Lady Liberty, Ten Times Larger!

A maze featuring a recreation of the Statue of Liberty 10 times larger than the original has been unveiled in Yorkshire.Composed of more than a million living maize plants and covering about 18 acres, is one of the biggest mazes ever constructed.With a length of 1,300ft it dwarfs the real Statue of Liberty, which is just 111ft high. "As a 'new' York Maze it seemed appropriate to base this year's design on New York," Mr Pearcey said."I also wanted to mark the links between York and New York."The Statue of Liberty is an instantly recognisable image and makes a great maze." Stephen Briganti, president and chief executive of The Statue of Liberty-Ellis Island Foundation, in New York City, said: "We are so pleased to see that the Statue of Liberty is being celebrated in such a unique way in York."Lady Liberty stands as a symbol for all the people in the world but it is especially gratifying to see her linking Old York with New York." Various sources(This post quoted from Daily Telegraph )

Posted by Kiteman 10 years ago


Civil Rights Book Recommendations?

I have a friend who I frequently discuss civil liberties/rights with, and his birthday is coming up. I'd like to get him a book that discusses what rights and liberties we have, how to use them, etc. I was hoping somebody here might have read a good one that they could recommend? Thanks!

Posted by Weissensteinburg 8 years ago


The WORST Car Wash Ever!

The best comment: "I want my money back"...

Posted by canucksgirl 6 years ago


Organizing knex

Do you organize your knex? (I just did) Or do you dump them in a bucket? tell everyone if you organize your knex or not.

Posted by Liberty Prime 10 years ago


Huge knex builds from knex.com

Check out these huge builds from these knex designers on Knex.comHere are some pictures of the biggest knex builds.Which include: The Capitol BuildingThe American Flag The Statue of LibertyAnd a 8 foot portrait of President ObamaThis really shows the endless possibilities from knex.You can read more Here.Killer~SafeCracker

Posted by Killer~SafeCracker 8 years ago


Old pennies stuck together with green rust like putty!?

I was going through a trunk of old coins and alot of the pennies are stuck together with a green putty like rust!!! What on earth is this its holding the pennies together quite well, I can pry a few apart but some are just stuck! I also found some mercury head dimes, steel pennies, and this unidentifiable coin with a eagle on the front and what looks like a statue of liberty on the back. Any ideas on the rust putty and what this mystery coin is?!

Posted by astrozombies138 10 years ago


Forum topics that go nowhere

Has anyone noticed some forum topics look like by Grampa Simpson rambling?  They are usually by new members, and I often flag them as spam,  they often look like this....... But less funny We can't bust heads like we used to, but we have our ways. One trick is to tell 'em stories that don't go anywhere - like the time I caught the ferry over to Shelbyville. I needed a new heel for my shoe, so, I decided to go to Morganville, which is what they called Shelbyville in those days. So I tied an onion to my belt, which was the style at the time. Now, to take the ferry cost a nickel, and in those days, nickels had pictures of bumblebees on 'em. "Give me five bees for a quarter," you'd say. Now where were we? Oh yeah: the important thing was I had an onion on my belt, which was the style at the time. They didn't have white onions because of the war. The only thing you could get was those big yellow ones. Three wars back we called Sauerkraut "liberty cabbage" and we called liberty cabbage "super slaw" and back then a suitcase was known as a "Swedish lunchbox." Of course, nobody knew that but me. Anyway, long story short... is a phrase whose origins are complicated and rambling.

Posted by liquidhandwash 3 years ago


STORY SUGGESTIONS

Hey im writing a chapter story and i need some tips help and suggestions o.k here is what ive got there are 2 main characters chuck and jeff they are best friends chuck is a iraq veteran who got kicked out for traces of class a drugs and jeff is a serious gamer they both live in a chicks hous (yet to be named) and they go to liberty city for a illegal weapons deal but the buyers turn out to be cops and they just escape but they get caught and end up in prison but with bribing they get out but theyre still wanted alsothey meet a guy called tristan who helps them to get an old friend out (HAYD) and thats when i run out of ideas so can you help me by the way it is action/comedy

Posted by NZ_DEATHEAGLE 8 years ago


3D etching on Carboard questions:What sorts of finishing can I make on top of interlocked carboard (123dmaker) to look professional?

 I want to make a 2 meter tall sculpture of a face but  I need to know what are the possible finishings for this sculpture,  and can I put the borders on stacked carboard and the interior on interlocked carboard.? how do I do that? is there a finishing that looks as good as this? https://www.instructables.com/id/Fine-Art-from-Cardboard/ maybe crazy textures finishings, do you know any? this technique is massive in terms of carboard usage, can I use grided technique on the interior? How would I do that? https://www.instructables.com/id/Cardboard-Statue-of-Liberty-Bust-using-123D-Make/  

Posted by DIAGONALLIS 10 months ago


guess who bought a jeep

Yeah i bought a new jeep last weekend. i would have gone with something a little more fuel economical but cars ride too low to the ground. (i live in the sticks) plus i figure i can haul stuff with it, women, dead hookers, and general stuff i have accumulated over the years. its an 08 jeep liberty. i got it for less than invoice and the dealer is throwing in free leather seats. other than that tire i had to buy this morning so far i like it. (i ran over a nail and it punctured the sidewall, but i bought tire insurance so it wont happen again) i took a pict of it with my camera at night time with a 15 sec shutter its the only good picture i have

Posted by thematthatter 9 years ago


Go Green this weekend

Just a reminder that the Instructables, Popular Science, and TreeHugger Go Green! contest ends on August 19. That's just over a week away! So if you were planning on entering something in the contest, make use of this weekend and put together an Instructable about it.Grand PrizeThe grand prize winner will receive a Breezer Liberty hybrid commuter bicycle with pedal-powered lights, a brief write-up in a future issue of Popular Science, and a 1-year subscription to Popular Science magazine.First Prize5 first prize winners will each receive a Solio Universal Hybrid Solar Charger (TreeHugger review here), an Instructables robot t-shirt, and a 1-year subscription to Popular Science magazine.Second Prize10 second prize winners will each receive an Instructables robot t-shirt and a 1-year subscription to Popular Science Magazine.

Posted by fungus amungus 11 years ago


Metal Gear Solid Guns

I'm also looking for guns from one of the greatest games (at least to me), Metal Gear Solid. My top 5 requests are: 1. The SOCOM 2. The USP 3. The FAMAS 4. The Mauser C96 (The gun Eva uses in Snake Eater) 5. P90 (The gun Solidus Snake uses in Sons Of Liberty) Of course, all other guns from Metal Gear will also be appreciated as well, so if anybody who knows where I can find the instructable for any of these, or if anyone knows how to make it themselves (or is up to the challenge of trying to make them), please reply and tell me where to go (or what it will be called, if you need time to make it and put it up). I believe that it is possible to make at least 2 or 3 of these guns. Thanks to everyone that joins in the cause of making these guns, or at least telling me where to find the instructables for them, and happy building.

Posted by Knexfan 11 years ago


The winners for the Steal Public Art challenge have been announced!

The winners of 123D's Steal Public Art challenge have been chosen! Check out the winners - lots of great catches. :D (psssst - are you a winner? check your messages on the 123D Gallery to find out how to claim your prize!) Grand prize winner - they win a Fujifilm FinePix Real 3D Digital Camera and a 3D print! Newport Dragon by RTegelbeckers Runner up winners, listed in alphabetical order - they win a free 3D print! Frogner Park Oslo Norway by Wayne Trout Hercules 3 by Patrick Leschinski Hon Non Bo in San Diego by Jonathan Brady Love_Indiana by Aleksei Sebastiani marble bust by Boris Gunalli Pair Of Buddhist Monks by Liz neely Resting Lion by rushiraj parikh Statue of liberty by Andr Vellwock The Shaking Man by Daniel Moos Wood man with road by Jason Eaton (photos in the same order) And don't forget to check out everyone that entered! You can view the full gallery here.

Posted by jessyratfink 6 years ago


Man Fights for Right to Dress as Bigfoot

NH artist protests halt to Bigfoot project -------------------- Jan 5, 9:42 PM EST JAFFREY, N.H. (AP) -- A New Hampshire artist and videographer who dressed as Bigfoot in a state park says his rights were trampled by big government. Jonathan Doyle, of Keene, has complained in a letter to the state parks department that a Mount Monadnock park ranger halted his performance art project in the fall because he didn't have a permit. Doyle is arguing through the New Hampshire Civil Liberties Union Foundation that his free-speech rights were violated when he was expelled from the state park in Jaffrey. He says he and others with him, some also in costume, were on a lesser-used trail and weren't bothering other park visitors. Doyle says the state hasn't responded to his letter. The Division of Parks and Recreation says it has been forwarded to the state attorney general's office. -------------------- The question is:  Would you be able to resist the temptation to jump out from behind trees and scare park visitors if you were dressed up as Bigfoot?  I'm not sure that I could should I ever find myself in that rather unlikely situation.

Posted by AngryRedhead 8 years ago


NPR: $100/Barrel of Crude

This came up in another forum, but I heard the report too.... So today, there was a broadcast on NPR (yes, I admit that I listen to NPR :p) about a $100 per barrel crisis.... If you didn't know, a barrel of crude goes for about $93. Personally, I don't think it will cause a crisis - it's not as if it's going from $30 to $100 in a week. However, seriously, are the masses comatose? It's not like no one has been warning them of this - and the consequences nowhere near sustainable living. Arrrrr.... I've been saying it for awhile - if we don't regulate ourselves, nature is going to take the kind liberty of doing that for us (and that won't be pretty). Soylent Green anyone? I mean, I recently read that the average American will consume about 500,000 gallons of water per year... whereas some of the Nordic countries, consumption is around 17,500 gallons per person... By the way, the US has a very limited water store supply :/ US has 5% of world population... 25% of world total CO2 emissions. China, for example, has 22% of the world population - but only 15% of the world's CO2 emissions.... US has 5% of the world population - and 29% world CO2 emissions from fossil fuels. (china 14.5) What percentage of companies are considered sustainable (by Dow Jones sustainability index) in the US? A measly, 19.8% (UK: 68%).

Posted by trebuchet03 10 years ago


EFF 17th Birthday Party

It's time for EFF's 17th birthday party!They're a great organization, worthy of a donation even if you can't make the party in person. From their website:Join EFF in celebrating our 17th year of defending digital rights! Since 1990, EFF has been there fighting for freedom and civil liberties.The birthday bash will be on January 15, 7-11 PM, at 111 Minna Gallery in San Francisco. Headliners Adrian & the Mysterious D (A+D), the DJ duo that founded the seminal mashup party "Bootie," will be dropping a shameless, genre-smashing blend of tracks, backed up by DJ sets from Bay Area copyfighters Ripley, Kid Kameleon and EFF's own J Tones and Qubitsu.The EFF party will also feature an exclusive chocolate sampling with TCHO, "a new chocolate company for a new generation of chocolate enthusiasts." Founded by Wired co-founder Louis Rossetto and legendary chocolatier Timothy Childs, himself a former technologist, TCHO will be bringing a "beta release" of its best dark chocolate to the party table. Attendees are invited to vote for their favorite TCHO beta chocolate flavors at the party -- feedback that will help define TCHO's next steps as they gear up for a national release.We'll be asking for a $20 donation at the door. No one will be turned away for lack of funds, but all proceeds will go toward our work defending your digital freedom.What:EFF's 17th Birthday PartyWhen:January 15, 7-10 PMWhere:111 Minna Gallery111 Minna StreetSan Francisco, CA94105www.111minnagallery.comTel: (415) 974-1719This fundraiser is open to the general public. 21+ only, cash bar.Please RSVP to: events@eff.org

Posted by canida 10 years ago


Contests, what happens after and why you might have to wait a bit longer

Basically after every bigger contest questions come up like: Where did the contest go? Closing date is long past, when do we see the winners? And so on... So I took the liberty to explain a few things as far as Iunderstand them. 1. The closing day is fixed, same for the internal judging here on Instructables - but the sponsor needs to view those results and confirm on the winners. This means once the contest judging is over it will take some time for some of the contests to completed. Some sponsors act fast, some need a bit more time, so be patient - no contest will get lost here. For anyone who entered a contest it means you have to wait until the contest page is updated, you can still find the contest in the list of closed contests to check if there is any news posted. 2. Everyone who has entered a contest will receive an Email once the final judging is done and the winners are anounced. Again, no contest is lost and as long as you have no Email notification the judging and final decisions are not completed. Just be patient ;) 3. Prizes... Although basically everything is said about it, posting can sometimes take a bit longer than you might expect. So even you got the winning notification and confirmation the price is posted you might find some items are still delivered on horses ;) Especially international deliveries can take several weeks, depending on their size, weight and what type of service was used. If you are lucky you will get tracking information to estimate the arrival, but if in doubt allow enough time. I hope this helps to ease the confusion a bit when it comes to contests.

Posted by Downunder35m 3 years ago


Transition to a Post-Industrial World

Our friends at the CIRCUS Foundation would like your help, in the form of a few paragraphs speculating on our post-industrial future.You're obviously the perfect people to weigh in on this topic - Instructables is full of green, reusable, energy-saving, upcycling projects, so you're definitely in the headspace - so what do you think the future will look like? Share your ideas in 500 words or less.From the original post: Bridges to the Post Industrial PlanetOur future well-being requires that in twenty years' time we should be living in a manner that differs markedly from the way we've lived in the past century and a half. It seems likely we'll consume less energy, use physical resources more sparingly, moderate the waste we generate, make fewer long journeys, rely more on local produce, repair things we'd currently replace, share objects we might currently own. Other implications are less obvious but potentially significant. Will be the role of corporations change? How will our societies be governed? What civil liberties can we expect?The better we're able to imagine a post industrial world, the better we can identify the barriers to getting there and prepare bridges to get over them. CALL FOR SUBMISSIONS We're inviting people to write a few paragraphs, no more than 500 words, outlining the greatest difficulty you think we face in making the transition to a post industrial world. This might be a technological issue, a cultural barrier, an economic factor or something else. If you have ideas about how the barrier could be overcome go ahead and outline them too.Send your submission to open@CIRCUS-foundation.org along with a couple of lines about who you are. The results will be compiled in a book that will be published free on the web and form the basis of a seminar to be held in London later in 2008.

Posted by canida 10 years ago


Instructables, Popular Science, and TreeHugger "Go Green!" Contest Results

Instructables, Popular Science, and [http://www.treehugger Treehugger] are pleased to announce the winners of the Go Green contest!The entries were fantastic- check the full list of projects as well as the winners for more great ways to green your life.Grand PrizeThe grand prize winner will receive a Breezer Liberty hybrid commuter bicycle with pedal-powered lights, an Instructables robot t-shirt, a brief write-up in a future issue of Popular Science, and a 1-year subscription to Popular Science magazine.Hydroponic Bog Garden (Water Recycling) by BiotankFirst PrizeEach first prize winner will receive a Solio Universal Hybrid Solar Charger (TreeHugger review here), an Instructables robot t-shirt, and a 1-year subscription to Popular Science magazine.Bicyle Power for Your Television by bdwhaleyGeodesic Dome Greenhouse by yes2techHow to MAKE PV Solar Panels by VIRONPortable 12V Air Conditioner --Cheap and easy! by CameronSSSolar Thermal Water Heater For Less Than Five Dollars by TheNaibSecond PrizeEach second prize winner will receive an Instructables robot t-shirt and a 1-year subscription to Popular Science Magazine.Build your own flat panel solar thermal collector by iwilltryCart Bike by zieakComposter (Drum Style) by jdlinkFree Air Conditioning by VygerGrow organic food without spending $ by gowithfloHack a Toilet for free water by gregorylavoieHow to save water in gardens and small-holdings: the Scrooge Bottle by KitemanMake an Evaporative Terra Cotta Beer Chiller by jolshefskyRecreate a Vanishing Ecosystem : The Eastern Vernal Pool by Tool Using AnimalThe Wind-up Headboard Reading Light by peterwbrownAll winners should watch their inboxes for a private message with prize-claim instructions.Thanks to our judges, who carefully read through all 63 eligible entries:arwen; canida; Dave Prochnow, PopSci; Doug Cantor, PopSci; ewilhelm; fungus amungus; Graham Hill, TreeHugger; John Mahoney, PopSci; Ken Rother, TreeHugger; Mike Haney, PopSci; noahw; numberandom; reno_dakota; seedlingproject; Shayne McQuaid, TreeHugger; stasterisk; T3h_Muffinator; TetranitrateFor more information on how we judged, click here for the full results.

Posted by canida 11 years ago


Thin edge of the wedge in Texan education?

Any Texans out there? Did you know what (revisionist?) plans were afoot in your education system? Even as a panel of educators laid out a vision Wednesday for national standards for public schools, the Texas school board was going in a different direction, holding hearings on changes to its social studies curriculum that would portray conservatives in a more positive light, emphasize the role of Christianity in American history and include Republican political philosophies in textbooks. There have also been efforts among conservatives on the board to tweak the history of the civil rights movement. One amendment states that the movement created “unrealistic expectations of equal outcomes” among minorities. Another proposed change removes any reference to race, sex or religion in talking about how different groups have contributed to the national identity. - A greater emphasis on “the conservative resurgence of the 1980s and 1990s.” - A reduced scope for Latino history and culture. - Changes in specific terminology. Terms that the board’s conservative majority felt were ideologically loaded are being retired. (The new recommendations stress the need for favorable depictions of America’s economic superiority across the board.) - A more positive portrayal of Cold War anticommunism. Disgraced anticommunist crusader Joseph McCarthy, the Wisconsin senator censured by the Senate for his aggressive targeting of individual citizens and their civil liberties on the basis of their purported ties to the Communist Party, comes in for partial rehabilitation. - Language that qualifies the legacy of 1960s liberalism. Great Society programs such as Title IX—which provides for equal gender access to educational resources—and affirmative action, intended to remedy historic workplace discrimination against African-Americans, are said to have created adverse “unintended consequences” in the curriculum’s preferred language. - Thomas Jefferson no longer included among writers influencing the nation’s intellectual origins. Jefferson, a deist who helped pioneer the legal theory of the separation of church and state, is not a model founder in the board’s judgment. ... Heavy emphasis is also to be placed on the founding fathers having been guided by strict Christian beliefs. - Excision of recent third-party presidential candidates Ralph Nader (from the left) and Ross Perot (from the centrist Reform Party). - A recommendation to include country and western music among the nation’s important cultural movements. The popular black genre of hip-hop is being dropped from the same list. None of these proposals has met with final ratification from the board—that vote will come in May, after a prolonged period of public comment on the recommendations. Still, the conservatives clearly feel like the bulk of their work is done; after the 120-page draft was finalized last Friday, Republican board member Terri Leo declared that it was "world class" and "exceptional." First paragraphs from New York Times Headline paragraphs from Yahoo News It occurs to me that it may be appropriate for some members to have a rather forceful word with their elected representatives - at all levels - about the damage these proposals will cause in the American education system...

Posted by Kiteman 8 years ago


August 28th, 1963

On this day, a Baptist minister from Atlanta Georgia stood up in front of a quarter of a million people, and said this: I am happy to join with you today in what will go down in history as the greatest demonstration for freedom in the history of our nation.Five score years ago, a great American, in whose symbolic shadow we stand, signed the Emancipation Proclamation. This momentous decree came as a great beacon light of hope to millions of Negro slaves who had been seared in the flames of withering injustice. It came as a joyous daybreak to end the long night of captivity. But 100 years later, we must face the tragic fact that the Negro is still not free. One hundred years later, the life of the Negro is still sadly crippled by the manacles of segregation and the chains of discrimination. One hundred years later, the Negro lives on a lonely island of poverty in the midst of a vast ocean of material prosperity. One hundred years later, the Negro is still languishing in the corners of American society and finds himself an exile in his own land.And so we've come here today to dramatize an appalling condition. In a sense we've come to our nation's capital to cash a cheque. When the architects of our republic wrote the magnificent words of the Constitution and the Declaration of Independence, they were signing a promissory note to which every American was to fall heir. This note was a promise that all men would be guaranteed the inalienable rights of "Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness."It is obvious today that America has defaulted on this promissory note insofar as her citizens of colour are concerned. Instead of honouring this sacred obligation, America has given the Negro people a bad cheque which has come back marked "insufficient funds." But we refuse to believe that the bank of justice is bankrupt. We refuse to believe that there are insufficient funds in the great vaults of opportunity of this nation. So we've come to cash this cheque - a cheque that will give us upon demand the riches of freedom and the security of justice. We have also come to this hallowed spot to remind America of the fierce urgency of now. This is no time to engage in the luxury of cooling off or to take the tranquilizing drug of gradualism. Now is the time to rise from the dark and desolate valley of segregation to the sunlit path of racial justice. Now is the time to lift our nation from the quicksands of racial injustice to the solid rock of brotherhood. Now is the time to make justice a reality for all of God's children.It would be fatal for the nation to overlook the urgency of the moment. This sweltering summer of the Negro's legitimate discontent will not pass until there is an invigorating autumn of freedom and equality. 1963 is not an end, but a beginning. Those who hope that the Negro needed to blow off steam and will now be content will have a rude awakening if the nation returns to business as usual.There will be neither rest nor tranquillity in America until the Negro is granted his citizenship rights. The whirlwinds of revolt will continue to shake the foundations of our nation until the bright day of justice emerges.But there is something that I must say to my people, who stand on the warm threshold which leads into the palace of justice: in the process of gaining our rightful place we must not be guilty of wrongful deeds. Let us not seek to satisfy our thirst for freedom by drinking from the cup of bitterness and hatred. We must forever conduct our struggle on the high plane of dignity and discipline. We must not allow our creative protest to degenerate into physical violence. Again and again we must rise to the majestic heights of meeting physical force with soul force.The marvellous new militancy which has engulfed the Negro community must not lead us to distrust of all white people, for many of our white brothers, as evidenced by their presence here today, have come to realize that their destiny is tied up with our destiny. They have come to realise that their freedom is inextricably bound to our freedom. We cannot walk alone. And as we walk, we must make the pledge that we shall march ahead. We cannot turn back. There are those who are asking the devotees of civil rights: "When will you be satisfied?" We can never be satisfied as long as the Negro is the victim of the unspeakable horrors of police brutality. We can never be satisfied as long as our bodies, heavy with the fatigue of travel, cannot gain lodging in the motels of the highways and the hotels of the cities. We cannot be satisfied as long as the Negro's basic mobility is from a smaller ghetto to a larger one. We can never be satisfied as long as our children are stripped of their selfhood and robbed of their dignity by signs stating "For Whites Only". We cannot be satisfied and we will not be satisfied as long as a Negro in Mississippi cannot vote and a Negro in New York believes he has nothing for which to vote. No, no, we are not satisfied, and we will not be satisfied until justice rolls down like waters and righteousness like a mighty stream.I am not unmindful that some of you have come here out of great trials and tribulations. Some of you have come fresh from narrow jail cells. Some of you have come from areas where your quest for freedom left you battered by the storms of persecution and staggered by the winds of police brutality. You have been the veterans of creative suffering. Continue to work with the faith that unearned suffering is redemptive.Go back to Mississippi, go back to Alabama, go back to Georgia, go back to Louisiana, go back to the slums and ghettos of our northern cities, knowing that somehow this situation can and will be changed.Let us not wallow in the valley of despair. I say to you today, my friends, that in spite of the difficulties and frustrations of the moment, I still have a dream. It is a dream deeply rooted in the American dream. I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed - we hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men are created equal.I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave-owners will be able to sit down together at a table of brotherhood.I have a dream that one day even the state of Mississippi, a desert state, sweltering with the heat of injustice and oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice.I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the colour of their skin but by the content of their character.I have a dream today!I have a dream that one day, down in Alabama, with its vicious racists, with its governor having his lips dripping with the words of interposition and nullification; one day right there in Alabama little black boys and little black girls will be able to join hands with little white boys and white girls as sisters and brothers.I have a dream today!I have a dream that one day every valley shall be exalted, every hill and mountain shall be made low, the rough places will be made plain, and the crooked places will be made straight, and the glory of the Lord shall be revealed, and all flesh shall see it together.This is our hope. This is the faith that I will go back to the South with. With this faith we will be able to hew out of the mountain of despair a stone of hope.With this faith we will be able to transform the jangling discords of our nation into a beautiful symphony of brotherhood. With this faith we will be able to work together, to pray together, to struggle together, to go to jail together, to stand up for freedom together, knowing that we will be free one day.This will be the day, this will be the day when all of God's children will be able to sing with a new meaning: "My country, 'tis of thee, sweet land of liberty, of thee I sing. Land where my fathers died, land of the pilgrim's pride, from every mountainside, let freedom ring." And if America is to be a great nation, this must become true.And so let freedom ring from the prodigious hilltops of New Hampshire.Let freedom ring from the mighty mountains of New York.Let freedom ring from the heightening Alleghenies of Pennsylvania!Let freedom ring from the snow-capped Rockies of Colorado.Let freedom ring from the curvaceous peaks of California.But not only that.Let freedom ring from Stone Mountain of Georgia.Let freedom ring from Lookout Mountain of Tennessee.Let freedom ring from every hill and every molehill of Mississippi, from every mountainside, let freedom ring!And when this happens, when we allow freedom to ring, when we let it ring from every village and every hamlet, from every state and every city, we will be able to speed up that day when all of God's children, black men and white men, Jews and Gentiles, Protestants and Catholics, will be able to join hands and sing in the words of the old Negro spiritual: "Free at last! Free at last! thank God Almighty, we are free at last!"

Posted by Kiteman 9 years ago


heliostat and sun tracker basic program

In the late 1980s, I designed, built and programmed a computer-controlled heliostat. Its mirror reflected sunlight into my living-room, making it much brighter. It worked excellently with almost no attention for many years, until a neighbour's tree grew and blocked sunlight from reaching the mirror. The computer was a Commodore VIC 20, which was old even then, and had only 4.5 kilobytes of memory. The program I wrote, in Commodore BASIC, fitted into that space and handled all the control functions. It even included a few "bells and whistles". For example, at night-time the mirror was automatically parked face downward to reduce the buildup of dust. That particular program would work only on a VIC, and I haven't seen any of those for many years. However, I have recently taken the astronomical and trigonometrical parts of the program and made them into a new program which I'll append below. It calculates the position of the sun in the sky, as azimuth (true compass bearing) and angle of elevation, as seen from anywhere on the earth at any time on any date. It also calculates the required orientation of a mirror if it is to reflect sunlight in any desired direction. With the addition of some code to enable the computer to control motors, this could become the software for a computerized sun-tracker or heliostat. I'll append two versions of the program. The first is in QBasic, and contains quite a lot of explanatory comments. The second version is in a very generic BASIC, and has been tested on many implementations of the language. It even has line numbers! Personally, I prefer the QBasic version. The coding is more elegant. However, the generic version is likely to be useful to more people. It's public-domain. Use it for any purpose, even commercially. Enjoy! dow ' SunAlign.BAS (Version for QBasic and similar dialects) ' Calculates position of sun in sky, as azimuth (compass bearing ' measured clockwise from True North) and angle of elevation, as ' seen from any place on earth, on any date and any time. ' Also calculates alignment of a heliostat mirror. ' David Williams ' P.O. Box 48512 ' 3605 Lakeshore Blvd. West ' Toronto, Ontario. M8W 4Y6 ' Canada ' Initially dated 2007 Jul 07 ' This version 2008 Jan 13 ' All angles in radians except in i/o routines DegIn and DegOut DECLARE SUB C2P (X, Y, Z, AZ, EL) DECLARE SUB P2C (AZ, EL, X, Y, Z) DECLARE FUNCTION Ang (X, Y) DECLARE SUB DegIn (P$, X) DECLARE SUB DegOut (P$, X) CONST PY = 3.1415926536# ' "PI" not assignable in some BASICs CONST DR = 180 / PY ' degree / radian factor W = 2 * PY / 365 ' earth's mean orbital angular speed in radians/day WR = PY / 12' earth's speed of rotation relative to sun (radians/hour) C = -23.45 / DR ' reverse angle of earth's axial tilt in radians ST = SIN(C) ' sine of reverse tilt CT = COS(C) ' cosine of reverse tilt E2 = 2 * .0167 ' twice earth's orbital eccentricity SN = 10 * W ' 10 days from December solstice to New Year (Jan 1) SP = 12 * W ' 12 days from December solstice to perihelion CLS Menu: PRINT "1. Calculate sun's position" PRINT "2. Calculate mirror orientation" PRINT "3. Calculate both" PRINT "4. Quit program" PRINT PRINT "Which? (1 - 4)"; DO S% = VAL(INKEY$) LOOP UNTIL S% >= 1 AND S% <= 4 PRINT S% IF S% = 4 THEN END ' Note: For brevity, no error checks on user inputs PRINT PRINT "Use negative numbers for directions opposite to those shown." PRINT DegIn "Observer's latitude (degrees North)", LT DegIn "Observer's longitude (degrees East)", LG INPUT "Time Zone (+/- hours from GMT/UT)"; TZN INPUT "Time (HH,MM) (24-hr format)"; HR, MIN INPUT "Date (M#,D#)"; Mth%, Day% PRINT CL = PY / 2 - LT ' co-latitude D = INT(30.6 * ((Mth% + 9) MOD 12) + 58.5 + Day%) MOD 365 ' day of year (D = 0 on Jan 1) A = W * D + SN ' orbit angle since solstice at mean speed B = A + E2 * SIN(A - SP) ' angle with correction for eccentricity C = (A - ATN(TAN(B) / CT)) / PY SL = PY * (C - INT(C + .5))' solar longitude relative to mean position C = ST * COS(B) DC = ATN(C / SQR(1 - C * C)) ' solar declination (latitude) ' arcsine of C. ASN not directly available in QBasic LD = (HR - TZN + MIN / 60) * WR + SL + LG ' longitude difference CALL P2C(LD, DC, sX, sY, sZ) ' polar axis (perpend'r to azimuth plane) CALL C2P(sY, sZ, sX, sAZ, sEL) ' horizontal axis CALL P2C(sAZ - CL, sEL, sY, sZ, sX) ' rotate by co-latitude IF sZ < 0 THEN BEEP PRINT "Sun Below Horizon" PRINT GOTO NewCalc END IF IF S% <> 2 THEN ' calculate and display sun's position CALL C2P(sX, sY, sZ, sAZ, sEL) ' vertical axis DegOut "Sun's azimuth: ", sAZ DegOut "Sun's elevation: ", sEL PRINT END IF IF S% > 1 THEN ' calculate and display mirror orientation PRINT "For target direction of light reflected from mirror:" DegIn "Azimuth of target direction (degrees)", tAZ DegIn "Elevation of target direction (degrees)", tEL PRINT CALL P2C(tAZ, tEL, tX, tY, tZ) ' target vector X,Y,Z CALL C2P(sX + tX, sY + tY, sZ + tZ, mAZ, mEL) ' angle bisection by vector addition PRINT "Mirror aim direction (perpendicular to surface):" DegOut "Azimuth: ", mAZ DegOut "Elevation: ", mEL PRINT END IF NewCalc: PRINT PRINT "New Calculation" PRINT GOTO Menu FUNCTION Ang (X, Y) ' calculates angle from positive X axis to vector to (X,Y) SELECT CASE SGN(X) CASE 1: Ang = ATN(Y / X) CASE -1: Ang = ATN(Y / X) + PY CASE ELSE: Ang = SGN(Y) * PY / 2 END SELECT END FUNCTION SUB C2P (X, Y, Z, AZ, EL) ' Cartesian to Polar. Convert from X,Y,Z to AZ,EL EL = Ang(SQR(X * X + Y * Y), Z) A = Ang(Y, X) IF A < PY THEN AZ = A + PY ELSE AZ = A - PY END SUB SUB DegIn (P$, X) ' Input angle in degrees and convert to radians PRINT P$; INPUT N X = N / DR END SUB SUB DegOut (P$, X) ' converts radians to degrees, rounds to nearest 0.1, and prints S$ = LTRIM$(STR$(INT(10 * ABS(X * DR) + .5))) IF S$ = "3600" THEN S$ = "0" IF LEN(S$) = 1 THEN S$ = "0" + S$ IF X < 0 THEN IF VAL(S$) THEN S$ = "-" + S$ PRINT P$; LEFT$(S$, LEN(S$) - 1); "."; RIGHT$(S$, 1); " degrees" END SUB SUB P2C (AZ, EL, X, Y, Z) ' Polar to Cartesian. Convert from AZ,EL to X,Y,Z Z = SIN(EL) C = -COS(EL) X = C * SIN(AZ) Y = C * COS(AZ) END SUB 100 REM SunAlign.BAS (Generic BASIC version) 110 REM Calculates position of sun in sky, as azimuth (compass bearing 120 REM measured clockwise from True North) and angle of elevation, as 130 REM seen from any place on earth, on any date and any time. 140 REM Also calculates alignment of a heliostat mirror. 150 REM David Williams 160 REM P.O. Box 48512 170 REM 3605 Lakeshore Blvd. West 180 REM Toronto, Ontario. M8W 4Y6 190 REM Canada 200 REM Original date 2007 Jul 07. This version 2007 Oct 07 210 REM Note: For brevity, no error checks on user inputs 220 CLS 230 PRINT "Use negative numbers for opposite directions." 240 INPUT "Observer's latitude (degrees North)"; LT 250 INPUT "Observer's longitude (degrees East)"; LG 260 INPUT "Date (M#,D#)"; Mth, Day 270 INPUT "Time (HH,MM) (24-hr format)"; HR, MIN 280 INPUT "Time Zone (+/- hours from GMT/UT)"; TZN 290 PY = 4 * ATN(1): REM "PI" not assignable in some BASICs 300 DR = 180 / PY: REM degree/radian factor 310 W = 2 * PY / 365: REM earth's mean orbital speed in radians/day 320 C = -23.45 / DR: REM reverse angle of axial tilt in radians 330 ST = SIN(C): REM sine of reverse tilt 340 CT = COS(C): REM cosine of reverse tilt 350 E2 = 2 * .0167: REM twice earth's orbital eccentricity 360 SP = 12 * W: REM 12 days from December solstice to perihelion 370 D = INT(30.6 * ((Mth + 9) MOD 12) + 58.5 + Day) MOD 365 380 A = W * (D + 10): REM Solstice 10 days before Jan 1 390 B = A + E2 * SIN(A - SP) 400 C = (A - ATN(TAN(B) / CT)) / PY 410 ET = 720 * (C - INT(C + .5)): REM equation of time 420 REM in 720 minutes, earth rotates PI radians relative to sun 430 C = ST * COS(B) 440 EL = ATN(C / SQR(1 - C * C)) * DR: REM solar declination 450 AZ = 15 * (HR - TZN) + (MIN + ET) / 4 + LG: REM longitude diff 460 GOSUB 800 470 R = SQR(Y * Y + Z * Z) 480 AX = Y: AY = Z: GOSUB 710 490 A = AA + (90 - LT) / DR 500 Y = R * COS(A) 510 Z = R * SIN(A) 520 GOSUB 740 530 PRINT : REM AZ & EL are now sun's azimuth & elevation in degrees 540 IF EL < 0 THEN PRINT "Sun Below Horizon": END 550 R = AZ: GOSUB 870: PRINT "Sun's azimuth: "; R; " degrees" 560 R = EL: GOSUB 870: PRINT "Sun's elevation: "; R; " degrees" 570 PRINT 580 INPUT "Calculate heliostat mirror alignment (y/n)"; K$ 590 IF K$ = "N" OR K$ = "n" THEN END 600 SX = X: SY = Y: SZ = Z 610 PRINT 620 INPUT "Azimuth of target direction (degrees)"; AZ 630 INPUT "Elevation of target direction (degrees)"; EL 640 GOSUB 800 650 X = X + SX: Y = Y + SY: Z = Z + SZ: GOSUB 740 660 PRINT : REM AZ & EL are now aim azimuth & elevation in degrees 670 PRINT "Mirror aim direction (perpendicular to surface):" 680 R = AZ: GOSUB 870: PRINT "Azimuth: "; R; " degrees" 690 R = EL: GOSUB 870: PRINT "Elevation: "; R; " degrees" 700 END 710 IF AX = 0 THEN AA = SGN(AY) * PY / 2: RETURN 720 AA = ATN(AY / AX): IF AX < 0 THEN AA = AA + PY 730 RETURN 740 AX = SQR(X * X + Y * Y): AY = Z: GOSUB 710 750 EL = AA * DR 760 AX = Y: AY = X: GOSUB 710 770 AZ = AA * DR 780 IF AZ < 180 THEN AZ = AZ + 180 ELSE AZ = AZ - 180 790 RETURN 800 E = EL / DR 810 A = AZ / DR 820 Z = SIN(E) 830 C = 0 - COS(E): REM Won't work without "0" in Liberty Basic 840 X = C * SIN(A) 850 Y = C * COS(A) 860 RETURN 870 R = INT(10 * R + .5): IF R = 3600 THEN R = 0 880 R = R / 10 890 RETURN

Posted by david williams 10 years ago