hydrogen peroxide

I am wanting to make some sulphuric acid because it is on of the most useful acids around and i have ran into a problem. after you burn sulphur to create sulphur dioxide you then need a catalyst to form sulphur trioxide and then dissolve in water. which catalysts could be used and could you just let the sulphur dioxide dissolve in hydrogen peroxide (so2-----so3------h20--------h2so4 or so2 ------ h202---------h2so4).if this would work how could you get a large enough concentration of hydrogen peroxide?

Topic by dellboy 11 years ago  |  last reply 10 years ago

hydrogen peroxide gel?

How to make 35% hydrogen peroxide gel from liquid?

Question by drnarene 6 years ago  |  last reply 6 years ago

this is fake right? Answered


Question by eric m 9 years ago  |  last reply 9 years ago

aquiring 6% hydrogen peroxide

Were could i get 6% hydrogen peroxide

Topic by dogsrcool2me 12 years ago  |  last reply 4 years ago

Hydrogen Peroxide at home and in the Garden

Although the topic is quite old for some of us and mostly because I am too lazy today to make an Instructable: Hydrogen Peroxide ! Back in the day Hydrogen Peroxide was mainly known for the ability to bleech your hair, later it replaced chlorine based products for the preparation of paper and organic fibres. For me it is a good opportunity to go back in time and to pull out some of the remedies my grandparents already used. Who knows, there might be something that helps you or you might know other good uses that I failed to mention here, so feel free to comment. First off: What actually is hydrogen peroxide? We could check Wikipedia but I think it is enough to say that it basically water with an added oxgen mulecule which turn the stuff into a quite powerfull oxidizer. When hydrogen peroxide reacts the added oxygen is released and the normal water remains. Precausions and health risks. In the normal supermarket form hydrogen peroxide comes at a strenght of just 3%. This is just enough for wound treatment or cleaning off a fresh and small stain. The stuff you can buy at your hair dresser comes in concentrations of 5-15%, above that it is of little use to them. Pool grade peroxide however can come as high as 50%. It often requires a permit of at least leaving a copy of your drivers license to buy such high concentration but well worth it price wise. The downside of anything above 5% is a risk for your skin, eyes and airways. So when handling hydrogen peroxide you should waer long sleeve rubber gloves, safety or better swimming goggles and make sure that you don't create vapour by spraying it against the wind direction. Having water at hand to dilute and spillage on your skin is always good. What happens to me if things go wrong? Well, if handled correctly nothing should go wrong but of cause the worst would be eye contact. Getting concentrated hydrogen peroxide in your eyes means extreme pain and even with rinsing it out asap eye damage is more than just possible. Again: wear proper eye protection and if spraying use a filter mask, the paper type is enough!!! Nothing immediate happens on sking contact but a few minutes after contact the skin will turn slightly brown or goes white. This is caused by the oxygen release into your skin cells, if washed off quickly after noticing the discoloration will fade after a few hours. Prolonged exposure of the skin can cause skin cells to fully discolor and living cells might get damaged - a burning sensation is usually the sign that you need to wash the area now ;) Enough bad stuff said, let's see what we can do in the garden.... Fungal infection of your old roses or on your fruit trees? Sometimes the weather does not like our plants and by the time we discover a fungal infestation it is usually pruning time. There are commercial producta available that work quite well but especially the copper based ones tend to do more harm than good in th long run. An alternative is a solution of 10-20% hydrogen peroxide. Spray generously over all affected parts of the plant, leaves, twigs, stem and all. Make sure everything is properly wet! In some cases the fungus can act as a water replellent and it seems impossible to get any of the solution to wet these areas - a drop of dish washing liquid into the bottle will fix this! Watever runs off can be left as it only helps to get oxygen into the soil but of course you should not soak the area... Leave it on for about an hour, around 20 minutes if it quite warm. Rinse all off with clear water and repeat every 2 days for 5 treatments all up. After this time wait 2 or 3 weeks and check if the fungus still gows in some hard to reach areas. If so then repeat the treatment there until satisfied but wait another 2 weeks every 5 single treatments. In some areas of the world certain types of fungus on roses are refered to as "rust". ----- Moved into a new home and the garden beds smell really bad? The last house I moved into had a previous occupant with a big dog but no time to clean after his pet. The garden beds looked dead and I mean so dead that I could not even find weeds in them. And the smell was a distinct mix of old dog poo with lots of fresh cat poo mixed in it - the perfect outdoor pet toilet :( Trying to dig it all under made me recover that the top soil was more §$&*# than soil. I had to get rid of the bacteria of all the poo and somehow neutralize a lot of the unwanted "nutrients". The solution was to first loosen all the soil as deep as I could go. Then I added rice straw (but anything straw like or dry grass will do) to mix it through. At this stage I wished I had a gas mask LOL All up the contaminated garden beds covered about 20square meters. I got a 10 liter canister of pool grade hydrogen peroxide, from this I diluted down with 20 liters of water and a few drops of dishwashing liquid to help with the soil wetting. All was applied as evenly as I good with a watering can and then the area was covered with some tarp to try keeping as much oxygen on and in the soil as possible. A day later the tarp was removed and all beds watered with hose to drowning point. This watering was repeated every 3 days for 3 weeks to drive out all the excess and unwanted nutrients from the poo. The smell was already gone except for some cat urine residue which disappeared after some rounds of watering. Three months after the initial treatment I did some soil tests, added nutrients were required and the next season I had vegetables growing :) ----- Planting? Whether from seeds or seedlings, give hydrogen peroxide a try! I use a 5% solution to soak the potting mix I use before putting my seeds in it. Not only does it kill a few of the unwanted things that might still be in there but it adds a lot of oxygen into the soil, which gives the seeds a much better start. For seeds I use a 5% solution as well but only leave them in for about an hour before placing them between some wet paper towels until they start germinating. This way I can be sure all harmful bacteria and fungal spores are dead and I can use a sterile seed to keep going. Might just be my opinion but I think the germination rate is better and seedling in comparison start growing faster and stronger. Home uses.... As we learned before hydrogen peroxide, at least in higher concentrations is a powerful way to remove fungus. In our bathrooms we often have the problem that the ceiling starts to develop black spots as in the colder times water condenses here and takes a long time to dry off. If you now go to your favorite hardware store they will recommend the use of a chlorine based product, basically bleach... And although it does the job it also means your house will stink for days and if you scrub the ceiling you will get it on your sking and stink too. Hydrogen peroxide at 20% or higher concentrations can be sprayed onto the cleiling :) Of course you will need good protection for this and all things color should be removed, like towels or floor mats. By protection I mean a minimum of swimming goggles, a tyvek suit or similar to cover all exposed skin areas and at least a paper dust mask, better a filtered respirator like you use for spray painting or using insecticides. If you have a spray bottle with an adjustable nozzle then a stream is far better than a spray mist!! Not only is your exposure far lower but it much easier to wet the ceiling quickly. Wet all affected areas, then leave and the room, close the door and take off all clothes you used t protect you. The clothes can be left out to dry but double check that you had no soaked spot where your sking might have been in contact - if so rinse the skin with plenty of water! It will take some time to work and then dry, so best to do this in the summer time or if during the colder times you need to make sure the room is porperly heated and aired out to dry! Repeat until all black spots are gone, really bad areas will leave a permanent discoloration looking like a slight brwonish color is the ligh it right otherwise you won't see it. Once fully dry it is best to scrape off all lose paint and then to use a acrylic based sealer before giving the ceiling a fresh coat of white. The sealer will prevent the water to penetrate more than the paint level and if you get the fungus back on the paint it is far easier to clean ;) ----- Carpet cleaning.... When moving into a new rental with carpet on the floor you often are left with areas indicating the carpet might be "clean" but the underlay certainly is not. You can fix the underlay but you certainly can make sure all harmful stuff is gone from the carpet. Carpet cleaning machines can be hired but often much cheaper if you buy the "recommended" cleaning product with it. Rent is usually based on a daily base and price depends on how much cleaner you need. If you only want to desinfect the carpet which otherwise looks mostly fine than go for the smallest pack available and use it to spot clean areas you want cleaner first. For the desinfecting part I recommend to test how high you can go with the concentration of the hydrogen peroxide before using it on a big scale - keep in mind the carpet will never be fully dry and the remaining peroxide will continue to act! Test a 10% solution first before you go higher as you don't want to buy 30 liters or more of pool grade peroxide - just trust me on that one and only try to buy this much you do want to get into trouble a few days later! If 10 percent solution left on the carpet does not cause any bleaching of the fabric (unwanted bleaching that is) you can try higher for spot cleaning in demanding areas. A good spot to try the solution is under the cover or duct outlets, under these joining bars where carpet changes to tiles (if you can lift them off) or in wardrobes if the carpet goes inside. There are two way to treat your carpet once the general cleaning is done. a) use a garden sprayer or similar to wet the carpet This is good for single room treatment like for the baby room but especially on thicker carpets it requires a lot of solution and can become costly. Once wet leave for at least 30 minutes so the peroxide can do its thing, then use the machine with either the solution filled or just to dry off the carpet. I recommend to use the peroxide solution in the machine as it allows for better penetration and it will remove more soiled solution this way. If your catching container starts bubbling like mad it means you have a lot of §$%&#+ in the carpet and it might be best to first clean it all with the normal carpet cleaning agent before using the peroxide again - again tesing on smaller areas can help wasting the peroxide. If you need to store prepared solutions than it is best in a cold place. It will take several hours on an otherwise clean carpet for the peroxide to fully disappear so it best to use shoes and prevent skin contact during that time - especially if a baby crawls around ;) ----- Toilet.... We don't want to talk about it but everyone needs to clean their toilet sooner or later. For most things in there using the toilet brush when it happens will keep things clean and healthy. But what if someone in the house is sick or with a weak immune system? You could use all sorts of commercial cleaners and desinfectants but a wipe with wet towel or cloth soaked in a 10% solution of hydrogen peroxide will quickly eliminate all harmfull things on your seat, lid or bowl, including the buttons to press and the door handles ;) Just wipe and leave it wet for a minute or two then wipe again and ry - done! Personal use I always pack a small bottle of supermarket grade peroxide when going off road or camping trips. Although we now have modern desinfectants that won't stink or otherwise harm you I still prefer the old stuff ;) If you are far from civilisation than the last thing you want to need is medical attention for something that started as small as a scratch or graze.... Out in the unkown wilderness you will never know if the rockk you just crash landed on was used as a urinal by a fox the night before... A bit of gravel left in your skin might contain harmful bacteria... A cut with your own knife?? - What did you all cut since the last proper cleaning of the blade? You see where I am going here, a small thing might turn into something really nasty a day or two later. If you clean a freash and minor wound properly and then rinsie it with hydrogen perodixe most if not all harmful leftovers will be killed by the releasing oxygen. Of course this pretty much useless on bleeding wounds or where it is obvious that you won't be able to remove all debris from the wound - here it means you trip is still over in favour for proper medical treatment. The thing is that hydrogen peroxide was basically abandoned for all wound treatment once the modern "cleaning aids" became available as the peroxide will not only attack harmful things but also living tissue. The claims goes as far as causing bad scar tissue, damage to blood vessels and even "burning" of the tissue. One big problem I have with all these claims is that they were never really mentioned until the new meds came out. IMHO exposure time and how you use it it the key - common sense if you ask me. Noone should ever soak a wound in peroxide, if it is that big that you need to soak it you need medical attention anyway. And as said you should rinse the wound, that means all remaining liquid should be allowed to flow off - this will only leave a minor amount of peroxide in the wound and the exposure time will end with once all oxygen is released. For minor wounds I only use a paper tissue or cotton bud soaked in peroxide and wipe the wound.... ----- Smelly feet? Ok, maybe not the best way to start a conversation but we all know what sneakers do to our feet in the summer... Insoles with copper and activated carbon will help a lot and at least "cure" your sneakers while they are off your feet and have time to dry. But the smell is actually cause by bacteria growing from everywherey in your sneaker to your sking, actuall starting at your sking... If you wear your sneakers for long periods of time time or even whenever possible and also suffer from a bad smell hydrogen peroxide might be able to help you. Most sneakers will tolerate a machine wash and should come out germ free, if that is no option pack them in a sealed back and leaven them in the freezer over night - this will kill all bacteria and remove the smell. Now to break the endless cycle you need to remove the bacteria from inside your skin. So daily sock changes, freezing shoes and washing feet is a must! Your feet will really benefit from a foot bath in a 5% solution of hydrogen peroxide. To keep costs at a minimum use a container that is just the right size for your feet and prepare the solution from pool grade peroxide. I an ideal case you should not need more than 2 liters but all used product can be stored cool and re-used the next day, after that you need to make a new batch. Keep your feet submerged for at least 10 minutes. This will allow a deep penetration of the skin but might result in some white spots that will disappear after a few hours. Consenquent foot baths can be reduced to 5 minutes. After about a week you should notice that wearing your sneakes no longer causes and bad smell and you can stop the treatment. Freezing the sneakers over night, dialy (or more) sock changes and daily, proper cleaning of your feet should prevent any further bad smells :) ----- Bleaching your hair Althoug it was done for many years I really can't recommend using hydron peroxide for this purpose! Any concentration strong enough to have a proper effect in a reasonable time will at least cuase skin irritation. Back in the days they said your burning scalp is what you need to endure to get blonde hair :( And as said already you really don't want to get that stuff into your eyes... General uses If you have a fruit based stain then cahnces are hydrogen peroxide will remove it, especially if fresh. Even at supermarket concentration repeated application and proper drying off with a paper towel or similar will remove even red wine or beetroot stains. ------ Blood... On you skin blood is easy removed with cold water, same on other surfaces but washing off is no option a wet cloth or cotton piece will work fine. Hydrogen peroxide is good if things need to go fst or if the surface is porous, here the releasing oxigen will drive out the blood with the bubbles. ----- Fish tanks... If you love your tank then you really hate to medicate or even worse have a bad algea infestion, especially the stuff of the black kind. A change to activated carbon filter material is always recommended after a medical treatment to remove all leftovers from the system. However, certain medication simply won't be affected by a carbon filter and stay in the system until fully used or broken down otherwise. Especially in bigger tanks a partial water change is often out of the question as it would cause too much additional stress to the fish and plants. Hydrogen peroxide can help to break down most if not all remains of the used medication while at the same time adding more oxygen to the water. To be sensitive and safe in all enviroments I recomment to calculate the concentration based on the volume of your tank and to add the required amount of peroxide very slowly into the outgoing water stream from your pump. By slowly I mean in terms of a slow drip if using solutions over 10% to be added to the tank. If in doubt remove a suitable amount of tank water into a bucket and add the concentrated peroxide to reach the final tank limit. I strongly recommend to stay below 2% in favour over additional treatments a few days later if required. That means the diluted solution you add should be entered into the tank slowly if in doubt add a glass full every few minutes. For the treatment of the dreaded black algea you do the same 2% solution but be prepared that it will take several treatment until you see them die off. If you can then it is best relocate the fish for a few days so you can use a stronger solution of 5-8% just with the plants left in the tank. When transporting fish in a bag it can pay off to add a little bit of 3% peroxide to the bag to give additional oxygen for transport. I do this maually for every fish I buy from a store so I can be sure all fungus and bacteris is killed of before I introduce it to my tank. Really helps to prevent loosing a lot of fish just because you added one or two more to your tank ;) For the normal sized transport bags I use a good shot glass full of 3% peroxide in case you wondered. ----- Fridge and freezer Be it after long use or because you bought one second hand - once empty and warm some of our colling gadget just smell bad. A good clean with a hot water and your favourite cleaning agent is a good start, no need for aggressive stuff ;) If clean but still smelly, like after a power failure with fish in it you might want to go one step further. Best option is to use a spray bottle and a peroxide solution of at least 15% here. Use proper protection as mentioned above and spray all surface with the solution until soaked. What you can take out you take you take out, clean properly and then wipe or brush with the same peroxide solution. Bare aluminium should be handled with caution as in some cases it can oxidise badly, leaving a white and not removable crust behind. Here it is best to wipe and then wipe again with a cloth soaked in clear water to limit exposure time. No need to dry out - wipe out and check if it still smells, if so repeat and wiped off all areas as good as you can with a solution soaked cloth. Once the smell is gone dry out and enjoy smell free use from now on :) ----- Fruit and vegetables Unless you know exactly what happened to it you might want to clean your vegies and fruits properly before using them. Pesticides, herbicites, fungicites.... Not mention normal fungus and bacteria on the product.... On a commercial base hydron peroxide baths are often used to clean products for sensible people, hospital use or long term storage. For a personal use this only makes sense if you have free and unlimited access to the peroxide. An alternative are ozone bubblers. Expensive models can eb bought in shops or online, complete with timers or even a gauge showing the concentration in a room. On a hobby level for the kitchen sink we can use an ozone generator, air pump and bubble stone from the aquarium store ;) Let the pump bubble out the ozone for a minute or two, fill the sink with the fruit and veggies and move them around every few minutes. Best of course with an open window to limit you exposure to the ozone! Rule of thumb: If you can smell it is already too much in the air! The ozone in the water does the same as the peroxide: It breaks down harmful things with pure oxygen. The downside is that it is very harmful for your airways and body in general, so against all what youtube can offer I actually prefer to treat my fruit and veggie in a sealed bag. Place them inside, push out as much air as you can and then fill up with the ozone from the generator. Once the bag is full leave for about 30 minutes then wash and use or place the things in the fridge.

Topic by Downunder35m 1 year ago  |  last reply 1 year ago

H202 production

Wondering if any one have come across a video showing the steps or know how to do this and how to extract H2O2 form the solution to make hydrogen peroxide like discribed from wikipedia article http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydrogen_peroxide#Manufacture i know i just cut and pasted to make it easer the history  barium peroxide with nitric acid. An improved version of this process used hydrochloric acid, followed by sulfuric acid to precipitate the barium sulfate byproduct.  Sodium peroxide also makes H2O2 Na2O2 + 2 H2O → 2 NaOH + H2O2 those are hard to come by for DIY and thought maybe this would easier  inorganic processes were used, employing the electrolysis of an aqueous solution of sulfuric acid or acidic ammonium bisulfate (NH4HSO4), followed by hydrolysis of the peroxodisulfate ((SO4)2)2− that is formed. peroxodisulfate commonly referred to as the persulfate ion

Topic by symboom 9 years ago  |  last reply 9 years ago

I almost drank Hydrogen Peroxide...

If I were to, what would happen?

Topic by Rock Soldier 9 years ago  |  last reply 9 years ago

hydrogen peroxide plus aluminium equals ... what? Answered

I know that hydrogen peroxide and alcohol equals well"whoomph", but what happens if I mix hydrogen peroxide and aluminium?

Question by flamesami 9 years ago  |  last reply 9 years ago

How much pressure can a hydrogen peroxide bottle hold? Answered

For a project I am working on I need to know how much pressure can be safely stored in one of those brown 1 litre bottles that the normal 3% H2O2 solution comes in. It doesn't matter when the lid would pop off because that will be glued on.

Question by Jaycub 8 years ago  |  last reply 8 years ago

what is the equation i should use to dilute 50% hydrogen peroxide into lower concentrations? Answered

Hello, i just got some 50% hydrogen peroxide, from my local pharmacy because they were out of 35%, plus for some reason 50% is free. anyways, i want to know whats the equation for finding out how many ml's of water i need to use to dilute a solution toa certain amount, as i want to use the 50% peroxide to make 30% , 22% and 3% peroxide. now ive looked on google and i couldnt find a thing , and if i did by chance come across it, i didnt understand it. what i want to know is how much distilled water will it take to convert 100ml of 50% hydrogen peroxide to the above concentrations, or if possible, could someone please give me the equation for converting any concentraion to any, please! also, whoever answers my question and solved my problem entirely will get a best answr i promise!!!

Question by oldmanbeefjerky 8 years ago  |  last reply 5 months ago

Chem help 2

Does anyone know a household item that is souluble in water but not hydrogen peroxide? Also, whats mortons?

Question by kerbal1234 7 years ago  |  last reply 7 years ago

The Living HELL of BED BUGS, does hydrogen peroxide kill bed bugs on contact É

Apartment living, (1st time), has introduced me to variety of insects that I never even knew existed , & wish i never knew. Therefore I have a theory on the maiming or killing, and hopefully blowing up BED BUGS !!Putting hydrogen peroxide on blood stains, takes the stains out. If you have a wound, putting hydrogen peroxide on it, will bubble the infection, dirt & blood. Therefore cleaning the wound. So, if we get a spray bottle of hydrogen peroxide, we could spray on, around & or in where the bugs are, and the theory is that the bed bugs would sizzle up or explode like it does when you put hydrogen peroxide on a wound.If anyone has the chance to spray hydrogen peroxide on a bed bug, ( make sure not to spray yourself because h peroxide dries out the skin ,Major wise )!! Please let me know. I pray I never see one anywhere near me. I get all `Buggzy wuggzy` Not a nice feeling,.... paranoid about every little itch, every little mark, terrible, terrible !But again, this is my theory about Bed Bugs. Maybe I`ll get my doctorate on Bed Bugs & Hydrogen Peroxide. lol

Question by LaurieD51 7 months ago  |  last reply 7 months ago

can Sodium polyacrylate absorb nitic acid or hydrogen peroxide?

I would like to know if mixing Sodium polyacrylate with nitic acid or hydrogen peroxide will form a gel-like structure of solid material for disposal.?

Question by 9 years ago  |  last reply 7 years ago

what purities of sodium iodide and hydrogen peroxide are required to replicate the bogfoam prank from brainiac?

Helo , i would like to know, what purities or quantities are required to replicate the bogfoam prank from brainiac, in which dr. bunhead puts hydrogen peroxide in the water resevoure and sodium iodide in the bowl, then flushes the toilet and the whole room fills with foam, i need to know how much and how pure, please, a and also if the foam is bruoght up by soap, and if not is the foam toxic

Question by oldmanbeefjerky 8 years ago

Fake project


Topic by eric m 9 years ago  |  last reply 9 years ago

Can I mix a Luminol solution for detection of biological materials with a dilution of drug store hydrogen peroxide?

Here's my situation: I've obtained some powdered Luminol, and would like to experiment with it a-la-CSI. I know Potassium Ferricyanide is the suspension of choice, but I've also read that 4% Hydrogen Peroxide works. If I were to achieve the 4% with First-Aid grade peroxide and distilled water, would that work?  And is a Hydroxide Salt necessary to the chemiluminescent effect of the detection of biological materials? Is it just a simple "add powder to liquid" mix, or are there more steps? Also, would anybody know where to get - or how to make - Potassium Ferricyanide safely and inexpensively? Thanks, Tomtomtom55

Question by tomtomtom55 8 years ago  |  last reply 8 years ago

Fake project

THERE IS A FAKE PROJECT called destilling hydrogen peroxide with salt. it's fake. why it still up?

Topic by eric m 9 years ago  |  last reply 9 years ago

Where to buy MURIATIC ACID & PEROXID in UK ??? What kind of shop ???

Hi ... where can I buy MURIATIC ACID (HCL, hydrogen chloride) and PEROXID in UK ??? What kind of shop should I go and ask for it ??? Is there an different name for the muriatic acid in UK English ??? And what about peroxid ??? In a chemist's / drug store ??? Thank you for your advice... Zholy

Question by zholy 8 years ago  |  last reply 8 years ago

Experiment: Use of Hydrogen Peroxide to induce root formation in plant cuttings

I decided to try an experiment to see if dilute concentrations of hydrogen peroxide could promote root formation in cuttings. A rack of twenty test tubes was set up in the first distilled water the second a 1/100 solution of 3% h2o2 third 1/50 solution of 3% h2o2 fourth 1/25 solution of 3% h2o2 and fifth 1/12.5 solution of 3%h2o2 We see in this image taken after one week that only the control has started growing roots. Conclusion, H2O2 does not induce rooting of cuttings.

Topic by Tool Using Animal 10 years ago  |  last reply 7 years ago

hot water side smells all of a sudden -

On a well with a Hydrogen Peroxide and water softener system.  Warm water side smells sulfury or nasty all of a sudden.  Plenty of salt in softener and plenty of Hydrogen Peroxide being pumped into system.  Due to softener, the watre heaters never had their anode rods installed - so not coming from there.   What is causing the recent smella nd how to remove? 

Question by bebolf 6 years ago  |  last reply 6 years ago

DIY Hair colouring hydroxides vs peroxide %

DIY Hair colouring is a confusing issue, can you help me choose the less invasive? One product lists no more than 17mg/ml ammonia and no more than 90mg/ml of hydrogen peroxide in 48 ml  The other lists not more than 30G/L of ammonium hydroxide in 60ml  All comments welcome and appreciated.

Question by Kombigirl2 4 years ago  |  last reply 4 years ago

How do I collect the oxygen from the reaction of hydrogen peroxide and manganese dioxide?

I believe that the reaction between the black, powdery manganese dioxide found within carbon-zinc batteries, and household-variety hydrogen peroxide produces oxygen. However, it is my understanding that oxygen is heavier than air, and will therefore that collecting the gas will not be as simple a matter as seen in steven07's Instructable on producing and collecting hydrogen.Unless I'm completely wrong, and a reaction that produces oxygen will inflate the balloon. :POr, does anyone else have another way of collecting the gas?

Topic by carbon 12 years ago  |  last reply 5 years ago

My Hydrochloric acid and Hydrogen peroxide etchant goes red without any copper in it. How come?

I recently tried making acid cupric chloride etchant; however, my batch always goes a darkish red colour as soon as i mix the two together even when i haven't added any copper. I've been using 3% hydrogen peroxide from a pharmacist and 30% HCl From Bunnings. All the stuff was fresh and in dark plastic bottles. The container i put it into is plastic. It still etches but it's nearly impossible to see if the copper is etched away without pulling it out. Can anyone tell me what's in the mixture that's making it red and how i can correct it. Thanks

Question by Lost in Translation 10 years ago  |  last reply 1 year ago

Copper chloride without H2O2-adding?

Hi! I think i will see some PCB-Etchin in the future... So i will need an etchant. Aequous copper chloride was the choice i made since it is a regenerative etchant according to several sources. Now if i understood the chemistry right (Sorry... electrotechnician here), the reaction in theory only needs the oxygen from the peroxide (H2O2) and the hydrogen isnt used at all? Since i only have relatively weak peroxide, i plan on using a bubbler to introduce the oxygen to the copper-HCI-mix. This because i dont want to dilute the acid too much... Will that work? I know that if i use normal air (which has only around 20% oxygen in it) it will take some time... But would it work in the first place? I read somewhere that copper and muriatic acid dont really react in the first place... So if i also understood that right, it needs the oxygen present in the beginning to START reacting... So i think i may go with a contraption like: Plastic container with a bubbler installed (Pumps normal air) Add Muriatic acid to the container Add copper to the acid let it bubble till the copper is disolved Now i have a copper chloride-solution which i can regenerate by adding oxygen (By bubbler or H2O2)?  

Topic by Orngrimm 6 years ago  |  last reply 6 years ago

I have the chemicals lying around

I have Hydrogen peroxide, 1%Sodium hydroxide, 1%Copper sulphate, Nitric acid, Copper oxide, Calcium carbonate, Starch, Potassium permanganate and Hydrochloric acid is there any thing i can do with these

Question by HokageMateo 6 years ago  |  last reply 6 years ago

Whats the fastest way to make lead acetate? Answered

Hello, ive just tried to make lead acetate by putting lead into a mix of lead metal, acetic acid, and hydrogen peroxide, but nothing has happened , the hydrogen peroxide just decomposed by the lead, and then the solution because all frothy and grey. i understand now that lead dissolves very slowly in acetic acid. is there a faster way to make lead acetate?Ive been looking online , and nowhere does it say how long it takes to make, aside from one place that says it makes 30g per year! using just lead and vinegar. also, would electrolysis work? using two lead electrodes? i managed to make copper acetate of a high concentration (solution turned very deep blue), would the same work with lead? ir would it just make HHO?

Question by oldmanbeefjerky 7 years ago  |  last reply 7 years ago

are there toxic vapours produced from using ferric chloride to etch pcb boards? Answered

Are there toxic vapours produced from using ferric chloride to etch pcb boards?  I want to present this process in a classroom but there are no windows and wondered if this would be hazardous. There's also the method of mixing hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide to act as an etchant. Thanks!

Question by williamhaze 7 years ago  |  last reply 7 years ago

Is there a recipe for organic fungicide?

I am growing Garlic indoors in potting soil, dirt from outside, and coffee grounds. Fungus is growing.  My Hydrogen Peroxide and water mixture is not able to kill it effectively. I'm pretty sure this is common fungus because I worked on the grounds crew at a golf course for a few years.  Is there an organic fungicide or another solution to this problem? Thanks in advance.

Question by lmergner 8 years ago  |  last reply 8 years ago

Can any straw be used as an algae control in a pond? Answered

When barley straw rots it releases hydrogen peroxide that can reputedly be used to control blanket algae in a pond , (although there are conflicting reports about this.), but what about some unidentified straw that I just happen to have at my disposal? Has anyone actually tried barley straw or any other straw ; and did it work? Thanks.

Question by FriendOfHumanity 9 years ago  |  last reply 3 years ago

Safe DIY PCB etchant

Hello out there, I was wondering if anyone knew a safe, homemade PCB etchant other than the vinegar and hydrogen peroxide method. That produces copper (II) acetate and I don't have any use for it other than copper plating, and I suck at electroplating anyways. I would like to find a safe, homemade copper etchant that is easily disposed or can be reused for something.  Thanks, Sam.

Question by DELETED_JesusGeek 4 years ago  |  last reply 4 years ago

Sodium Chlorate production other ways?

Sodium chlorate production without the need of keeping the solution at around 50-70°C from  the electrical power used for electrolysis?  sodium chlorate production besides having to heat from amperage the sodium chloride solution and electrolysis then would a catalysis to help with oxygenating the solution like instead of water use 3% hydrogen peroxide or manganese dioxide or ever ammonium nitrate and yield sodium chlorate using electralysis with out needing to keep the solution at 50-70°C? 

Question by symboom 9 years ago  |  last reply 9 years ago

How to build a clockwork robot?

Http://www.dailykos.com/stories/1632015#comment_65467648 To enter the Fukashima U2 with radiation at 1000 SVR plus can a clockwork autonomous robot gathering data with sonar be designed to go where no autonomous robot has gone before. The reason is all electronic devices would cease to function at about half that  SVR level. The clockwork mechanism would need to be designed to provide autonomous movement  so all sensors would have to be non electronic devices. Might mechanical sound, pressure, temperature or other forces be used for controls? Is it possible to provide a mechanical power storage source Compressed air energy storage (CAES) Fireless locomotive Flywheel energy storage Gravitational potential energy (device) Hydraulic accumulator Liquid nitrogen Thermal Brick storage heater Cryogenic liquid air or nitrogen Eutectic system Ice storage air conditioning Molten salt Phase Change Material Seasonal thermal energy storage Solar pond Steam accumulator Thermal energy storage (general) Chemical Biofuels Hydrated salts Hydrogen Hydrogen peroxide Power to gas Vanadium pentoxide What sort of time/energy is achievable?

Question by Rowland Whittet 2 years ago  |  last reply 2 years ago

PCB etching left over paper

Hey everyone! I'm in the process of etching my first PCB. I have a few questions. I'm using the toner transfer method, with hydrochloric acid and a little hydrogen peroxide as an etchant. Anyway, I transferred the toner to the board, but I believe the glossy paper I used may have been a little too thick. The toner transferred correctly, but i can manage to get all of the paper off. I've tried a tooth brush and a soft towel. My question is, if I just go forth and etch the board will the paper dissolve with the copper on the board and give me a clean result anyway? Will the copper covered by the paper not be removed? are there any cons to this? (such as not being able to reuse my etchant) Thank you all, your help is appreciated Ken

Topic by KennyW2 4 years ago  |  last reply 4 years ago

Jetpack flies at AirVenture

The Martin Jetpack made its first public flight while at EAA AirVenture Oshkosh 2008 on Tuesday. The actual flight lasted seconds and was confined to a few feet off the ground, with handlers gripping the device even as 16-year-old Harrison Martin manipulated the controls. The Martin Jetpack team is scheduled to conclude Thursday's air show with another flight at the mouth of AeroShell Square. More air show flights may take place later in the week as well.Today this jetpack was demonstrated at EAA AirVenture. It seems like the closest thing yet to one that is actually marketable: it has flown a demonstration flight in public, and a CNN reporter was able to handle it after minimal training. Rather than a finicky rocket that burns hydrogen peroxide, it uses a gasoline V-4. It's also considered an ultralight, which means very minimal regulations.Darn it, I could have gone to AirVenture, and I decided not to this year!Linky.

Topic by CameronSS 10 years ago  |  last reply 10 years ago

I am confused about making iron oxide?

Vinegar + Bleach + Iron = Iron Oxide? Bleach + Iron = Iron Oxide? Vinegar + Iron = Iron Oxide? 12 volt energy + Iron = Iron Oxide? 12 volt Energy + Salt + Iron = Iron Oxide? Hydrogen peroxide + 12 volt Energy + Iron = Iron Oxide? Can someone clear me out?    I am trying to make thermite but I have heard that you can make iron oxide using just bleach, however, there have been claims that bleach can actully acumule impurities which makes iron oxide impure which means that thermite will not have the same "performance".    I found a 12 volt supply in my house and i put a steel inside of a glass, i put the negative and positive but i found no evidences of iron oxide.    The only thing i accomplish was the glass full of green stuff in it.

Question by Peter5465 6 years ago  |  last reply 4 years ago

GID Vials, Tritium, TRASERS, Powders and Chemicals GLOW IN THE DARK!

TRITIUM! So I get a lot of questions from my post and instructables. Tritium Vials are Radioactive Hydrogen H3, also known as hydrogen-3 is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen. It is contained in small glass vials coated in colored phosphor then encased in glass or sealed plastics. These are commonly seen in Gun Sights, Watches (TRASERS) and some Emergency Exit Signs. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tritium_illumination Small amounts are legal and for approved uses. Read the NRC guides Typically the Trit vials are small, expensive and dim. The latest GID (Glow in the Dark) Chemsticks, LED's and GID Powders or paints seems much more effective and usable. * Cyalume, as used in a lightsticks, emits light by chemiluminescence of a fluorescent dye (also called fluorescor) activated by cyalume reacting with hydrogen peroxide in the presence of a catalyst, such as sodium salicylate. It is the most efficient chemiluminescent reaction known. up to 15% quantum efficiency. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chemiluminescence New LED low power requirements and high Lumen or light output have provided many solutions that are low cost, high power and longer lasting. GID Paint or Powders are "charged" with light or daylight sources as with your traditional kids toys or stickers. New products are brighter, glow longer and are now waterproof, have many colors and applications. http://www.4physics.com/catalog/GIDinfo.php Also this is occasionally confused with the chemical illumination. However these paints powders and materials use common phosphorescent materials include zinc sulfide and strontium aluminate. Use of zinc sulfide for safety related products dates back to the 1930s. However, the development of strontium oxide aluminate, with a luminance approximately 10 times greater than zinc sulfide, has relegated most zinc sulfide based products to the novelty category. Strontium oxide aluminate based pigments are now used in exit signs, pathway marking, and other safety related signage. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phosphorescence Hope this helps! 01/2011 - Update Source for Materials http://www.darkniteglow.com/glow-shop/ ERCK www.Candlepowerforums.com Additional Tritium Resources * U.S. NRC: http://www.nrc.gov/reactors/operating/ops-experience/grndwtr-contam-tritium.html * U.S. EPA: http://www.epa.gov/radiation/radionuclides/tritium.htm * U.S. DOE (Argonne National Lab): http://www.ead.anl.gov/pub/doc/tritium.pdf * California EPA: http://www.oehha.ca.gov/water/phg/allphgs.html * University of Idaho: http://www.physics.isu.edu/radinf/tritium.htm

Topic by erckgillis 8 years ago  |  last reply 8 years ago

Chemcial Question for Taxidermy Related Project

I am quite interested in the articulation of the bones of animals. I plan on using small game (squirrels, frogs) to begin with, and I will probably donate them to my Biology teacher, since she loves skeletons.The process of defleshing and whitening the bones of the animal is fairly straight forward - soak the carcass/skeleton in chemical baths and take it out when it's done. The chemicals needed for the process are what's going to be hard for me to obtain.I need a 0.3% solution of sodium carbonate. Sodium bicarb is extremely easy to come by, but I've never seen sodium carbonate. I've heard it is used to raise the pH in pools, so I'm guessing a pool store would carry it. But, would it be possible (practical) to make it? Is there a way, using household chemicals, to produce sodium carbonate? I don't need very much.Secondly, I need a 20% solution of hydrogen peroxide. I only have a 3% bottle. I've heard H2O2 is some pretty dangerous stuff. Again, is it possible for me to buy/make it? Would freeze-purifying it work?Thanks for any help, and if I get this to work out, of course it'll all be turned into an Instructable.

Topic by Bran 11 years ago  |  last reply 10 years ago

The more natural way of cleaning things...

At my workplace we basically have a specific cleaner or cleaning product for every task you can think of. From glass over stainless to plastics and desinfectants for lots of different surfaces. After a quick look into my cleaining cabinet at home I started to wonder if I am doing something wrong as I only have a few cleaning things for my use. Asking my friends also showed they have a big bunch of cleaning chemicals, plus the bottle of bleach that everyone down here has. So I though: Your grandma only had a few cleaning products and you learned most of things you need to clean from her. Considering I grew up healthy I guess she must have done something right.... Let's clean up with the cleaning myths, shall we? 1. What cleaning chemicals do you have? For quite a few people the list would start something like this: Dishwashing liquid, window, cleaner, bathroom cleaner, soap scum remover, floor cleaner, oven cleaner, several desinfectants.... If that is true for you too than we might be on to something already. 2. What cleaning chemicals do I really need? This is a good question as everyone is a bit different but I assume a healthy household here. Of course we need certain things to clean our various surfaces properly but it is far less than waht you have been told by the TV commercials.... These days we like to think if there is a special cleaner for something then of course we have to use it to clean properly. Unless you have trades people walking through with their wet dogs several times a day and see dust storms at least twice a week you really only need a few things. So let's get to the basics: 3. Old style cleaning and what you need for it - really the only stuff required to keep all clean and sanitised. a) Methylated spirit b) Clear ammonia - cloudy ammonia works too but be aware that the added soap can be a problem that leaves streakes c) Hydrogen peroxide - pool grade to be cheap in the long run d) Orange oil - citrus oil works great too if you prefer a different smell e) Soap - just basic soap, these stinky, slightly yellow and hard bricks - no fancy smelly soap ;) f) Several cleaning brushes but you should already have those g) Windows cleaning tools - the basic microfibre cloth and squeegee will do h) Several microfibre cloths - bigger ones for floors and walls, smaller for windows and the rest I) Yesterdays newspaper j) Baking soda With those few things we have everything to clean whatever comes up and if bought in bulk comes down to a few cents per bottle compared to a few dollars when you buy all the stuff you don't need. Lets figure out what the stuff does and how to use it: 4. Mixing and what to use it for.... The alcohol is a really good remover for everything greasy and also desinfects the surfaces. A quick spray and wipe on your bench is all that you need to remove oily residue or the mess from the kids. Mixed with a bit of soap and water (about 50-50) also removes sticky stuff like jam or syrup. If we use about 50ml of alcohol, 50ml of clear ammonia and 900ml of water we get one liter of really good window cleaner. The modern way is to use microfibre for the cleaning and a squeegee to get it dry, the old way just uses a cloth and then the window is "polished" with some old newspaper. The black ink reacts with the alcohol and form a mild abrasive while the paper soaks up the moisture, the result is a prefectly clean window in under 3 minutes. Orange oil is not only a powerful degreaser but also lifts old dirt or even glue residue. Used directly it will get rid of the remains from sticky tape, stickers and everything that other cleaners fails to get off - smoth surface and non soaking of course. 50ml of it with 50ml of ammonia and 100ml of alcohol per bucket makes a good florr cleaner and your house smells nice when done. Works best if you can use a microfibre cloth or floor wiper to dry the surface with it. In the kitchen we can find a lot of surfaces that are greasy and we already covered that bit, so lets get to the though stuff. The kitchen sink can become dull looking although it is not scratched. This is due to hard water, food residue, soap and other things. Best is of course to wipe it and dry it after use but who really does this every day? A pot scrubbing pad with some baking soda on it does the trick here. Make the pad nly moist and sprinkle the baking soda on it. Rub over the stainless and if too dry add a few drops of water. Once done rinse off and enjoy the difference. For hard to clean or badly turtured sinks you can try a ball of aluminium foil and coke - use it like a polish. The oven is often our worst nightmare. The cooktop is not far behind. But even here we can have a chance to clean without too much hard work or bad chemicals. Of course the best way is to prevent these spills and boil overs ;) For the cooktop some hot water and baking soda will soften the baked on stuff. Simply remove what you can with the hot water and then sprinkle the surface with baking soda. Cover all with the paper towels and if not wet enough add a bit more hot water so all shets are soaked. Leave ove night and wipe clean the next day. The oven is a bit of a problem once the side and back wall are filthy. If baking soda with a pot scrubber won't do the trick get some of these steel pads with soap in it. The soap in them is special in terms that you only need a little bit of water to remove almost anything with them - and they won't scrath enamelled surfaces. On the bottom we often have badly burnt in things that are next to impossible to fully remove. I suggest to cover the same way as the cooktop but also to add some orange oil. Just make a thick paste of baking soda and orange oil and wrok it into the soiled surface. Cover with wet paper towels and leave over night. Now you don't want to flood your oven, so that means you need to use a sponge or thick cloth that is big enough to wipe off the surfaces you soaked the day before. As the orange oil really is oil it pays off to use some alcohol in the cleaning water to get rid of the oil and grease a bit easier. Don't expect to see a clean and shiny surface after one treatment if the oven was badly misused, you might have to repeat the procedure a few times. If in doubt use the soapy steel pads for last clean and before soaking over night again. Three to four treatments are usually enough to clean even the worst disaster that can happen in an oven unless you baked it in for months... 5. Desinfecting and mouldy spots.... As said, the methylated spirit is basically just pure alcohol and kill almost anything that might harm you. But sometimes that just is not enough. And who really wants to spend an hour or longer to clean some mouldy spots in the shower or try to cover the smell by spraying room freshener? As a lst resort for everything I use Hydrogen Peroxide. The supermarket grade is only 3% and usually badly overpriced, so I suggest to get a small canister of pool grade peroxide. Do yourself a favour and ask them to install a tap on it - you don't want to do it yourself unless you already know how bad pool grade peroxide is! For your own safety when handling it I strongly recommend wearing long rubber gloves, nitrile is better but please no latex as it could start to burn when getting in contact with the peroxide. For high grade desinfecting or the removal of mouldy areas I recommend to dilute 1:5, one part of peroxide to 5 parts of water. Only for the mould removal on tiled, plastic, glass or metal surfaces you can use the peroxide pure from the container - but please add face protection when cleaning! Some spray bottles work with peroxide some just start leaking badly, if you want try an old bottle of chlorine based cleaner after really flushing everything out. The peroxide breaks down any organic material it comes into contact with, so not just the mould you want to remove but also your skin or eyes if you allow contact. On the skin you see white areas after contact and they won't go away until all the oxygen in the skin is gone that was left by the peroxide. If you act too late it means you might loose some skin flakes. The sure sign of overlook exposure on your skin is a burning sensation in the area - this only happens when the amount was big enough or your clothes got soaked. On your surfaces to clean you will notice bubbles forming quite quickly - this mean the peroxide is reacting with something, usually organic material. Let it bubble... Once it stops bubbling the surface is either sterile or the peroxide is used up, if it bubbles when adding fresh peroxide onto it then there is still crap left ;) It really helps to brush off the surface after each treatment as a lot of loose material will be flushed out when rinsing off. Once it looks and smells clean again it usually means it is clean :) 6. Special case: Wood... Be it wooden floorboards, furniture or just your chopping board - always try what the manufacturer recommends first! Untreated wood should never be cleaned with anything wet! Sealed wood, like floorboards or things with varnish on it to make it water proof can be cleaned the same way as mentioned above - but I would leave out the ammonia as some wood treatments simply won't tolerate it and might go dull instead of returning nice and shiny - spot testing required if you think you have to use ammonia as well! Orange oil itself makes a great furniture cleaner if the surface is smooth and sealed, but if it is not it means the oil soaks into the wood together with the stuff you want to clean off! It also takes off several paints and types of varnish if you work it hard enough and give it some time, so avoid this and be quick instead of forgetting to finnish the job ;) Always try to wet the surface as little as possible and wipe fully dry as soon as possible! Ok, good start but what is the real benefit? For me the actual benefit is that I know what I am using and exposing myself to. Just reading what is in most cleaning products we find at the supermarket makes me want to clean again after using them, just to remove their residues... I admit it might take some time to get used to mixing and just having a few ingredients for the cleaning but it does work great. Especially if you or your kids are already sensitive to certain chemicals or just of poor health in general you might see the benefit quite quickly. Some people really don't like the smell of ammonia but unless you are sensitive to it there is nothing to worry when using the household grade as we always dilute it down massively anyway. A good way to avoid the worst stink is by mixing it outside with the wind from behind. I won't say that certain commercial products are bad, harmful or not good enough for the job. Some are actually worth to have in some cases but I just say it is better to only have a hand full of chemicals that are not too bad instead of an endless list of things were we don't even know what's inside. For me the best is your surprise when it actually works better than you expected and report your findings here.

Topic by Downunder35m 2 years ago

Making Copper (II) Chloride From Acid and Copper

Ok, so last 4th I made fireworks for a small- and I mean small- display, and it turned out fairly well. I only had two complaints- a) It wasn't that colorful, as I was only using pine and palm charcoal for color: reddish orange.b)it wasn't electrical, and took alot of visco, as I wanted everything to go off near-instantaneously. Well, I am going to solve problem b by getting e-matches off of Skylighter, but solving a is a little harder. Then, I read that certain copper compounds could be added to create a green to green-blue color in the flame. Well, I like that idea, but I didn't know where to get the copper compounds. So I kinda left it. UNTIL TODAY!I found this page on making copper (II) chloride. Well, it seemed straightforward enough, so I was going to try it. I was only wondering about two things:a) why on the description on this page about it include hydrogen peroxide, but the page does not even mention it?b)is this safe? I guess I should be outside for the hotplate part- I can't imagine boiling/simmering HCI, inside.c) is this even possible? Does it: 1)create a form of copper that could be used with success in pyrotechnics? 2)create copper chloride at all?Any answers are appreciated. Even if they don't directly pertain to the topic, POST ANYWAY! Makes it more interesting.

Topic by John Smith 11 years ago  |  last reply 2 years ago

How can one make a water cleaner for a well using Titanium Dioxide and UV light? Answered

Hi, I have been looking into cleaning my well water at the source, rather than fed in into the lines. I have looked at making a simple ozone generator by purchasing one online and using a compressor to get it down 40 ft. Then I came across "silver bullet" and what intrigued me was that they produced hydrogen peroxide, which apparently is a a better bacteria killer, perhaps more stable. The reason that I want to kill bacteria and have it in the well at the source is because lots of iron bacteria and iron in my water plugging up my pump every so often is frustrating. This product looks promising, but costly, so researching this I found that they were using UV light, but normally UV light makes ozone with air. Then I dug deeper and then found out they are using a matrix made up of something similar to Titanium Dioxide (there are different forms, such as anatase and rutile which maybe more effective) so that when struck by proper UV light, it gives of an electron which will hit water vapor in air and split up water molecules to form OH- and H2O2 and some O3. So, one can buy TiO2 online, put it into a container that fits a UV lamp inside and blow compressed air through that and down the well, but the powder might get blown down the pipe. So how can one crystalize it around a cylindrical form that fits around a UV light to make it more efficient? I saw a similar post by Ian and he wants to use it for air cleaning, but gluing doesn't appeal to me as the glue itself might react with oxidants produced and give off other contaminants that I do not want in the water. So, can I use a type of glue that is safe around oxidants? Is TiO2 able to crystallize easily? ( I read that it doesn't dissolve in water well, which would rule out supersaturating water and crystallizing it that way) Any thoughts and suggestions?

Question by Hendrik0360 4 years ago  |  last reply 4 years ago

Plating Silver/gold (or any other hypoallergenic metals) on a Brass ring. (Without access to specialized chemicals)

Greetings fellow makers and crafters. First off I want to thank all who take the time reading this question. So, lets get started. A while ago I decided to test my crafting skills and made a beautiful brass ring out of some very old 20mm brass ammo casing. A nice repurpose in my opinion. The brass however oxidizes very quickly and stains my finger green. And it seems like the skin underneath is developing an allergic reaction. Either to the oxide stains, the zinc, or maybe some nickel contamination in the metal? It appears dry and reddish sometimes. Because I put a lot of effort into making the ring and don't want to discard it I finally decided to electroplate it. Plating it with copper would be quite easy as it seems that copper nitrate can be made with citric acid. It would however still oxidize and leave stains. My second thought was Nickel, but I discarded the idea because I seem to be allergic to other Nickel plated Jewelry. Now comes the hard part. I live in Bosnia and Herzegovina. A country where I can hardly come across any chemical supplies. Even simple things like activated charcoal or hydrogen peroxide are nowhere to find. I could silver plate the ring if I had access to nitric acid. But as you see that would require me to buy it from some online store which I really try to avoid. I could start making my own nitric acid with the use of the Birkeland Eyde process. But I'd rather have something more safe, health friendly and without the chance of getting roasted by a 10-20kV transformer. Anyway, back to the topic. I am currently out of ideas on how to approach this project. So I am asking you guys if you know of any of the shelf products which have the required chemical ingredients that I could utilize to make this project a success? Thanks again. ------ And Happy New Year! :)

Question by icemaciop 3 years ago  |  last reply 3 years ago

Mozzies and how to keep them outside....

Down here the winter was too short and not cold enough, meaning insect life is literally exploding in numbers already. The house I moved in has badly installed flyscreens on the doors and windows, most likely due to the fact that the house is moving up and down in several points... Anyway, due to the gaps everywhere I found myself with the problem that the mozzies covered my entire front and back door areas. With an unsupporting landlord not even allowing me to replace the bad flysreens with proper ones at my cost I was left with less invasive options to tackle the problem. Before you ask: No I am not even allowed to fix holes in the flyscreens covering the windows :( My next step was to check the local garden center for some natural solutions. Lemon grass seems to do the trick for the inside, the smell also keeps flies away really good. But I had to put the pots in the garden as the ongoing smell gives me headaches. It also did very little to prevent the mozzies from coming inside when I opened any outside door for a few moments. Only way out was to get rid of the mozzie population having daily meeting around my doors. At the local hardware store I found several "surface sprays" and they all stated to be very effective against cockroaches, spiders and other crawling insects - too bad I don't have a problem with them LOL After asking I was informed that those sprays do little to nothing for flying insects, including mozzies and that I would waste my money. During my next shopping trip I got desperate and grabbed a can of surface spray from Aldi. Was under 3 bucks, so I had nothing to loose compared to the 40-80 bucks for a canister of "the good stuff" from the hardware store. At the checkout an old lady asked if I moved into a new house with cockroaches when she saw the spray and I said that I only have a problem with mozzies. She recommended to eat more bananas ROFL Back home it was already too sunny at the front door for the mozzies to show up so I waited till the late afternoon and sure enough I found the area covered with them again. The spray annoyed them badly but I kept spraying all cracks, surfaces and also the gaps at the roof line. Kept checking for a while but could not see any real effect on the mozzies other than swarming around me and trying to suck my blood. Next morning I found the floor at the door covered by a carpet of dead mozzies! I don't mean a few, I am talking enough to take the brrom to clear them up :) Now for the past 5 days the body count is going down quite fast while my door stays free of mozzies. Still have them flying around in "normal" numbers but I can get in and out without a swarm of them following me. Since the product is plant based and considered to be without any side effects on humans or pets I will see how long it lasts and then just spray again - this three dollar can should last throughout the summer... You might wonder why I go through all these troubles... Long story short, I am quite allergic to the bites. Happened as a kid when during a warm summer night at a friends place I got so many bites that the doc gave up counting. He reached over 200 just by counting my head and face to the shoulders... Now I am allergic to the bites, the itch lasts over a week and thebite area swells up to the size of a 50 cent coin with blisters forming after 2 days. You might not get it hat bad but if you do suffer from the bites I found two remedies that help with the itch and reaction: a)  BBQ igniter (the manual push type without batteries)! They work like the expensive clickers you get at the pharmacy but last much longer - plus they require more force. The rounded tip is placed directly onto the bite and when you push the button in to "get shocked" two things happen. First the pressure forces the soliver that causes the reaction into deeper skin layers where there are less receptors for the itch. Secondly the high voltage breaks down certain parts of the soliver making it far less effective to cause harm. Downside is that you might like the shock in certain areas and that you should shock at least 10 to 15 times to get a real benefit from it. b)  Hydrogen Peroxide (3%) You put a drop of H2O2 directly onto the bite or for difficult areas use a soaked cotton bud. Rubbing it in with a cotton bud for a minute or two works best IMHO. You might see your skin turn white or feel a slight burn right where the bite is - that is normal and harmless. The hydrogen peroxide releases oxygen into the skin - this turns the skin white for short period of time. But the oxygen also breaks down the soliver and the byproducts of the body reaction to it. Works great for horse fly bites too. Downside here is that you should not overdo things and that you should test first how sensitive you are to the reaction. A good test is to apply it onto a small cut or scratch to clean it. If you tolerate that then won't even feel it on a mozzie bite. I hope some of this will help you through the summer ;)

Topic by Downunder35m 2 years ago  |  last reply 2 years ago

UV filtration in your fish tank or small fish pond

Year after year the topic "I have a fish tank" seems to go more out of control. What was once a hobby just to have some fish can now be a design feature both in your home and inside the tank. Realistic looking lasdscapes, optical illusions that make you think the tank is much bigger and the list goes on. But one thing that now always pops up is the must have thing of UV filtration. Or to be precise: UV-C sterilisation! Now, if we trust Wiki and our big water suppliers then UV-C will literally kill anything alive that comes into contact with. So of course it would be a good thing to have for your tank - or not? UV-C is very dangerous for your eyesight and quite harmful for your skin! Looking into a proper UV-C lamp without protection means you can go blind! Even good sunglasses might not have enough protection in the UV-C range, so only use them for additional protection but never without and glass between you and the lamp! Don't be a fool! Treat UV-C seriously! You would not look into the full sun with your sunglasses and would not expose your eyes or skin to a powerful laser, UV-C is to be treated the same way! Let's start by using some boring text to explain the concept a little bit. On a large scale special and quite powerful systems are used to treat our drinking or pool water. Here special UV-C lights with a wavelenghts of 260nm or below are used to shine through the water passing by. There are two key factors here. a) the wavelenght b) the water flow rate and the corresponding time the water is in contact with the UV light To ensure all bacteria, viruses, algae and other harmful organics are dead the water must circulate for long enough so even the last water molecule had a few seconds of exposure. All this only works good with "crystal clear" water for obvious reasons as otherwise the UV has to be even more powerful to pass through. Single cell organisms literally crack into pieces similar to being exposed to gamma rays, more complex cells like algae have their cell membranes damages and the DNA suffers as well causing reproduction loss and early death. Even some chemicals break down, most importantly here chlorine based substances. Differences within the UV-C range! If you bothered to check Wiki about the topic of UV-C you will already know that only certain wavelengths within this spectrum will actuall be powerful enough to do what we want it to do. And here is the first problem for us hobby users. Most cheaply advertised "sterlisation lamps" you find in places like Ebay are actually totally useless. Stating to be selling a UV-C light to sterilze your water in such a case is still not considered to be fraud though. Simply because it still does what it supposed to do, just very slow and with very little effect. Only the so called "short wave" UV-C range is powerful enough! To avoid loosing business during the times of the biggest hype in 20 years no seller will actuall state the available wavelengths. That means without this info anywhere you can be certain the advertised lamp is of little to no use. Even those advertised to be short wave UV-C might not be the real deal. However, if a decent manufacturer is behind the actual lamp used it is possible to check the datasheet for these performance figures - but again most cheap systems come with no-name lamps inside. Check the prices for a reputable UV-C light with the same lamp fitting, e.g. G23 and you will see it might cost more than your entire system. Ok, you have a poper short wave UV-C lamp or consider getting a canister filter with one in it.... Never, ever test your lamp without proper protection!!!!! UV-C will damage your eye within seconds! If you system or lamp does not provide a viewing port or shine through area then you have to place a piece of glass between you and the light! UV-C won't be able to penetrate normal window glass but will pass through quartz glass. Place the lamp in a box and cover with the glass. How make proper use of UV-C sterilisation... The replacement lights are quite expensive, so let's see how to get the most out of them. As said before exposure is the key factor so the flow rate of the UV system must match tank size and flow rate of your filter system. Canister filters with a build in lamp should be designed to match but I will tell you later what to look for ;) Most of us will prefer to have a in-line system if there is already a good canister filter at work, so I will focus on those and rop in solutions. If you compare in-line system you might notice that some quite small and low power units claim to allow for the same flow rates as for example 40W units. Some are fraud and just want to sell while others use simple physics to make the claim true. A good system will utilise an auger like "ramp" that forces the water to circulate around the tube many times - causing up to ten times longer exposure rates. Others create this sprial effect more like a vortex with some diverters and modified inlets. The later seems to be less efficient though with low power lamps. An in-line system should be on the outlet side of your canister filter so the best quality water will pass through it. A drop in solution should be used alone and without the existing normal filter pump you might have in there. Ok, got it, but how do I actually use it now? Despite common thinking a UV-C system should not run 24/7 like your normal filter. You really only need it to solve problems you should not have in a healthy tank! It is not a magical solution to make your underlaying problems go away ;) Let's start with the most common reason someone buys a UV-C system: An algae or bacterial outbreak causing greenish or milky water. If that developed slowly over a period of weeks then you would be better off to do a good clean of the tank and filter plus a decent water exchange. A few drops of meds will do the rest. And if you constantly get algae growing on your glass, ornaments and plants then your nutrient levels and water quality is not right anyway and needs a good check. But of course there is also the problem of light - too much for too long and unwanted gree appears everywhere. If in doubt reduce the light power, shade out natural light or reduce the on time for your lights. Having said that we now face the problem of a sudden outbreak after introducing new fish or plants. If you don't have a quarantaine tank chances are that sooner or later you get unwanted or even harmful guest into your tank. Here the UV-C will be beneficial, which is why a canister filter with build in light should have a seperate switch or power supply for the light. After an outbreak or while introducing new life into your tank the UV-C will remove a lot of the things that we don't want to bring along. For new life I leave the light on non stop for a week, that is for a small 4ft tank with 200 liters. To control an outbreak it depends on how bad it is. I assume here you can still see the back of your tank  but that the water either appears greenish or slightly milky from bacteria. As a personal thing I prefer to to remove and clean my filter material before treating a severe outbreak. Once done I fill the filter with a mix of activate carbon material and fine filter wool. Reason for this quite simple: The outbreak causing stuff is already in your filter material and will be a constant source of re-infection. And since breaking down all this bad stuff causes even more bad stuff to be produced as biological waste we want to discard it properly once done. Using just fine filter wool and activated carbon also reduces the flow rate bit if compacted ;) Now we can turn on the light and pump and forget about it for a while. It is not recommended to run UV lights on a timer as you want them on all time to prevent short lifespan and have ongoing treatment of the water. Good idea to take a picture at the same of a day from now on to compare and check results. After 3 days the water should definately be clearer, if not then either your filter material is packed too losse or the lamp is no good. Once the water appears to be clear do a readin test - take a newspaper behind the tank and check if the text is clear - blurry means the water is still not clean. You will reach a point where the water quality will not further improve as much as in the days before. This is the time where you discard or clean out to dry your filter material and put the original stuff back in. The activated carbon should be discarded of course. You cleaned filter material will now need a certain time to grow enough good bacteria to go back to the old performance. During this time you should still leave the light on. In most cases with enough fish and plants in the tank a week should be sufficient. After that you can leave the light off and keep the tank fit and healthy. Special case: Algae everywhere! Especially after getting a new plant you can end up with quite pesty algae growth. Be it these long ghost hair types or in a bad case the black stuff growing on plants, ornaments and the glass. I have even seen tanks with algae covering the entire bottom of the tank causing the gravel to look like carpet. Here I can only advise to set up a quarantaine tank for your fish. Then remove all infested material for manual removal and cleaning. Infested plants should be cut clean and what can be boiled should be boiled in water for a few minutes. Now start scrubbing in the tank with ongoing water replacements. I prefer to let everything settle over night without any bubbler or pump running. This way I can suck up a lot of sediment the next day. If you can remove all plants and fish you can now use hydrogen peroxide and add it to your tank water. But this is only feasable for small desktop tanks. Before using the UV as above to cure an outbreak you should consider all water one last time. Allow at least 2 weeks with ongoing water checks before adding plants back in and another week before placing your fish back in the tank. The week before adding fish should be used to monitor the plats for any signs of algae you might have missed - if you find any remove it! A week after the fish is back in you can turn off the UV light. Underwater UV-C light!? In most online stores you will find quite cheap UV lights to be advertised as underwater or in tank use. Although it might sound tempting you should be well aware of the dangers of using them. The glass of your tank will block the harmfull UV rays but the water surface won't, so either don't ever look at it or use proper sunglasses with real UV protection. Apart from the dangers to you these lamps are not just cheap in price but also cheaply produced. That means there is no way of telling how much or how little UV-C is produced. If they are good then you still need to know in what type of tank setup you can use them. As plants can tolerate a bit of UV a placement as far away from the nearest plant should do, especially if you can place a bubble wall betwenn light and plants. The fish is another thing as some seem to be unaware of the danger in their tank. This means they can get too close to the light but I have not found any articles explaining how harmful UV-C is to fish or their eyesight. I guess once your fish starts to bounce into everything you know... ;) My advise is to stay away from the idea of hanging a UV-C lamp in your tank, the risk for you and your tank is just not justified. If you need to go cheap then get two or thre of these lamps so you have spares. But use them externally ;) Meaning: Take a UV proof plastic container of small size and place the light in there. To be really safe tape the lid and all holes for the hoses with black tape. Place the container above the water level of your tank and if you only have an internal filter pump push a suitable sized hose into the outlet to feed into you canister. Check how high you pump can make it and place the outlet or overflow slightly below this level. When to change the light? If you made it all the way down here then you might already had the benefit of using light to "cure" your tank. Now we are faced with the high replacement cost for the lamp itself. Ususally only flouroscent tubes are used. It is always good to check after purchase what type of lamp and manufacturer (if there is one) was used. In some cases the system itself is like an inkjet printer: Just a cheap way to make you buy the consumables. Let's say you new in-line filter was priced at $100 to have a nice round number, some are cheaper some much more expensive. The lamp used might be an exotic type and not even be available easy, so before you buy your system check where you can get spares, not just the lamp of course. A replacement lamp can be as ceap as 20 bucks or cost even more than your system if you need to order it elsewhere. The quartz glass sleeve can break too meaning you then need a lamp and cylinder. Going with a reputable brand and paying a bit more certainly helps to get spares in the future. Let's just assume you either got your system in bulk due to the price of replacement lamps or can get them at a reasonable price. UV-C lamps are not like your normal flouroscent light tubes you have around or maybe even on top of your tank. Consider them like the tubes used in the now unhealthy tanning beds. After a certain amount of time they no longer produce enough of the short wave UV light that we need. As you can't see it and most of us won't have the means to specifically measure it we have to trust manufacturers recommendations. For most good brands the numbers are the same: 8000 hours max. Considering the costs it does make sense to keep written track of the usage. Not too hard since we won't use them like normal lights but instead have them on for a week or more without turning them off. I recommend to have a replacement at hand long before you need it. A lamp can fail premature, crack or simply burn out. The 8000 hours are based on 24 hour usage, so one day on, one day off. This could mean for us the lifetime can be slightly longer but I would not go over 9000 hours. As a rule of thumb: If the water does not show good signs of getting clear on day thre the lamp is due.

Topic by Downunder35m 1 year ago  |  last reply 1 year ago