favorite song(s)

whats your favorite songs by the Beatles.mine are come together and birthday.

Posted by nfk11 7 years ago  |  last reply 6 years ago



Posted by knexsuperbuilderfreak 9 years ago  |  last reply 8 years ago

Firebert010's Shop

My shop will be updated as I see fit. For Sale: JET SKI: Stand-up jetski of unknown brand or type. It runs perfectly, and the motor is in excellent condition. Outside is a bit buffed up, but it runs like a charm. Pictures below. Bidding starts at $350 if you pick it up.

Posted by Firebert010 10 years ago  |  last reply 9 years ago

Comment problem(s)?

Ok, this seems to have shown up today (but then, maybe I only noticed it today), but when I commented this morning, my first one contained some errors, so I went to delete it; and it would not delete.   I added my correction comment above it, and noticed ALSO that some spaces were NOT being taken.  I don't know if this was happening when one reached the end of a line and the word simply gets wrapped, or if it happens when the space bar is used.  But it does appear to happen towards the end of a line. Are these known problems, or have they just surfaced?     

Posted by Goodhart 9 years ago  |  last reply 9 years ago

Visco fuse & M80's

I have 1000's of feet of visco waterproof fuse for sale in Canada. I also have awesome M80's. Let me know what you want. bromac6@yahoo.ca  

Posted by Bromac 6 years ago  |  last reply 2 years ago

What's with all the 5*s?

One thing that has annoyed me quite alot lately is knex guns that would have sucked 3 years ago getting a 5* rating. If you look at the rating system five stars is "best ever" now correct me if I'm wrong but is a piece of trash block trigger gun really the best ever? In my opinion all instructables should be rated for what they are worth instead of just giving a high rating to appear nice. I know many people will play the "it's my first..." card but I find that to be a pathetic excuse. No person's first creation can be the "best ever" thear is always room for improvement. Also shame on those of you who rate everything 5*s, rating for you has become a meaningless action. So by all means post your guns, just don't have a fit when somebody rates it a 2 or 3, it's probably what it deserved, also learn to take constructive critisism, people like DJ know their stuff and can help you improve your building skills, but there is a difference between constructive critisism and bagging somebody elses creation. If you don't like what I'm saying go ahead, rate this .5, heck while you're at it rate all of my stuff .5, with people giving everything a 5 the rating system seems pretty much worthless to me anyway. So next time you check out a new gun, try to give it the rating it deserves.

Posted by Fred the Penguin 8 years ago  |  last reply 8 years ago

Fozzy13's AiR Experience!

Being an Artist in Residence at Instructables was an amazing experience.  It's difficult to put into words but I'll give it my best shot. Let's start at the beginning!  Because where else would you start?  I'm a college student, but I wasn't when I started to love building things.  A knee injury years ago took me out of wrestling for a summer and I used my ample free time during that time period quickly filled up as I was excited by the idea of breaking water into hydrogen and oxygen.  Over the past five years, I've grown to love making all sorts of things.  Instructables has always been a fantastic community to get ideas for projects and share what I've made.  After being part of the community for so long I wanted a chance to be a bigger part of Instructables and have the opportunity to meet some of the people who I've been following on this website for years!  Hopefully that only sounds mildly creepy.  The Artist in Residence program allowed me to have just that opportunity. I had the honor of being one of the very first Artists to make use of Instructables/Autodesk's brand new facility.  It's incredible.  If you're on a tour, it will be referred to as the greatest workshop and creative space in the world, and after working in it for a month,  that's an easy statement for me to believe.  The metal shop is where I loved spending most of my time as I worked on my main project: a jet engine.  However, I barely scratched the surface of what's possible even when I dabbled in playing around with 3D printing and laser cutting.  I'll post links to the projects I did when I'm done at the bottom of this post! I could go on and on about how exciting it was to learn how to TIG weld, or pull my first 3D printed object out of the printer for cleaning.  That's not what I loved most about being an Artist in Residence.  Don't get me wrong, that's why I was there, and I loved every minute of it!  But what I loved most was just being in the office at Instructables.  It was an amazing feeling to get to interact with lots of different people who all in some way loved to make things.  Being around people who know what Maker Faire is meant a lot to me!  Usually mentioning it only yields confused faces in my city.  It was great getting to talk about different projects people had done or were working on, which made me love "Build Day"s more than anything.  Being at the headquarters of Maker Culture made me feel at home. I've been away from the Pier where Instructables HQ is for a few weeks now.  I miss everyone I got to meet there, and I miss having the resources to make anything I could imagine.  Being and Artist in Residence will always be one of my best memories ever, and I can only hope that at some point I'll end up back at Instructables to see the awesome people I met and build some more cool stuff. Thank you to everyone at Instructables who made my short stay a great experience!  I can't thank you enough. - Projects! https://www.instructables.com/id/How-to-Make-a-Mini-Compressed-Air-Turbine/ https://www.instructables.com/id/3D-Printed-Modular-Ball-and-Socket-Joints/ https://www.instructables.com/id/Make-your-own-Instructables-Robot-Keychain Jet Engine Instructable coming later!

Posted by fozzy13 5 years ago  |  last reply 5 years ago

Digital Scope Specs: wfms/s vs. GSa/s vs. Mpts/s vs. bandwidth?

Question say's it all. I understand the concept of analog bandwidth, being that the signal amplitude will be attenuated about 70% at the rated frequency, or something along those lines. I also think I understand the concept of sampling rate, being that the ADC inside the digital scope samples the input voltage level periodically (possibly billions of times per second), and then this gets stored in memory, and displayed. However, then what does the "Mpts/s" figure mean? Is this telling me how many points of the signal can be stored in the memory to be plotted on the screen? how much of this is 'good' and 'good enough'? Also, what about Waveform Capture Rate (wfms/s) I really have no idea for what might be, How it 'waveform' defined? a single period of a repetitive signal, like a ramp wave or triangular wave? Perhaps also a arbitrary wave? What would this tell me? Again, how much of this is 'good' and 'good enough'?

Asked by -max- 3 years ago  |  last reply 3 years ago

QUADROPHONIC s/pdif to usb converter

​Dear 'instructables' people, ​ ​I need a specific device for my audio recording project. I can not find it in the market place as my device (LEXICON MX400) is about 8 years old... so becoming unsupported in the HIDef audiofile arena. ​ ​What do I want? I want an S/Pdif to USB interface specifically : two s/pdif in & two s/pdif out going through a converter to a USB high-speed input on my laptop. ​ ​I can find numerous examples of 'USB to s/pdif'... ergo USB (out of a computer) to single S/Pdif ins (hi def audio systems)... but I need to go the other way around: from my hi quality mixing device (the Lexicon MX400) using it's s/pdif outs (2 of for quadraphonic sound) through a converter (of hi quality with low jitter) to a hi speed USB (usb2 or 3) input of a laptop. ​ ​I have found I can buy external sound cards like the 'old' MBOX (with it's s/pdif in & outs) that would suffice, but these are only SINGLE s/pdif ins & outs meaning I can only make stereo recordings & can not utilise the full power of my unit to make full quadrophonic recordings; which is what I want to do... get all Pink Floyd about my sound. ​ ​Any help will be graciously enjoyed. Thank you for reading my note. Regards D.O.

Posted by danny.omoore 2 years ago  |  last reply 2 years ago

Question....on Workshop of the Future contest(s)

Are there 2 contests named Workshop of the Future? they appear to be different in nature. THANKS all, for making the Titles and pictures different enough in order to make the two contests less confusing. It is APPRECIATED.

Posted by Goodhart 10 years ago  |  last reply 10 years ago

Webcam to Video Capture Card (s-video)

I have a webcam (usb) which I want to connect to video capture card (Osprey 100) having s-video input port. How could I do this? Is it possible? 

Posted by Zoliana 6 years ago  |  last reply 3 years ago



Posted by the_TRUE_LINK_OWNZ! 9 years ago  |  last reply 9 years ago

how to make a adapterter from vga to s-video

How to make a adapterter from vga to s-video

Posted by tazmanaz 6 years ago  |  last reply 6 years ago

Taskings S PAB Support for OrigamiAirEnforcer's Paper Airport

Well, OrigamiAirEnforcer's Paper Airport group is just new...

Posted by wat. 7 years ago

What air gun(s) do you have?

What air gun(s) do you have? Please list them here. NO AIRSOFT!!

Posted by masterofsniping92 9 years ago

What airsoft brands make good M4's? Answered

I want to get a new airsoft gun. My price range is 150 to 300 dollars. So many brands make M4's so I need to find the best one for the right price. I know M4's are extremely popular but Iove the look of them.

Asked by airsofter1 8 years ago  |  last reply 6 years ago

how to suck partner,s tongue during kissing?


Asked by 9 years ago  |  last reply 9 years ago

Upgrading Epiphone Les Paul standard' s hardware?

Hi guys Ive got an Epiphone Les Paul standard. I wonna replace some things by better ones but i dont know were to start. If someone can just tell me what to replace and wich by wich part i would be very happy. thnx annyway

Asked by 9 years ago  |  last reply 9 years ago

What resistor(s) would I use for this LED?

What resistor(s) would I use for this (http://mouser.com/Search/ProductDetail.aspx?qs=sGAEpiMZZMtJ8nYvfCigMnhPGGOZPOa2uZUDzR6R8VM%3d) UV LED? I'll be using 3 of them in a row with a 9v power supply, would I wire it to be battery - resistor - UV LED - resistor - UV LED - resistor - UV LED - battery? Or something like battery - resistor - UV LED - UV LED - UV LED - battery?Thanks!

Asked by sciguy77 9 years ago  |  last reply 9 years ago

Focus a laser-like beam from LED(s)?

Is it possible to focus a beam from an LED so that it makes a laser-like beam? Could it be made to burn? I've heard of simulated lasers that sound like they use LEDs focussed into a beam.

Asked by DIY Emilio 7 years ago  |  last reply 11 months ago

Taskings S PAB Revolution 2012 [The new step]

This is the year before 2012. Now don't think about AHHH we are going to DIE! No WE ARE NOT GOING TO DIE! So calm down, it is not the end. It is for you the chance to step up and act. Why? Because I am tired of wasted users for just joining and THAT IT. So just make a Paper Airplane instructables or a forums and that what im saying, oh and show it to the damn group or your sacked [That includes old members too.]  Answering won't stop you being sacked so just make a forums the easiest. There is another thing why. Because they don't rank up. So they just do random stuff instead. Yeah seriously. And it is the time that you need to get ready for the ANOTHER NEXT YEAR. So just give me info ideas. Thanks for reading it. wat.  

Posted by wat. 7 years ago  |  last reply 7 years ago

nintendo ds lite ,s top screen is blinking.what will be wrong with this?

I bought new nintendo ds lite some days sgo and played some time very carefully but now its top screen is blinking.what will be wrong with this?

Asked by 9 years ago  |  last reply 9 years ago

Easy way to search comments on a project with 100's of comments?

I'd like to search the comments on a specific project.  Unfortunately, the project has 100's of comments meaning they're spread across 5+ web pages.  Many or most of the comments are well deserved compliments.  Ideally, search for specific words related to the project...also, I'd like to see just posts/comments by the creator of the project.  Is there an easy way to do this?

Posted by rdy4trvl 7 years ago  |  last reply 7 years ago

Are there Dremel attachment(s) meant for removing or shaping solid aluminum? Answered

First, I'll explain the background for my question.  I've been meaning to make a 1000 lumen Maglite (Jayrob from CandlePowerForums conceived the design-look it up, it's awesome).  I can get the heatsink from CPF vendors but they come with a 14.5mm diameter pedestal.  I want to reduce the diameter of the pedestal, ideally to less than 12.5mm in order to use a reflector with a smaller hole. So, which Dremel rotary tool attachment(s) would be appropriate for removing and/or 'shaping' aluminum?  Any ideas, other suggestions, or musings?  Thanks.

Asked by OmniWrench8000 7 years ago  |  last reply 7 years ago

9v battery usb charger kit for Arduino kit(s)

Will trade the pieces to make a 9v battery powered altoids tin charger for basic Arduino pieces.i want to get started with Arduinos but don't have cash.

Posted by Legitsmitty 4 years ago

I have an 70's style turntable/radio console.

It is a large floor model with a flip up center which houses the turntable and radio. How can modernize it? Brand: Admiral AM/FM Stereo Multiplex I will be replacing the turntable, what do you suggest about the radio?

Asked by 000000robot 7 years ago  |  last reply 1 year ago

I have an 70's style turntable/radio console.?

I have a Magnavox 591558.  The issue is that the audio from the turntable is diminished out the left speakers. The FM tuner works and sounds great, however when using the turntable, left audio is very muffled.  As a troubleshooting step, I hooked up a Stanton STR8-100 turntable, with pre-amp, as a replacement to the built in turntable, and get the same results.  Good audio out the right channel, but muffled out the left.  So I know the issue has to be somewhere on the circuit board, as the Radio is fine through both channels. I do not see any blown capacitors, or any sign of damage on the circuit boards.  I'm hoping someone here can point me in the right direction.

Asked by mtmorgan56 1 year ago  |  last reply 2 months ago

MGS5's iDroid - Can it be Built with Open Source Tech?

I can't get enough of Metal Gear Solid 5! It definitely deserves the 10/10 scores its received! But as cool as it would be to have a giant robot or even a Walker Gear that you and/or your enemies can pilot, I think the coolest thing to have from the game would be the "iDroid". If you havent played "The Phantom Pain" or "Ground Zeroes", the iDroid is a device Snake uses for multiple purposes. Some include: sending radio trasmissions and calling in supply drops or helicopters between the iDroid's location and Mother Base, Displaying a topographical satellite view of the area Snake is in, Organizing Mother Base staff, resources, R&D; projects, and playing music from cassette tapes found while on missions, Just to name a few. (bold font is to differentiate the uses) So is it possible to build a similar device using the open source technology of today? (minus the use of cassette tapes and a 2D holographic projection screen) I'm pretty confident that it can be done, but what do you guys think?

Posted by EngineerJakit 3 years ago

MGS5's iDroid - Can it be Built with Open Source Tech?

I can't get enough of Metal Gear Solid 5! It definitely deserves the 10/10 scores its received! But as cool as it would be to have a giant robot or even a Walker Gear that you and/or your enemies can pilot, I think the coolest thing to have from the game would be the "iDroid". If you havent played "The Phantom Pain" or "Ground Zeroes", the iDroid is a device Snake uses for multiple purposes. Some include: sending radio trasmissions and calling in supply drops or helicopters between the iDroid's location and Mother Base, Displaying a topographical satellite view of the area Snake is in, Organizing Mother Base staff, resources, R&D; projects, and playing music from cassette tapes found while on missions, Just to name a few. (bold font is to differentiate the uses) So is it possible to build a similar device using the open source technology of today? (minus the use of cassette tapes and a 2D holographic projection screen) I'm pretty confident that it can be done, but what do you guys think? (btw i also have the same topic in the Tech section, cuz i figured that would fit well probably)

Posted by EngineerJakit 3 years ago

build electric chevy S-10? Answered

Asked by shipcreek 8 years ago  |  last reply 8 years ago

why there is change in polarity in a bar magnet when it breaks?

A bar magnet when breaks does not attracts but repels from where it has broken ...   like [N-------S]   is a bar magnet on breaking it should be like  [ N---S} {N---S ] but it happens to be  [N----S} {S---N] ..  means there is "repulsion" between them WHY SO ?? (Pratically seen)

Asked by aporak 6 years ago  |  last reply 6 years ago

Wonder what someone chose for the First Prize???

What did the winner of the first prize choose????

Posted by treesneedtobehugged 8 years ago  |  last reply 8 years ago

Convert DS18B20 temperature to string?

I want to convert DS18B20 temperature (4-bytes code from datasheet) to string with accuracy 0.1°C (like sprintf %.1f). AVR. C language (avr-gcc). I need for small code, so sprintf, floating-point types and round from math.h is bad idea. My following current code is bad also: This is the date sheet of DS18B20 void reverse_string(char *s) {     char *p, c;     for (p = s + strlen(s) - 1; s <= p; ++s, --p) {         c = *p;         *p = *s;         *s = c;     } } void ts_to_string(uint16_t ts, char *s) {     int8_t n = (int8_t)(ts >> 4);     uint8_t neg = n & 0x80;     char *p = s;     float f;     if (neg)         n = -n-1;     do {         *p++ = n % 10 + '0';     } while ((n /= 10) > 0);     if (neg)         *p++ = '-';     *p = '\0';     reverse_string(s);     *p++ = '.';     f = (float)(ts & 0xf) / 16.0;     if (neg)         f = 1.0-f;     *p++ = (char)round(f * 10.0) + '0';     *p = '\0'; }

Asked by DELETED_MakiY2 1 year ago  |  last reply 1 year ago

Hammerhead Urban S-493

The Hammerhead Urban S-493 is a paper airplane that is reinvented from a Hammerhead C-367 [greatest paper airplane ever better invention] and that 2 Hammerhead from the past made the Hammerhead Urban S-493 and what have improved is that is more steady than it's past Hammerhead. It's fast too and further than the Hammerhead from it's past too.

Posted by wat. 8 years ago  |  last reply 8 years ago

Rubik's Cube Instructable!

My new instructable: how to solve a Rubik's Cube

Posted by majorson 7 years ago

How do you do the watusi (dance from the 60's)?

Asked by Gypsylady958 9 years ago  |  last reply 9 years ago

How do I fix an XBOX360's laser diode lens? Answered

My brother has 3 XBOX360's (don't ask me why), and he says two of his three XBOX360s are broken because the lens of the laser diode (or whatever it's called) is broken. Is there anyway to fix it without getting a new XBOX360 and try to keep it as cheap as possible. Aslo, we do have a source of soldering and both of the XBOX's are opened up and have no casing on at this moment (but we still have the casing, just in a box in our 1st floor).

Asked by knexpert1700 6 years ago  |  last reply 3 years ago

What resistor(s) will I need for my IR LED Circuit?

I'm going on information obtained on the net so please bear with me! I'm intending to use eight 200mw triple IR Leds wired together using a nine volt power source (battery). What resistors will I need and how many? I've already seen a diagram on how to assemble the circuit but some confirmation would be greatly appreciated as the previous threads on the subject were somewhat debated.

Asked by Jman58 6 years ago  |  last reply 6 years ago

What's the diameter of the NERF Longshot CS-6's barrel extension?

I'm currently using the existing Longshot barrel extension for my Recon, and I want a replacement for that to put one on my Longshot to make it look like a... well, a Longshot. If possible, could anyone recommend me a diameter that would fit snugly and yet still be able to be removed? I don't want it falling out while firing or holding, or not being removable.

Asked by cld0000 9 years ago  |  last reply 9 years ago

easiest way to root and tether an samsung galaxy s?

Asked by aschutters 7 years ago  |  last reply 7 years ago

can we use hydrogen as a fuel in a 4-s, S.I Engine?

Asked by varun saxena 8 years ago  |  last reply 8 years ago

Monster hunter

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ Full combination list : +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ 1.Potion = Blue Mushroom + Herb 2.Mega Potion = Potion(1)+ Honey 3.Nutrients = Blue Mushroom + Godbug 4.Mega Nutrients = Nutrients(3)+ Honey 5.Antidote = Antidote Herb + Blue Mushroom 6.Herbal Medicine = Cactus Flower + Bitterbug 7.Max Potion = Mega Nutrients(4)+ Dragon Toadstool 8.Ancient Potion = Imunizer(10)+ Kelbi Horn 9.Catalyst=Bitterbug+Honey 10.Imunizer=Catalyst(9)+Dragon Toadstool 11.Power Juice=Catalyst(9)+Rare Steak 12.Mega Juice = Power Extract + Well Done Steak 13.Demondrug = Catalyst(9)+ Power Seed 14.Mega Demondrug = Pale Extract + Demondrug(13) 15.Armourskin = Catalyst(9)+ Armour Seed 16.Mega Armourskin = Pale Extract + Armourskin(15) 17.Poisoned Meat = Raw Meat + Toadstool 18.Tainted Meat = Raw Meat + Stunshroom 19.Drugged Meat = Raw Meat + Sleep Herb 20.Bomb Material = Stone + Sap Plant 21.Smoke Bomb = Bomb Material(20)+ Ivy 22.Flash Bomb = Bomb Material(20)+ Flashbug 23.Dung Bomg = Bomb Material(20)+ Dung 24.Paintball = Paintberry + Sap Plant 25.Gunpowder = Nitroshroom + Fire Herb 26.Small Barrel Bomb = Small Barrel + Fire Herb 27.Large Barrel Bomb = Large Barrel + Gunpowder(25) 28.Sonic Bomb = Gunpowder(25)+ Screamer 29.Net = Spiderweb + Ivy 30.Pitfall Trap = Net(29)+ Trap Tool 31.Tuna Bait = Worm + Yambug 32.Arrowana Bait = Cricket + Bughopper 33.Goldenfish Bait = Firefly + Snakebee Larva 34.Antiseptic Stone = Bitterbug + Earth Crystal 35.Lifecrystals = Godbug + Wyvern Fang 36.Lifepowder = Lifecrystals(35)+ Wyvern Claw 37.Health Flute = Lifepowder(36)+ Flute 38.Antidote flute = Antiseptic stone(34)+ Flute 39.Demon Flute = Mega Demondrug(13)+ Med Monster Bone 40.Armour Flute = Mega Armourskin(15) + Med Monster Bone 41.Normal S Lv2 = Huskberry + Needleberry 42.Normal S Lv3 = Huskberry + Rumblefish 43.Pierce S Lv1 = Huskberry + Velociprey Fang 44.Pierce S Lv2 = Huskberry + Pin Tuna 45.Pierce S Lv3 = Sm Bone Husk + Pin Tuna 46.Pellet S Lv1 = Huskberry + Scatternut 47.Pellet S Lv2 = Huskberry + Wyvern Fang 48.Pellet S Lv3 = Sm Bone Husk + Wyvern Fang 49.Crag S Lv1 = Huskberry + Burst Arrowana 50.Crag S Lv2 = Sm Bone Husk + Burst Arrowana 51.Crag S Lv3 = Lg Bone Husk + Bomb Arrowana 52.Clust S Lv1 = Huskberry + Bomberry 53.Clust S Lv2 = Sm Bone Husk + Wyvern Claw 54.Clust S Lv3 = Lg Bone Husk + Scatterfish 55.Disk S = Huskberry + Disk Stone 56.Recover S Lv1 = Huskberry + Herb 57.Recover S Lv2 = Huskberry + Potion(1) 58.Poison S Lv1 = Huskberry + Toadstool 59.Poison S Lv2 = Sm Bone Husk + Ioprey Fang 60.Stun S Lv1 = Huskberry + Stunshroom 61.Stun S Lv2 = Sm Bone Husk + Genprey Fang 62.Sleep S Lv1 = Huskberry + Sleep Herb 63.Sleep S Lv2 = Sm Bone Husk + Sleepyfish 64.Paint S = Huskberry + Paintberry 65.Antidote S = Huskberry + Antidote Herb 66.Demon S= Huskberry + Power Seed 67.Armour S = Huskberry + Armour Seed 68.Dragon S = Lg Bone Husk + Dragon Seed 69.Dung S = Huskberry + Dung Now dont ask for Items combinations anymore they all are here... once i get MHF I'll add the new ones if theres some

Posted by jellybean10122 10 years ago

Kiteman&quot;s not kiteman anymore!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

Please change it back youre not you anymore!!!!!!!!!!!!! the world is coming to an end!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! wow thats alot of !'s!

Posted by Zaphod Beeblebrox 9 years ago  |  last reply 9 years ago

Electronic Test Equipment Building/Design Contest(s)

Is there any up coming contest(s) that will be the involvement of designing/building electronic test equipments? not pc related and or software driven, just electronic component to make it at ease for most Technicians out there to share the results of an test equipment that can be easily made from easy to get component? And will Trinidad & Tobago be able to enter such contest(s)?  Thanks for any info.... aNGELdREAD RandyXi

Posted by randyxi 6 years ago

theory of water rocket?

Asked by ainmiey 7 years ago  |  last reply 7 years ago

How can you divide an mp4 file into individual clips of mp4's?

I have an extremely long mp4 I need to use parts of for a project, but I don't know how to divide the clip into parts.

Asked by RedneckAsian 7 years ago  |  last reply 2 years ago

How can I extract Peppermint (or another mint plant)'s oil?

I hear oil from algae is extracted by drying it, then soaking it in alcohol to dissolve the extract, then straining it and evaporating the alcohol. I might start experimenting with that, but any suggestions?

Asked by sherlocksbumstead 9 years ago  |  last reply 5 years ago