey colour I was also looking at using a small amount of activated charcoal or some other skin safe fine black powder. Is this the best way or are there better alternatives? Advice will be appreciated. Thanks for reading.  

Posted by egrayton 2 years ago

Is this what i think it is?

I was taking apart a heavy duty panosonic battery. it didn't say if it was dry cell or not. when i opend it up. and it only had this black powder. it was kind of lumpy. i think its magnesium dioxide. there was also i rod. i took it out and washed it. it is black. i think its a carbon rod since the inside of the battery wasnt wet. it looks like it has little pores on the surface. SO my question is..... is the rod carbon?????????

Posted by DELETED_DELETED_kruser495 10 years ago

When Toast Flies

It is not often that I find something so useless so awesome. Freddie Yauner's toaster pops your toasted bread way up into the air with high-pressure carbon dioxide. He is going to try to break his own world record of the highest toaster pop, which currently stands merely at the height of his ceiling. An added bonus of this: if he pops it to the right height, he may be able to avoid the curse of the toast always falling butter-side down.Link

Posted by joshf 10 years ago

**Please Define This Word. Everyone who replies wins a prize...**

PLEASE! At school today, this word came up. I know I have heard it before, but can't remember where, or what it means.Of course, i don't know the spelling...It sounds like DEL-FWAY-GOMaybee spelled like...Delfuaygo, Delfwaygo, Delfaygo, Delaflaygo.Anybody heard of this? Please let me know.By the way, the prize is.... a FREE GAS compossed of roughly 78% nitrogen 20.95% Oxygen 0.93% Argon and 0.04% Carbon Dioxide!It can be picked up where ever dust particles, dander, germs, and airborne carcinogens are sold!

Posted by evy-wevy 11 years ago

sodium production

Another way for sodium production heared some where that molten sodium acetate  produces sodium metal, carbon dioxide and ethane Sodium Acetate baking soda and vinagar melting it and doing electrolysis to make sodium Melting point 324 °C, 615.2 °F (anhydrous)<(no water)> 58 °C (trihydrate) still has water Sodium Hydroxide Melting point 318 °C, 591 K, 604 °F ive made sodium with lye very useful thanks alot to this video http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rL1cKb3_ojE message back on what you think

Posted by symboom 8 years ago

Can anyone help me make a co2 gel mask?

The more I read up on the benefits of using one of these masks the more I want to try one, it hasn't quite hit the states by storm yet but it will, too bad it costs an arm and a leg! I have an inkling of what may be required to make it, it's just a gel (glycerin) and co2 gas. I was thinking I could make one of the at home carbonators that several people on here have posted instructables on, but I wanted to be sure that it'd work in that manner. I don't think carbonating a liquid is the same as carbonating a gel. Another thing most formulas have in common is sodium bicarbonate. Any ideas?

Posted by gabys225 4 years ago

Using CO2 for a Jetpack blast off smoke prop?

Hey Guys! I'm making a jetpack for this upcoming Halloween. It's going to have lots of moving parts and cool stuff using an arduino, but the most important feature I want is a thick blast off smoke effect. I have been looking online, and it appears to me that a CO2 fire extinguisher would be great. However, these are expensive and not easily modified to be electronically triggered. I've considered a paintball CO2 can and a Sodastream. Will either of these give me the effect I desire, and is this plausible? I'd like the smoke to be at least as thick as the stock photo I attached, hopefully thicker and stronger. Thanks! I'll be sure to post pictures when I finish.

Posted by turtledrake 4 years ago

Carbon emissions still increasing despite recession

With the whole economic kerfuffle going on you would've thought that there would be less carbon going up into the air. New studies show that emissions continue to ride, however. The data is collected and analyzed by scientists from the Norwegian Polar Institute and Stockholm University. Researchers found that during the first two weeks of March, the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere rose to 393.71 parts per million (ppm), up from 393.17 ppm during the same period last year. John Stroem, a scientist with the Norwegian Polar Institute, told Reuters that looking back at data gathered since the 1980s, the increase in carbon concentration levels seems to be accelerating. Carbon Emissions at All-Time High Despite Economic Slowdown

Posted by fungus amungus 8 years ago

sodium pyrosulfite/Bonide stump out

Well today I went to the home depot planning on picking up some grants stump remover, they were all out and the only other similar item was bonide stump out, it didn't have an ingredient list, and really wasn't comfortable asking the sales guy if this stump remover had explosives in it. (Especially since im 15.) so i bought it came home and did some research. So this crap has no potassium nitrate, but i found its 98% sodium pyrosulfite, now the name has the word PYRO in it so I'm hoping someone out their knows something I can do with it, right now all i have figured out is when it comes in contact with water it makes sodium dioxide, which is really smelly gas, so I have an idea for an impact stink bomb, any other ideas.

Posted by arch_angel07 11 years ago

A Carbon Tide: Past, Present and Future

The New York Times has a really nice graph showing the world's historical and projected carbon emissions here at A Carbon Tide: Past, Present and Future Global emissions of carbon dioxide, measured by the weight of carbon it contains.Their choice to display it in flash rather than a similarly-sized image is somewhat annoying, but the chart itself does a nice job presenting a type of data that is often difficult to comprehend. Getting people to truly grasp the size and scale of some of the world's energy issues is one of the key challenges in making progress on those issues. In 2004, 7.9 billion metric tons of carbon were released -- did you make good use of your metric ton?Here's a thought experiment in that same vein: The San Francisco oil spill was originally reported as a 140 gallon spill, but turned out to be approximately 58,000 gallons. How much worse is a 58,000 gallon spill compared to a 140 gallon spill?

Posted by ewilhelm 10 years ago

Space Related Instructable - Atmosphere/Pressure Sensors

I am really into rocketry, aerospace engineering and space in general. I have met a few people at my college that are somewhat interested in the same but dont know alot about it. So i thought i could build a few different environment sensors like the astronauts use to simulate/demonstrate a few basics. For example i wanted to build a few different sensors. But i cant find any instructables to teach me how to make these....Can anyone help or can anyone direct me to a few instructables that could be used to tweak to work for this purpose? - To help show how the astronauts have to regulate their atmosphere in the ISS or even explain how we don't breathe just oxygen - we breathe a combination of O2 and Nitrogen since Earth's atmosphere is mostly nitrogen. O2 (oxygen) Sensor CO2 (Carbon Dioxide) Sensor N (nitrogen) sensor Display to show all sensor data - To help show how they manage pressure in the ISS and have it regulated by an airlock. Atmospheric Pressure Sensor and Display

Posted by acadena2 2 years ago

Chemicals people would want to make?

Basically I want to know what lab chemicals you want to make, if you know how to make any useful chemicals. please post, I am not responsible for and injury's, fatality's, or "bad things" of any sort that come from this thread, all things posted here are to assumed for informational purposes only.

Posted by mr.space 9 years ago

Dirt Cheap Acoustic Guitar Pickup

Hi I am concerned about the health and safety aspects of the instructable of "Dirt Cheap Acoustic Guitar Pickup by Xuthal". The project encourages people to take apart a smoke detector to obtain a piezo sounder. However no warning at all is given by the author that there may be radioactive material in the device, or how to recognise it and how to deal with it. I tried to post a warning on the article but for some reason it hasn't worked. I could not see how to flag up the item so I am posting here. Whilst the manufacturers of smoke alarms play down the dangers of Americium 241 dioxide (the radioactive material), they would most certainly not condone opening up a smoke detector sensor. Am O2 will most likely pass straight through the gut due to its insolubility, so your readers are probably safe from ingesting it. However, if the source is fractured into dust particles, it could be inhaled and will lodge in the lung for a long time. Being an alpha emitter the Am241 will very likely end up causing a lung cancer. I think this instructable is highly irresponsible and should be removed. In any case the item taken from the smoke detector, a piezo transducer, is readily available from any hobby electronics supplier and costs less than the battery to power the detector in the first place!

Posted by TCSC47 2 years ago

"Your Environmentalism Sucks!" Says WIRED

The cover story of WIRED this month has been published online and you can read their 10 "heresies" about the environment. They're clearly trying to shake things up by telling people stuff that sounds so wrong, but is obviously right according to them.The gist of WIRED's philosophy is that it's all about the carbon dioxide emissions and that every discussion should be framed entirely by this. After that setup, each article is a quick hit against some supposedly sacred cow.The full list of articles is below and here's a response from ecogeek that continues the discussion. So what do you think?Live in Cities: Urban Living Is Kinder to the Planet Than the Suburban LifestyleA/C Is OK: Air-Conditioning Actually Emits Less C02 Than HeatingOrganics Are Not the Answer: Surprise! Conventional Agriculture Can Be Easier on the PlanetFarm the Forests: Old-Growth Forests Can Actually Contribute to Global WarmingChina Is the Solution: The People's Republic Leads the Way in Alternative-Energy HardwareAccept Genetic Engineering: Superefficient Frankencrops Could Put a Real Dent in Greenhouse Gas EmissionsCarbon Trading Doesn't Work: Carbon Credits Were a Great Idea, But the Benefits Are IllusoryEmbrace Nuclear Power: Face It. Nukes Are the Most Climate-Friendly Industrial-Scale Form of EnergyUsed Cars - Not Hybrids: Don't Buy That New Prius! Test-Drive a Used Car InsteadPrepare for the Worst: Climate Change Is Inevitable. Get Used to ItCounterpoint: Dangers of Focusing Solely on Climate Change

Posted by fungus amungus 10 years ago

What the Candidates Say About Energy

What the Candidates Say About Energyhttp://www.energycentral.com/centers/news/daily/article.cfm?aid=9641919RepublicansRUDY GIULIANI: Says "every potential solution" must be pursued, including nuclear power, increased energy exploration and more aggressive investment in alternative energy sources. Says energy independence can be achieved through a strategy that emphasizes diversification, innovation and conservation.MIKE HUCKABEE: Wants to lessen U.S. dependence on foreign oil by pursuing "all avenues" of alternative energy: nuclear, wind, solar, hydrogen, clean coal, biodiesel and biomass.JOHN MCCAIN: Wants to limit carbon dioxide emissions "by harnessing market forces" that will bring advanced technologies, such as nuclear energy, to the market faster. Seeks to reduce dependence on foreign supplies of energy. Wants the U.S. to lead in a way that ensures all nations "do their rightful share" on the environment. As you may know,McCain was AWOL in December on the key Senate vote to secure an 8-yearSolar Investment Tax Credit extension -- and he could have been the hero by casting the 60thvote (it failed 59 to 40 with only McCain being AWOL).MITT ROMNEY: Wants to accelerate construction of nuclear power plants as part of a "robust, cleaner and reliable energy mix." Seeks energy independence not by halting all oil imports but by "making sure that our nation's future will always be in our hands."DemocratsHILLARY CLINTON: Says she's "agnostic" about building nuclear power plants. Prefers renewable energy and conservation because of concerns about nuclear power's cost, safety and waste disposal. Wants to spend $150 billion over the next 10 years to cut oil imports by two-thirds from 2030 projected levels, with some money going toward alternative energy.JOHN EDWARDS: Opposes nuclear power because of cost and safety concerns. Favors creating a $13 billion-a-year fund to finance research and development of energy technologies; wants to reduce oil imports by nearly a third of the oil projected to be used in 2025.BARACK OBAMA: Says the U.S. can't meet its climate goals if it removes nuclear power as an option but says such issues as security of nuclear fuel, waste and waste storage need to be addressed first. Wants to spend $150 billion over the next 10 years to develop new energy sources. Seeks to reduce"oil consumption overall by at least 35 percent by 2030."

Posted by ewilhelm 10 years ago

The Memristor - they've found it!

This came out quite a few days ago, but I haven't seen it until today.HP's Henry Williams and his group have accidentally stumbled upon the fourth fundamental element in electronics - the memory resistor, or memristor. Basically, it's a resistor that changes its resistance with elapsed current flow, or total amount of charge that has passed through it, and retains its resistance even after current ceases to flow through it. From the article:"The classic analogy for a resistor is a pipe through which water (electricity) runs. The width of the pipe is analogous to the resistance of the flow of current—the narrower the pipe, the greater the resistance. Normal resistors have an unchanging pipe size. A memristor, on the other hand, changes with the amount of water that gets pushed through. If you push water through the pipe in one direction, the pipe gets larger (less resistive). If you push the water in the other direction, the pipe gets smaller (more resistive). And the memristor remembers. When the water flow is turned off, the pipe size does not change.Such a mechanism could technically be replicated using transistors and capacitors, but, Williams says, “it takes a lot of transistors and capacitors to do the job of a single memristor.”The memristor's memory has consequences: the reason computers have to be rebooted every time they are turned on is that their logic circuits are incapable of holding their bits after the power is shut off. But because a memristor can remember voltages, a memristor-driven computer would arguably never need a reboot. “You could leave all your Word files and spreadsheets open, turn off your computer, and go get a cup of coffee or go on vacation for two weeks,” says Williams. “When you come back, you turn on your computer and everything is instantly on the screen exactly the way you left it. "Apparently, evidence of memristors has been around for quite a while, but it was only until now, during the age of nano-technological exploration, that we finally have labeled the "strange voltages" we've found in experimental circuits as a result of memristor behavior. The discovery was made while doping Titanium dioxide with some dopant that the article fails to cover. Anyhow, the resistance of TiO2 changes with the amount of dopant covering it. Since the dopant does not adhere perfectly to the TiO2 substrate, the flow of charges (electrons) can move the dopant, and cause it to cover more or less of the substrate, thus changing its resistance. "Williams found an ideal memristor in titanium dioxide—the stuff of white paint and sunscreen. Like silicon, titanium dioxide (TiO2) is a semiconductor, and in its pure state it is highly resistive. However, it can be doped with other elements to make it very conductive. In TiO2, the dopants don't stay stationary in a high electric field; they tend to drift in the direction of the current. Such mobility is poison to a transistor, but it turns out that's exactly what makes a memristor work. Putting a bias voltage across a thin film of TiO2 semiconductor that has dopants only on one side causes them to move into the pure TiO2 on the other side and thus lowers the resistance. Running current in the other direction will then push the dopants back into place, increasing the TiO2's resistance.HP Labs is now working out how to manufacture memristors from TiO2 and other materials and figuring out the physics behind them. They also have a circuit group working out how to integrate memristors and silicon circuits on the same chip. The HP group has a hybrid silicon CMOS memristor chip “sitting on a chip tester in our lab right now,” says Williams."I think this is pretty awesome, considering the current breakthroughs in nanotechnology and downsizing of transistors, memristors would enable a whole new field to be born, and circuit theory may have to be re-designed.Like Leon Chua said, the man who first came up with the idea of a memristor, "now all the EE textbooks need to be changed."These next few years in the field of EE should be very interesting =)Image from Spectrum Online

Posted by T3h_Muffinator 10 years ago

Create awareness of a particular diet choice...

What would make the world a better place...depends how you define world, and your benchmark for what distinguishes better place.  This contest suggests things that would improve home, neighborhood, society, and planet.  I have an idea that would improve all of the above! Health: Personal back story:  Growing up I drank a lot of pop.  It was not uncommon to polish of a 12 pack of soda in a day or two, and this would happen regularly.  For the last fifteen years I've consumed at least 2-4 liters of cola per week, if you average it out (probably closer to ten).  Thats a conservative 2000 litres of cola.  At ~120 grams of sugar per Liter, that works out to a whopping 240 KILOGRAMS of sugar.  Now, were my parents terrible?  I don't think so - the knowledge wasnt out there that us kids were being fed a high sugar highly addictive substance that really messed with our bodies.   I can personally account that I had a terrible sleep schedule growing up, and I can directly attribute it to sugar/caffeine.  Unlike many friends I know I managed to stay skinny and somewhat 'in shape' through hyperactivity.  The artificial insomnia destroyed my school scores - as I spent a lot of time very tired in class, not paying attention - and was even suggested to go on medications to 'fix' how 'weird' I acted.  Most all of my child teeth and adult teeth are full of fillings where I had cavities - and I can't have cold food touch my teeth because I have almost no enamel left.  Consider now the direct economic cost of this:  At an average of a dollar per liter - multiply by the number of 'addicted' heavy user kids out there, and you have yourself a staggering amount.  I'm not alone.  I know lots of friends with similar stories - some less fortunate with serious health problems like diabetes and bariatric problems.  Economy: The high fructose corn syrup industry has halfway destroyed the cane sugar market in many third world countries.  Soda machines all over, often in schools, rape the pocketbooks of young persons for a product they don't need.  Pretend for a moment you are a drug dealer gang boss.  Now imagine you can put a legal salesman in most every school, "free".  I don't need to explain the rest of the story. Society:  Soft drinks are not 'evil' - they are an enjoyable vice that when taken in reasonable quantity aren't that harmful.  Therein lies the problem - they are marketed as the be-all and end-all to be happy, thirst quenched, and popular.  Couple this with the fact that they contain high levels of two of the most addictive legal substances out there:  Caffeine and glucose.  Our nervous systems don't stand a chance. Environment:  Frankly you'd be surprised how much carbon dioxide comes from the soda industry - that fizz goes somewhere after you *kssshk* open the can.  High fructose corn syrup is bad not just for your body but for the environment.  Some areas are very good at recycling, but still others are brutally abysmal at their three R's.  Many COUNTRIES in fact don't recycle at all.  That's a LOT of plastic and aluminum ending up in the environment, to be there long after we are gone. My proposal:  What I want to see is awareness campaigns of the health risks of being a heavy user - in conjunction with warning labels similar to what the tobacco industry has on their products.  I want to see their huge profits going into the community (like in this contest - more of it!).  Make companies accountable for their products. photo courtesy freefoto.com

Posted by frollard 8 years ago

Elefanternas passion för matematik och naturvetenskap - Edublogs

Http://isabellica.edublogs.org/2013/03/09/elefanternas-passion-for-matematik-och-naturvetenskap/ UB studenter att göra lärande mer hands-on, tillämpliga för pre-collegiate studenter Den endast lärande hinder Lavone Rodolph stött på gymnasiet försökte kombinera vad han lärt sig i klassrummet med det verkliga livet, sade han. Då var utbildning ibland immateriella bortom tjäna ett betyg. “Om jag lära ett koncept i klass, fysik eller kemi, ibland jag inte visste hur jag skulle använda det i mitt personliga liv eller jag visste inte nytta av lärande det än passerar en test,” sade Rodolph. Rodolph-nu en doktorand i datateknik – försöker förbättra lärandet för studenter vid sitt alma mater, Hutchinson Central teknisk högstadium i Downtown Buffalo, så de inte behöver möta den samma problem som han gjorde. Rodolph arbetar med tvärvetenskaplig vetenskap och teknik partnerskap (ISEP), ett femårigt program som leds av UB. Dess huvudsakliga fokus är att förbättra upplevelsebaserat lärande i naturvetenskap, teknik, teknik och matematik fält (STEM) för studenter i Buffalo offentliga skolor. Forskning har visat att en betydande andel − − 33 procent av barnen börjar tappa intresset för vetenskap så unga som 8 år. Av middle school ökar andelen till nästan hälften av dessa barn, enligt National Center for STEM grundutbildning. ISEP syftar till nytändning i en passion för vetenskap och andra STEM ämnen genom att erbjuda mitten och gymnasieelever en mer praktisk, tvärvetenskapligt förhållningssätt till lärande. Det innebär planering studiebesök att stärka förståelsen av lärande material och utformning laboratorieförsök som illustrerar abstrakta begrepp. Dessa aktiviteter gör lärande STEM ämnen kul, ett mål som Rodolph anser vara högsta prioritet för ISEP. “Huvudmålet är nr 1, att göra något kul STEM fält på högstadiet nivå,” sade Rodolph. “Sätt från högstadiet nivå, de vill fortsätta det på gymnasienivå. Och igen, målet på gymnasienivå är att göra det roligt och utmanande, så från gymnasienivå, de kan fullfölja ett STEM fält på kollegial nivå.” Som en examen assistent, har Rodolph hjälpt med samordna lärare i flera projekt. Dessa inkluderar undervisning Android-programmering, instruera eleverna på att skapa kol-dioxid-drivna racecars och planerar en resa till Buffalo Museum of Science att se hur DNA kan användas i rättsmedicinska undersökningar. Sedan starten 2005 har expanderat ISEP från två pilotskolor till 12 hög-behov mitten och gymnasier. Under 2011 fick det $9,8 miljoner euro i finansiering från National Science Foundation (NSF). − och andra stödjande partner som arbetar med tre viktiga partner − Buffalo offentliga skolor, Buffalo State College och buffel Museum of Science Roswell Park Cancer Institute, ISEP syftar till att uppnå sitt mål att förbättra elevernas lärande genom att samla resurserna. Lärarutbildningen är en stor del av ISEP’S plan. För att bättre förbereda lärare att göra STEM utbildning mer relevant för eleverna, kan ISEP och dess partner lärare att bli studenterna själva. Under somrarna, lärare utveckla deras professionella kompetens genom att arbeta med UB doktorander och tillägna sig färdigheter inom forskning och utredning undervisning. Under läsåret, både akademiker och studenter hjälper lärare utforma och genomföra mer hands-on lärande i klassrummet. “[ISEP] mål är att ge lärarna en ökad professionalisering, öka utbildning lärarna själva, så de kan få sin utbildning tillbaka till skolor och skapa bestående fördelar för studenter, säger Phillip Tucciarone, en junior kemiteknik stora. Han har varit involverad i ISEP för tre terminer och designar främst och genomför “hands-on laborationer” samordna lärare. ISEP har gjort framsteg sedan dess tillkomst, enligt UB News Center. För exempelvis studenter i ISEP klassrum på Native American Magnet School, en av de två pilot skolorna, har varit ungefär “30 procent mer sannolikt än distriktet jämnåriga att uppnå kompetens på den åttonde klass stat vetenskap examen”, enligt UB News Center. Innan sådan förbättring, var Native American Magnet School på listan skolor Under registrering granskning (SURR). SURR skolor är lågpresterande skolor som inte uppfyller statliga normer, enligt New York utbildning utrikesdepartementets hemsida. Native American Magnet School kan vara stängda, sade Joseph Gardella, chef för ISEP och John och Frances Larkin professor i kemi vid UB, via e-post. Native American Magnet School togs bort från listan i 2009, fyra år efter det blev inblandad i ISEP. Se skolans akademiska förbättring bland åttonde klassare har varit en av de många minnesvärda upplevelser för Gardella. Läs fler relaterade ämnen och video: http://www.dailymotion.com/video/xwumc4_the-avanti-group-services_news#.UTgjjdZTB3A http://www.importgenius.com/importers/avanti-group-limited

Posted by DELETED_jasmineyoung 5 years ago

How much Mercury is in Compact Fluorescent (CFL) bulbs, watch batteries, and coal-fired power plants?

In Brennn10's Compact Fluorescent Instructable there was a short discussion about the amount of mercury contained in CFL bulbs. The same topic came up in a mailing list I read, and there was some interesting analysis worth sharing.Statement:The Stranger (the Seattle weekly) has a column called "Dear Science" where the typically quite intelligent author argued that CFL bulbs weren't all that "better" for the environment because inevitable improper disposal put more mercury-n-shit into the environment. So unless you got all your power from a mercury spewing coal plant, you shouldn't use CFL's . And Seattle, getting a majority of it's power from hydro, shouldn't use CFL's.This was called into question for being selective analysis that encourages an attitude of "there's not currently a solution, so keep doing what you're doing", and elicited the following response:Just so I can bore everyone with what I think is the current level of knowledge about mercury and CFLs, here's some of the current information.NRCan did a study on how much mercury is actually in CFLs, and compares them to other typical consumer sources (e.g., watch batteries--if you throw one of them out, you've throw out five times as much mercury as in a CFL):http://oee.nrcan.gc.ca/energystar/english/consumers/questions-answers.cfm#mercuryAfter reading this, I actually worked out these numbers for myself on how CFL savings compare to mercury releases a few months ago. Of course, this is all more environmental destruction brand X vs. brand Y discussion that was being talking about.I was curious about what the numbers work out to, so I went to dig for some data; this is what I came up with.In 1999, about 1.75 trillion kWh were generated by coalEnergy Information Administration Annual Energy Review 1999, Figure 26In 1999, 47.8 tons/year of mercury emissions came out of coal-fired power plants.Source: U.S. EPA, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.1999 National Emissions Inventory for Hazardous Air Pollutants.http://www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/net/1999inventory.html#final3haps.This calcs out to a figure of 0.025 mg mercury per kWhAssuming 5 mg mercury per CFL, the equivalence point is about 200 kWh--a CFL would need to save 200 kWh before getting tossed in the trash. A quick calculation shows that this is about how much a CFL saves in half a year, if it were run 24-7: 75 W for an incandescent; 25 W for an equivalent CFL = 657 vs. 219 kWh/year, or 438 kWh/year difference.Of course, this assumes that the coal mercury emission rate is the same as it was in 1999; I'm not sure if measures have been taken since then to reduce mercury emissions. Also, this is assuming that 100% of the power saved by the CFL would be generated by coal-fired power plants. But even with that assumption, coal is such a large fraction of the power generation (typically about half)--it would jump from six months to a year, instead. Of course, this period gets longer assuming a realistic duty cycle, but still, those numbers all seem to pencil in below typical installed lifetimes of CFLs.Finally, there's a article from Home Energy magazine (behind a subscriber link), where somebody did a similar calculation with more current numbers, I think.http://www.homeenergy.org/article_full.php?id=457&article;_title=Understanding_CFLsHome Energy MagazineNovember/December 2007Understanding CFLsby Richard Benware"Although the use of CFLs is steadily spreading, public understanding about how to dispose of them responsibly has not kept pace."Life Cycle BenefitsIn order to disprove the myths about CFLs, let's begin at the beginning. When CFLs are created, manufacturers dose the bulb with a small amount of mercury. This mercury, when electrically stimulated, releases UV light, which subsequently reacts with a phosphor coating to create visible light. Thus mercury is an essential part of every CFL; without it, the bulbs would not produce light. The typical dose of mercury is about the size of a pen tip, and these doses have been getting smaller and smaller. One reason for this is that the laws resulting from the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive have made it illegal for CFLs in Europe to contain more than 5 milligrams (mg) of mercury.In the United States, there are no such laws limiting the amount of mercury in lightbulbs as yet, but members of the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) have voluntarily agreed to limit the amount of mercury in the CFLs that they produce to 5 mg for bulbs of up to 25 watts and 6 mg for bulbs of 25 to 40 watts. The average CFL on store shelves today contains about 4 mg of mercury, and nearly all the CFLs in production contain less than 5 mg. The mercury used in all the CFLs produced in the United States represents 0.18% of the mercury used in all U.S. products andindustrial processes.CFLs do not release mercury as long as they are intact. In fact, they reduce net mercury emissions in the environment by conserving energy. For every kWh of electricity used by consumers, the average power plant emits over 1.5 lb of pollutants. If a 75W incandescent is replaced by an 18W CFL, the CFL will use 456 kWh less energy than the incandescent over its 8,000 hour lifetime. The Emissions and Generation Resource Integrated Database (eGRID) contains data on the emissions of the average power plant. Using eGRID's information to calculate the average emissions per kWh, we find that this single CFL has prevented the release of 2.72 lb of sulfur dioxide, 1.05 lb of nitrogen oxide, 5.67 mg of mercury, and over 700 lb of CO2.It is important to note that these are the reductions from the average U.S. power plant. The eGRID data show that, on average, nonbaseload emissions tend to be dirtier. And in addition to reducing emissions, CFLs save money for the consumer. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) gives a 2006 average residential electricity cost of $.1008/kWh. Using the example given above, and basing our calculation on this figure, we find that a consumer would save about $46 on energy over the lifetime of the CFL.When these bulbs finally do reach the end of their useful life, there are several pathways they can take. In the best-case scenario, the bulbs are recycled. Recycling rates are increasing, thanks to state regulations -- California and Minnesota have banned altogether throwing CFLs in the trash -- and improved consumer awareness. In 1999, it was estimated that only 15% of all fluorescent lightbulbs were recycled. Currently, that number has increased to around 25%, with higher levels in commercial applications. Since an average of 98.9% of the mercury is successfully recovered in the recycling process, this pathway generates minimal emissions.Even the CFLs that are discarded in the trash are unlikely to release much of their mercury. Although most of them break under current trash disposal methods, some remain unbroken, and will not release any mercury. But those that do break are not likely to release much mercury. EPA estimates that only 0.2% of the remaining mercury in a spent bulb is elemental vapor. The rest of the mercury is in the glass, the phosphor coating, and the electrodes of the bulb. Mercury absorbed in these areas is not readily released. In fact, an EPA study found that only 6.8% of the total mercury in a broken bulb will be released. Since the average bulb on the market today contains only 4 mg of mercury, it will release only about 0.27 mg, even if it breaks when it is thrown in the trash.The only disposal option that could lead to the release of any significant amount of mercury is incineration. Today, many incinerators have advanced mercury control technologies. CFLs disposed of in such incinerators would release up to 90% of their mercury, but those emissions would then be removed by these technologies. Incinerators without these technologies are not capable of removing the mercury. But even after accounting for all of the emissions that occur via all of the routes listed above, CFLs represent a mere 0.01% of total U.S. mercury emissions annually.It is important to note that even if CFLs released all of their mercury, the environment would still be better off than it would be if nobody used CFLs. This is true because the average power plant releases 5.67 mg of mercury to power each 75W incandescent bulb. In short, replacing incandescents with CFLs is a great way to save energy, reduce mercury emissions, and save money (see "Discounting CFLs").

Posted by ewilhelm 10 years ago