How do i distill meths so its safe to drink?

My sister thinks that she can distil meths by straining it through bread and honestly i don't think it will work, so i want a more safe method. Please help.I'm so sorry for wasting all your time but i just found out that meths in nz has had ALL the methanol removed! :-)Thankyou to all of your for your help though.

Posted by joelkemu 10 years ago


Legalizing hobby distilling

Would you take a minute to contact your US Representatives about HR-2903 and US senators about S-1562?  It's a pair of bills that would enable small-time and hobby folk to distill small amounts of alcohol legally. Here's a link to the legislation itself (below).  There's a nice executive summary with a few bullet points.           https://www.congress.gov/bill/114th-congress/house-bill/2903 Here's a link to contact information for your representatives:           https://www.govtrack.us/congress/members/ Oh, you need your full ZIP code to contact most of these politicians.  Look yours up here:           https://tools.usps.com/go/ZipLookupAction!input.action YOU CAN DO IT!

Posted by neffk 2 years ago


Fake project

Https://www.instructables.com/id/Distill-Hydrogen-Peroxide/

Posted by eric m 9 years ago


Looking for a thermostat

I am a science teacher and need help finding a thermostat to fix the department's water distiller. It looks very similar to the "Waterwise 9000 contemporary distiller" but is slightly different in appearance. The basic operation is you fill the reservoir and turn it on, the water boils and is then condensed and drips into the bottle that slides into the front of the device. When the heater reaches a certain temperature a thermostat turns on the cooling fan, when the device cools to below that temperature the cooling fan turns off. There are lots of warnings about running it without the fan because it will burn out the heater. I have tested the heater and it works fine, I can bypass the thermostat and the fan works fine, but the thermostat no longer switches on the fan. If I can find a replacement thermostat that should fix the entire distiller but it seems to be a custom order only for the manufacturer who wants you to buy a whole new distiller. Can anyone suggest an appropriate substitute? The code on the side of the thermostat is:  36tme02 22471 f150-15f p185-97 a0615 I found a similar image on the emerson site for a 36T thermodisc thermostat http://www.thermodisc.com/en-US/Products/Bimetal/Pages/36T.aspx Does anyone know how to figure out the switching temperature from the code from the side of the thermostat? Any suggestions are appreciated!

Posted by CitizenScientist 6 years ago


Butane recovery

I have instructions for extracting pure essential oil from plant material using butane. The problem I have with it is that at the end, the butane is vented. I just don't feel right about venting unburned hydrocarbons into the atmosphere. I've been looking at glass lab equipment (distillation tubes, connectors, etc). I have no background in chemistry, but it seems to me it shouldn't be too difficult to put something together using standard glass lab equipment to capture, distill and reuse the butane. Butane boils at 31 degrees Fahrenheit and is heavier than air. At the end of the process, the oil is scraped from the bottom of a drying dish. Does anyone have any suggestions on how to put something like this together? Thanks

Posted by GlobalVillageIdiot 8 years ago


What is this thing?

Newbie here. I found this thing at my local thrift shop. I have no idea what this thing is. It looks like a water purifier, water distiller, or an ionizer but I don't know. There are no brand names on it, except a meyco grommet and a voss band clamp. It has two lights that go in the stainless steel globe that is attached to the main pot. There is a connector that attaches to a faucet. It is very strange. If anyone has any information, it would really be helpful. Thanks. Joshua

Posted by vintagegamingsystems 6 years ago


DISCLAIMER for an old instructable

This instructable is missing vital, or rather deadly information:https://www.instructables.com/id/Drink-Your-Own-Pee---survival-guide/i posted a comment on it, but i doubt anybody will read it. if it is already contained in the instructable, and i haven't seen it, please forgive me.: HeLLO!!!!! I lnow i am VERY late with this post, and i hope someone still reads it.NEVER DRINK URINE! EVER! WhY? well, for one, fresh urine contains no bacteria, unless you suffer from bad kidney disease, in which case, you probably couldn't pee anymore.so why not drink it? because ALL TOXIC WAIST of your body leaks into your urine. those remain inside this primitive distillation device on the soil ,as mineral salts, the water being evaporated and recondesed on the foil, thus recuperated. so, this thing is basically a sun powered water distillation thingie. in emergency situations, you can distilate your urine by other means too, to drink water out of it. just DON'T DRINK URINE, NOT EVEN BOILED. ESPECIALLY NOT BOILED. the water getting evaporated by boiling, the urine increases the concentration of toxines. you can only boil it up to collect the steams, which condense into water. that's what you wanna drink.

Posted by DonQuijote 10 years ago


Paint Your Summertime Blues Away With Nature's Rainbow -- Good For The Young At Heart!

This article helps artsy people parents and alike tap into the power of mother nature's plants to create vivid pigments for art and craft projects. If you want to steer clear of chemicals, then what better way to do so then by distilling plants, fruits, vegetables and herbs? It's actually easier than you think!

Posted by sfinfgeld 9 years ago


Will an air conditioner pump be good for a vacuum evaporator?

I've been wondering if I could use an air-conditioner pump for a vacuum evaporator for making concentrates without destroying some flavor for home brewing and cooking and I'm wondering if I should worry about the water vapor the comes from this. Should I set up some kind of cold trap for the water making some kinda vacuum distiller or should I use something else to drop the pressure?

Posted by sugarworm 5 years ago


Need a maths geek to answer a question about boiling water.

Hi all. I'm finally starting the prototype of my solar condenser this week, though this question doesn't relate to it directly, but to using it to power a steam distiller to purify water. How much water will ten kilowatt hours boil? ie, if I have one kilowatt of solar energy coming in over ten hours and 100% of it goes into heating the water. Also, for extra credit, assume the water is in a black plastic container also in the sun, so the water is preheated to whatever temperature that would be likely to heat it to. cheers!

Posted by SolarFlower_org 9 years ago


Experiment: Use of Hydrogen Peroxide to induce root formation in plant cuttings

I decided to try an experiment to see if dilute concentrations of hydrogen peroxide could promote root formation in cuttings. A rack of twenty test tubes was set up in the first distilled water the second a 1/100 solution of 3% h2o2 third 1/50 solution of 3% h2o2 fourth 1/25 solution of 3% h2o2 and fifth 1/12.5 solution of 3%h2o2 We see in this image taken after one week that only the control has started growing roots. Conclusion, H2O2 does not induce rooting of cuttings.

Posted by Tool Using Animal 10 years ago


What can I do with all this lemon balm?

Last summer, I rescued some plants from a friend's window box that were looking dangerously wilty.  The basil and parsley died, but the lemon balm took root like a weed and now covers a two foot square patch of my garden to about knee height.  It's going to have to be cut back before it takes over the rest of the garden like tiberium, so does anyone have suggestions for what I can do with a bushel of citrus-y herb?  I hear the essential oil is used in aromatherapy and has antibacterial and insect repellent properties- should I make like Kiteman and distil some oil?

Posted by PKM 7 years ago


no fog

  I dont know the mechanics fog machines,so heres a problem u probably already heard,or know about.. I have a cheapy  400 watts Gemmy (about 6 or 7  years old). I pulled it out of the attic thinking it needed a good cleanout before halloween. I mixed up a 50/50 bottle of white vinegar and distilled water - turned it on and got one good 20-30 second burst from it.On 2nd burst a little leftover came out then nothing.Still heats up hot and I can hear pump humming when i trigger the remote. Next, I empty the tank and tried straight fog juice and still nothing.I emptied the tank  and cleaned the tank filter tried it all again and still nothing...Could it be somewhere in the solid copper tubing from the pump to the heater and how do I clean that?   I did however store it without fog juice in it..(empty),could that a cause of problum ?  Please help.. TKS.

Posted by ron de 5 years ago


NIckel Acetate Creation from Nickel II Oxide for Nickel Plating

Chemistry question here.  I wanted to play around with some nickel plating, and I started to follow a popular recipe that I saw on YouTube.  It started with Nickel II Oxide, placed in a malt vinegar for a week to create a solution of Nickel Acetate that you could then use as a bath to plate things with Nickel.  I purchased 100 grams of 99% grade Nickel II Oxide, and let it sit in 2L of vinegar for a long time.  After 2 weeks there's no hint of the emerald green Nickel Acetate.  So I purchased some glacial Acetic Acid, and added it to a liter of distilled water to make a 50% weight solution of Acetic Acid to make a stronger solution, and still a week later nothing green.  Solution is in a clean glass vessel.  A local chemist at work said it would be slow, but man, this is taking forever.  What am I doing wrong, or what could I do different? I know Ni Acetate can be achieved with pure nickel and electricity in vinegar, but I really want to try to convert the nickel oxide. 

Posted by monteypython 4 years ago


Biodiesel

It's crazy that there isn't a "How to make Biodiesel" Instructable on the site, yet. I just created this group, but I'm inviting people to share info and links, here.Luckily, there are plenty resources online on how to brew your own biodiesel. The stub for the Make article on the subject doesn't include the full text, but it does include a number of great links:The Energy Self-Sufficiency Newsletter - This article is partly based on a series of articles by Maria "Mark" Alovert that first appeared here.Gly-Tek - To test for the presence of glycerin, you can use the Gly-Teck test kit, which detects leaked anti-freeze in motor oil. Recycling Sciences - High-volume operations can buy a $31,000 glycerin-purification distiller here, which will convert dirty biodiesel glycerin into nice, clear, commercially valuable glycerin. Mark Alovert's siteveggieavenger.com - Homebrewing forum.biodiesel.infopop.cc - Another homebrewing forum.biodieselnow.com - Biodiesel policy and activism forum.journeytoforever.org - Biodiesel processor designs and other info.nbb.org - Biodiesel stations and industry info.tdiclub.com - VW diesel forum.propelfuels.com - Setting up a commercial biodiesel pump in your town.Alternative Energy Videos - Videos about alternative energy, including biodiesel, available for rent from technicalvideorental.com

Posted by nagutron 11 years ago


Need help with a lotion base recipe.

Hello, wasn't sure where to put this, and I didn't see a beauty forum.  Well. first of all. here is a formula for a lotion base that I tweaked. 8 oz distilled water 1 oz fresh aloe vera gel 1 oz floral water   1 tsp citric acid 2 oz glycerin 1 oz emulsifying wax 1 oz beeswax 1 oz shea butter 1 oz coconut oil 1 oz almond oil 1 oz avocado oil tsp essential oil 1/2 oz stearic acid I heard that 1 oz is about 2 Tbsp (tablespoons), but still not sure on this. It came out a bit thicker than I would like it.  I dunno if I should add more emulsifying wax, take out the beeswax, or both.  I need help making it less greasy feeling and a little thinner.  I made a batch I'm not sure what to do with.  I might just use it to repair those cases of dried out skin that appear around the winter season.  Any suggestions?

Posted by Crystalline_Chaos 8 years ago


30 minute DIY AM particle-acceleration

Last fall, I verified an initial relationship of resonance between two bifilar wound wires (of any length). The predictable sequence resonates at the following levels - 20 Hz, 30 Hz, 50 Hz (and all multiples of these 3 frequencies). I used a Parallax Propeller Board - with PGEN 2.0 software from Innovationshop in Germany.   This software allows for a waveform built of 32 stacked frequencies to be created and amplified.   I have used it to successfully break the bonds of distilled water - as one of my earlier videos shows 2 years ago. JL Naudin calls it a "GEGENE machine" - but it is a simple, tabletop, particle accelerator.  His results can be found here:::  http://jnaudin.free.fr/wfcbooster/indexen.htm One of my earlier videos from May 2013 - can be found at YouTube - I just want to show people how this works.  It is a 4 minute explanation of open-sourced Patent 512,340.:::   https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HHxK1VWrXcM The materials:: 1 - 1800 watt induction cooktop (iron, copper, or 3-ply stainless cookware is required on these types of devices) 2.  50 feet of 14 AWG speaker wire 3.  2-10 count of 500-watt halogen lightbulbs. 4.  wire, solder & connectors for the wire-ends. 5.  1 stainless-steel HHO DC electrolyzer tank.  6.  Cooking Pan - or light fixture (to hold light bulbs). 7.  High Voltage diodes (500 Volts or higher)

Posted by jabel4 3 years ago


Let's Make Soap - A Cold Process Soapmaking Tutorial

I get a lot of curious people downtown who want to know how to make old fashioned, cold process soap. So for anyone who is interested in what making soap is all about, here's an overview of the soapmaking process. It is not meant to be used as a tutorial. Because of the many dangers associated with soapmaking due to the use of lye and the plethora of information to be had, I recommend that you carefully research the process before starting out on your own. Details on where to obtain additional information will be included within this article.Soapmaking involves a chemical process in which sodium hydroxide (lye) reacts with oils to make soap. This process is called saponification. Because this process requires the use of lye, important safety precautions must be taken. Rubber gloves and safety glasses should be worn during the soapmaking process, and vinegar, which neutralizes the lye, should be kept on hand in case of an accidental spill or burn. In addition to the necessary safety equipment needed for the journey into making soap, there is other required equipment you'll need to get started. First and foremost you will need to acquire lye. Because without lye, there is no soap. You should be able to find lye in the plumbing section of your hardware store. I buy Roebic brand at Lowe's. The brand doesn't really matter, but it must say that it is 100% sodium hydroxide. You'll also need a large pot for mixing the soap. This can be any type of pot you like - I use my hubby's old beer making pot - as long as the pot is not aluminum. Lye reacts badly with aluminum so remember to never mix the two. You'll also need an accurate scale, I use a digital postal scale I purchased at Staples. And, you'll need a thermometer or two to measure the temps of your oils and lye solution as well. Additionally, you'll find that a stick blender is your best friend in making soap, and then of course there are the molds, soapmaking oils, and distilled water to be mixed with the lye. Read the rest of this tutorial.http://soapdelinews.blogspot.com/2009/03/lets-make-soap-cold-process-soapmaking.html

Posted by soapdeli 9 years ago


Core Skills

I've been thinking about writing on the subject of core skills and or resources that branch out to other skills and allow a person to get the most out of living, building, making etc. I think that the Instructables members have these skills in spades but there are plenty of people that look at what all of you do and think "That's cool but I could never do that". Which is the opposite of what this site is about. Now I'm saying skills but I think there are also other factors that apply. Obviously having enough time to work on projects is important but really that's a skill too, time management. Tools might be another factor, things like a Dremel tool, Sugru, etc. really open up what a person can do. I'd like to consider things like that also in this endeavor. These are the core skills I've identified, some of them seem really simple but I think they need mentioning. I'm also pretty sure a few of these are already covered by ibles. Measuring Length Checking for Level and Plumb Using a Claw Hammer Using a Sledge Hammer Identifying Screwdriver Bits Powertools - Saws (what they are best used for, describing Circular, Table, Jig, Band, Scroll, etc) Powertools - Drills (best practices, maybe identifying drill bits etc.) Powertools - Grinders (Hand, Bench, Die, etc) Reading a Multimeter (and what to do with those readings) Reading a Schematic Welding Gluing (and what kind of glue is good for different purposes) Then I got a little esoteric and thought about what it takes to accomplish projects. When to do research and when to just start doing. (Because I used to spend way to much time worrying about accumulating data on a project) How to balance projects with living your life. (Because I still have problems with that. But I do have some tips. Falls into time management.) How to find that part you're missing (I haven't really thought about this one much, but it would be great to have a thought process in place. There are likely a lot more. I admit this would be a large project to compile and may span several ibles. Do you have any input on how to accomplish this? What skills have you found to be at the core of your efforts to make things? Instructables has some real brainpower here I think if there is a group that could distill this down to something manageable it would be us.

Posted by EmmettO 7 years ago


Show Your Heart Valentine's Day Contest Winners

Thanks to everyone who entered the Show Your Heart Valentine's Day Contest and congratulations to the winners! The Greeting Card Association sent some guys over to break my kneecaps, but after a quick look at all the awesome Valentine's Day projects, they went scurrying home with arms-loads of materials to work on projects for next year.We stayed home and made an elegant meal of Tuna Poke, painstakingly getting the emulsion of sesame oil, soy sauce, mustard, and ginger just right (Instructable forthcoming...).Valentine's Day is a great excuse to go the extra mile and make something great for a loved one, but with all these wonderful projects to inspire you, you'll be looking for any excuse.First PrizeThese ten projects win a Leatherman Juice XE6 Pocket Knife with personalized laser-engraving. In random order:Beating soapy love heart by fallscrapeCustom paint Your Old Snowboard!!! (for your Valentine perhaps) by jonnysoupsBe a Romantic Scientist: Distill your own perfume oil by KitemanDuct Tape Rose by HerrozerroPulsing Hubby Detector by daenrisInflatable Love Seat by randofo"Beating" LED Heart T-Shirt by T3h_MuffinatorRecycled Copper Butterfly for V-Day by LegionnaryAnatomy of a Chocolate Truffle by ianCustom make; shaped, flavoured and colored chocolates by thydzikSecond PrizeThese twenty projects win an Instructables T-shirt and patch. In random order:Light Bulb Vase by samEtched Minty Valentines Candy Box by photozz{Collegiate Meals} I Love You (Virus) Burgers by trebuchet03Mint Chocolate Chip Valentine Card by outofthewoodsSolid Perfume by rapiertwitRose in a heart of ice by Dominique UnruhPowhatan Dream Catchers by SugarTeen52Southwestern Style Sterling Silver Necklace by edAgGeeky Circuit Board Earrings by CameronSSA power remote controlled RGB LED mood light by 5VoltWeb Controlled Valentine by gschoppeSt. Valentine's Day Proposal by Maddhatter3"TouchTimer" EggLight (valentine's gift) by ProteusOpposites Attract: A Magnetic LED Valentine Heart by technick29Blue Heart by ZujusEasy DIY Valentine Gum Dispenser by GregDDCPaint Her Fire Extinguisher Pink! (or any other color) by gelstudiosIn Love With Turquoise Necklace by annanomsaValentine Tiger: Show Some Love! by evy-wevyValentines gift with nifty LED effect by x29aWe asked some winners of previous contests to help us judge, and they did a fantastic job. They scrutinized each project, spent hours agonizing over their selections, and in some cases sent us complicated judging documents. This was especially impressive because we asked them to judge extra-fast so we could get the results out quickly! Thanks so much for your heroic efforts: neelandan, BobbyMike, Robyntheslug, LasVegas, ryzellon, randofo, noahw, kinawera, photozz, eleraama, Zujus, Tool Using Animal, T3h_Muffinator, lilo, mdhaworth, FrenchCrawler, trialex, tetranitrate, jamesh, ian, rbhays, outofthewoods, albetcha, sam, HeresyOfTruth, Zieak, mever, and nak. Judges weren't allowed to vote for their own projects.If you won keep an eye on your inboxes; we'll contact you via personal message with instructions for claiming your prize.Here are the original contest instructions.

Posted by canida 11 years ago


Technology Makes Cheap Drinking Water from Air

INTRODUCTION:   How can we best apply basic technology to help the underprivileged and/or disaster-hit countries like Haiti? Daily hygiene and nourishment are among the top needs for disaster ridden regions!  Simply put, no water means no hygiene. The Romans understood that over two millennia ago and created their complexly beautiful aqueduct networks for handling both fresh and wastewater! Other ingenious water systems like “air wells” have been found in the city of Theodosia (cf: discovered in 1900 by Zibold, see Zibold’s Collectors/Dehumidifiers) dating back to Greco-Roman times during the Byzantine Empire. These were strictly passive systems that naturally dehumidified air, collecting its potable water in underground basins. All air, even in relatively dry desert regions, will precipitate or release its natural water content (initially in the form of vapor) through condensation when it hits its dew-point temperature and below. That means you “chill” it to an appropriate level that is anywhere from 5F to 50F below its current air temperature, depending upon how much water content (relative humidity) it has locally absorbed. The condensation of the water vapor releases its internal latent heat (reheating the cooled air) which must be constantly dissipated (absorbed by something) in order for water formation to steadily continue. So how do we dissipate this resultant vapor-heat and chill our air without any infrastructure or electricity, in an underprivileged or disaster-ridden region? We simply bury a long cast-iron or any metallic drain-pipe sufficiently underground where the temperature of the earth is naturally held to a constant at around 45F to 55F. That’s our “free” chiller gift from nature. One end of the pipe, Figure-1,  sticks out of the ground to suck-in local outside hot air, and the other end dumps cooled dry air and water into an underground cistern where it gets collected and is piped to the surface to both exhaust the cooled dry air and connect to a water pump. We need a hand operated water pump to lift up the water above ground, and we need an electric fan to constantly pump air through the ground-chilled piping system. We can even force the cooled piped air to exhaust into a tent-like structure where it provides air conditioning as an added bonus, but this adds the penalty of both power and the increased fan size necessary to drive our required airflow further into an enclosure! While this concept is not “passive” (requiring electricity to work) like those clever Byzantine air-wells, it will produce much more potable water and within a smaller volume than those elegantly passive historic devices. The electricity for our fan power requirements can be produced by any one of four ways using either “active” or “passive” techniques: 1) An active playground or bike-pedaling-person or oxen-driven mechanism-generator, 2) A passive windmill generator, 3) A passive solar energy collection system that directly generates electricity, or 4) A passive thermo-electric system that directly generates electricity using the Peltier effect, operating solely on temperature differences between the cell’s top and bottom surface (we jury-rig the cool pipe and hot ambient air to contact separate sides of the cell). Depending upon how much water is needed, the required air volume plus pipe length and diameter, together with the fan will be sized accordingly. We can also configure groups of parallel fan-driven air pipes that are radially fed into the cistern. The sizing of this underground network depends upon the ambient air’s local average temperature and relative humidity (how much water gets absorbed into the air) plus buried pipe depth and effective underground temperatures achieved. The basic concept is one where we “wring” water from air at some given humidity content. The higher its relative humidity the more water is recovered from the air. The air-wringing process simply chills the air as it scrubs along the cooled internal pipe surface until it starts to rain inside the pipe from condensation onto its surface. The condensation is like the dew that forms on car windows, grass or any cooled surface in the early morning, before the sun comes out and evaporates the dew back into the heating air. A further bonus is that our dew-formed water is naturally distilled and very clean. It is potable water ready to drink without the need for additional sterilizing agents. Of course, we must make sure that the interior piping and cistern network is biologically cleansed before burying it underground. The hand pump with its 10 to 15 foot extended piping to reach the underground cistern must also be cleansed. The beauty of this constantly replenishable water supply is its convenient underground installation anywhere! After the in-ground installation, we have a virtual, partially passive, no moving parts, non-breakdown system containing above ground total access to all moving parts that could breakdown, namely the water pump and electric fan. Also, it is easily maintained, with few moving parts (water hand-pump and electric fan) and basically lacking any technical complexity which makes it ideal for technologically backward regions. The example below uses a relatively small industrial fan moving air at 1500 CFM (Cubic Feet per Minute) with a DC motor rated at 1kW. This fan together with our underground piping system will conservatively generate 12 GPH (Gallons Per Hour) of potable drinking water without need for any purification chemistry. Based on an average electrical cost of 14-cents per kWh (kilo-Watt hour), the typical commercial distillation of one gallon of drinking water costs roughly 35-cents as compared to our cost of only 1.2-cents. Furthermore, if we decide to go green and use solar energy for generating our water, it would effectively cost us nothing beyond the initial installation! USING A PSYCHROMETRIC CHART TO SIZE OUR WATER SUPPLY: The following gets a little technical and is only provided for those die-hards who are truly interested in how the science works. Those non-technically schooled may skip this part and not miss the basic concept. Figure-2 shows a Psychrometric Chart for air. This chart summarizes some of the basic thermodynamic properties of air throughout its typical range of operating temperature. The chart uses six basic air properties that defines the physical chemistry of water evaporation into air:  (1) the enthalpy or total energy contained within a unit of air which is a combination of its internal and external energy, expressed as the amount of BTU-energy per unit mass of reference dry-air, (2) the specific volume or the ratio of a unit volume of local air to its mass of reference dry-air, (3) the humidity ratio or the amount (mass) of moisture in a local unit of air divided by its reference mass of dry-air, (4) the percent relative humidity per unit of local air, or the mass ratio (expressed in percentage form) of the partial pressure of water vapor in the air-water mixture to the saturated vapor pressure of water at those conditions (the relative humidity depends not only on air temperature but also on the pressure of the system of interest),  (5) the dry-bulb temperature or the locally measured air temperature, and (6) the wet-bulb temperature or saturation temperature which is the local air temperature experienced during constant water evaporation (a wet-bulb thermometer is typically used:   a thermometer that measures resultant temperature while wrapped in a water wet-gauze and spun to generate local air movement and max-evaporation)  1.0   The Process and A Sample Calculation Our Psychrometric Chart uses six thermodynamic properties that help to determine the amount of water available for extraction from the local ambient air as a function of its temperature, pressure and relative humidity.  Let’s assume the following local ambient conditions for the region we plan to construct our water system at:  (1) Typical daily air temperature Td = 106F and one atmosphere pressure assumed at sea-level, (2) Relative Humidity, RH = 55%, and (3) Typical underground temperature down at six feet is measured at Tu=55F (at 12ft. it drops to ~45F). This yields the following calculated results for obtaining a steady-state supply (changes at night) of water to fill the cistern:      1)      In our example, the “local” air (dry-bulb) temperature is Td=106F, at a relative humidity of RH= 55%.  Fig-2 indicates that the resultant Humidity Ratio is HR= 0.0253 Lbs-water/Lb-Dry-Air (intersection of Td=106F line and RH=55% line, then horizontal to HR value).  We then determine the “gulp” of air volume containing the HR Lbs-water which corresponds to the point of intersection of Td and RH. Interpolating on specific volume “mv” yields mv=14.7 ft3/Lb-Dry-Air (this value sets the optimum unit airflow for our given ambient conditions, and creates a ballpark pipe length to diameter ratio needed later). It represents the basic unit of air volume that will enter our underground pipe per given time, and ultimately defines the size of our fan and piping network. For increased water creation, multiples of this unit volume will scale up the additional amounts of water that can be collected. 2)      As the inlet air cools down to a temperature of Tu=55F, from contact with the relatively cold underground pipe, we follow the constant enthalpy line (red upward left-diagonal) from the intersection of Td and RH to its saturated air temperature condition of Ts= ~88F, which is its dew-point temperature where the corresponding local RH=100%.  At this temperature or under, the air precipitates and releases its moisture content, resulting in water condensation onto the pipe walls.  Since our air will chill to a final pipe temperature of Tu=~55F, we follow the RH=100% saturated curve (green) down to yield an HR=~0.009 Lbs-water/Lb-Dry-Air. This is how much water is left in the air when it gets to 55F.  Therefore for every pound of local outside air that enters the pipe, mw=0.0253 – 0.009 = 0.0163 pounds of absolute pure, distilled potable water precipitates onto the inside pipe wall (per pound of dry air that is cooled and dehydrated) to gravity-flow out the pipe exit and into the cistern. 3)      We now convert pounds of air per unit time into a unitized volumetric airflow that yields gallons of hygienically pure potable water production per unit time. For every Va=100 ft3 of local volumetric air movement per minute (CFM) through the pipe, which translates into ma=Va/mv= 100/14.7 = 6.8 lbs. of dry air per minute or 6.8 * 60 = 408 lbs. per hour (PPH), to yield a water-flow of mwf=ma * mw = 408 * 0.0163 = 6.65 PPH or 6.65/8.345 = 0.8 GPH of water.  An industrial fan rated at 1kW DC will typically move 1500 CFM at a pressure of 8-iwc, to continuously produce 15 * 0.8 = 12 GPH of pristine potable water. 4)      Not shown here are the design details of sizing our pipe, fan and solar collection system for electric power requirements using heat transfer principles coupled with a thermodynamic heat balance, and aerodynamic fan performance assessment. These details help to size the electric power generation requirements plus margin used to properly size a solar collector containing further margins for overcast days. The engineering involved here is straight forward but beyond the scope of the current project.

Posted by RT-101 6 years ago


What do humans *need* to know? (Edited OP)

Without a core set of really basic skills, civilisation is impossible.What do we really, as human beings, need to know in order to maintain a healthy, happy, stable society?I don't mean "how to solder" or "how to change a tyre", but really basic, grass-roots skills.You may be wondering where this question came from, but I was inspired by the Long Now Foundation's concept of future deep-time storage and its Digital Dark-Age Blog.So, let's have your ideas - list skills we need to preserve, in any area of expertise.If you can, provide a reference as well - a link or the name of a book....and maybe we'll inspire a few Instructables as well.Another thing to think about as well - how could we store this information in an enduring, millenia-stable way?I recently voiced my fears to the team involved in The Clock of the Long Now, and they agreed:...I cannot help but think, though, that something is missing.What is missing is hard copy.The Long Viewer and Long Server will only work as long as we are able to maintain power to the computer network that supports them.If humanity loses the ability to generate electricity, these projects will be lost.Even if the loss is short-term, a few years following some global disaster, then there will be a huge loss of information - knowledge and skills will die with those that know them.Those skills - even things as basic as farming and obtaining metals from the raw materials - need to be preserved in a way that will outlast any traditional or foreseeable computer network.It needs to be recorded in a form as unmistakeably monumental as the Pyramids or Stonehenge, but even more durable, and in ways less obscure.Indeed, I picture "the ultimate hard copy" to be henge-like in nature - strong, metres-high slabs of a material such as titanium or a durable glass. Arranged in a spiral or labyrinth pathway, the first slabs will have the most basic skills explained in pictographic forms, images of farming and metalwork, carpentry and building, hunting and weaving, with times of year shown with icons of Sun and Moon.More and more detailed information would be encountered in a variety of languages as people find the need to venture deeper and deeper into the monument.Glassmaking, pottery, medicines, animal husbandry, generating electricity, navigation, brewing and distilling, no skill should be considered too basic to be included, and it would be impossible for a single individual such as myself to even begin to list all the subject areas that would need to be covered, or even to decide what order they should be recorded.What is clear to me, though, is the need for this permanent archive, something that would enable humanity to bring itself back from some unknowable future disaster, at least to the level of being able to preserve and extend life through surgical and chemical techniques, to feed significant populations and to travel and communicate long distances with relative ease and efficiency.It is also clear that there should be more than one of these archives - humans, being only human, could easily go to war to control a single archive, and fate, being fickle, could also ensure that a single archive could be destroyed by whatever catastrophe also reduced humanity to the point of needing its help.RegardsIn reply, they pointed me towards their Digital Dark Age blog, but that is not what I meant - they are talking about saving files. Skills are different, especially the kind of ground-up skills I'm talking about.If I google for "How to Make Iron", what I get are lots of references to "How to make Iron Oxide" and "How to make Iron-on transfers".What I do not get is a clear link to the knowledge I need to be able to turn a pile of brown rocks into metallic iron using only what I can find or make from what I find. Come the comet, though, that's the skill-set I'll need.Amazon is no better at coming up with paper books on the subject.Heretical though it sounds, even this website is not what is needed, simply because it is digital in nature. Come the comet, off goes the power and this entire, wonderful edifice vanishes with the dot on the CRT.Somewhere, somehow, we need to gather these skills into a huge and durable text book. With copies.The questions are, of course, what is stored, where, how, and who pays for it?

Posted by Kiteman 9 years ago