Understanding microcontrollers? Answered

What are they, and what do they do?

Question by That One Eegit 7 years ago  |  last reply 7 years ago


Understanding Art for Geeks

Paulthewineguy has a great set of images on flickr that apply some very modern twists to art classics. The one below of Galileo facing the Roman Inquisition is a great one.In a way some of these jokes really do help to understand the paintings. Mostly they're just sight gags, though. But whatever works, right? flickr set

Topic by fungus amungus 11 years ago  |  last reply 11 years ago


Understand this circuit for me?

Im trying to add composite video to my Atari 2600. All of the tutorials I have found have been for the rev a and b. Have only found one for the 6 switch rev c. Ive tried to find the same resistors but they are labeled differently. I found this little mod : http://www.ebay.com/itm/Atari-2600-7800-Composite-Video-Mod-Upgrade-Kit-DIY-/300592126324? But thats 25$ for that little thing. I was trying to see how it was made from the picture which wire goes to whichbut couldn't figure it out. Could somebody please write out or make a picture of the schematics? If it would help to know what wire is for what you can see in the tutorial. http://www.vintagegamingandmore.com/installation-guide-6-switch/

Question by Aaamazzara 6 years ago  |  last reply 6 years ago


help understanding this switch

Hi im trying to salvage a dvd drive for a project im working on but i dont seem to be able to replicate how the switch works i can get the drive to open an by applying 5v to the + and - and then reversing the polarity to close the dive but the motor will continuously run until the power is disconnected  so i guess this is where the switch comes in, excuse the picture! i assume that when the momentary button is pressed the switch moves to stage 3 and  allows power to the motor until the switch reaches the next stage where power is then cut off, when the momentary button is pressed again the switch moves back to stage 3  which swaps the polarity and again allows power through, and that cycle carries on each time the momentary button is pressed. stage 1 the dvd drive is closed the swith stays in this position stage 2 the dvd drive is open the swith stays in this position stage 3 the dvd drive is either opening or closing the switch moves to this position when the motor is in use  i have a 5v power supply how would  i wire it up to get it to work properly? it seems like it should be easy enough but either im missing something or im just not getting my head around it properly,

Topic by AbleArcher83 4 years ago  |  last reply 4 years ago


Free Energy - Am I insane or is it time to wake up?

Some might have noticed that I started a few, lets say, unconventional topics here.I added one just as a response to some very nasty feedback I got in other places.If you wonder what I am talking about check my topics about all things related to magnetism, "free energy" and such nonsense.The feedback I got was directed personal enough and verbal enough that I decided to increase my speed of seeding bread crumbs that might allow other people to "see" things slightly differently.Being called insane and mental case is the only things I use here as most of the rest would qualify as insults of the worst kind.The goal that was claimed I totally missed is to make people open up.Science or knowledge is as fluent as life itself.It eveloves with us, around us and through us.But we learned to use technology mostly to replace humans and to make our life easier.With that laziness also a reduced "desire" for knowledge and understand evolved.It is now far easier to "Google it" and forget it right after than to acutally learn and really understand something.A prime example is the disappearing artform of creating Japanese swords.No industrial process can produce a steel as pure and with such properties as used to be "offered" to the master swordsmith.Both are highly specialsed and rely on each other to create the perfect sword that outlasts generations.Once tradition gives way to modern life even this art will become a lost artform.We lost so much already, be it species, health, enviroment or just a "clean planet".Instead of accepting nature back into our scientific thinking and understanding we will continue to fail and get even more reluctant to learn new things.The blockbusters of science are no longer finding new laws of phsics or trying to understand things.We try to go further and further and use more and more dangerous ways to "create" the energy we continue to use more and more with no regrets.Well, other than complaining about the bills for it, which we wouldn't have otherwise...Why do we need more forms of colliding atoms to create energy?No because we need so much, only because we want more and more and at "centralised" locations.Distribution, control, money...Allowing us to use solar panels to reduce our electricity bill is nice, but try to overdo it and make good money by creating you own solar panel park and you get into trouble already.You can't see it anywhere other then back to your provider.And you only get whatever he thinks is a fair price for it, usually far less than what you pay to get it.Once you reach zero some even won't pay you money at all.And since there is always winter and night times it is only good that there will be always a need for electricity from the grid.Just try to get rid of your elecricity, water and gas connection in a township or city in case you found other sources you get for free.....Even if you build new most won't even allow you to without these "required" connections.If you need waste waster you also need tap water you pay for.And since a waste water treatment is no longer hyginic enough (despite proving the opposite) you can't get out.Gas you might be able to avoid but if there is electricity in the stree than it is already a building requirement to provie to the builder...What if all this nonsense and fakery actually has a true background somewhere?Humans are not meant to fly but we developed planes anyways.What once was a dream for a select few is now the prefered travel mode ofr most going on a far away holiday.But it is only so popular because there is a big demand.And where is demand profit can be made.Like a farmer:If you have ton of corn like twenty farmers around you then your local price will be low.Sell them a bit further away and you might get a lot more.In return our demand is closly related to the demands of those that provide the source of your demands.We all need energy and we evolve into a society that will need more of with every new generation.I try to give you hint in the form of a comparison:If you have a nice man cave and love to tinker than you might have a framed hand drill on the wall to remind you of how it all started for your grandfather.Or in most case you just liked it and got it for 2 bucks from a garage sale LOLEither, imagine all electricity would be gone and lost forever.Suddenly this crappy drill becomes a status symbol because only you can do things other people really struggle with - you drill holes with ease...Imagine the rpice you could ask to sell it..."Free energy" is the same but sadly in reverse.If a company sees a profit than it will be utilised some way.And if it happens that energy is your main income and keeps you rich and in control than you don't mind paying two or three fortunes to someone so he can forget and is happy give you his machine.Or would you really say no to life of no limits and with nothing to worry for your future generations of kids and grandkids?A few tried anyway to make a furtune themself by keeping a circle of trusted persons and finding enough willing investors to get their project going.Even if you can find some flaws there are still doubts about what someone would go through the lenght of providing online updates, sales numbers, testimonials and so on for years.Funny enough actually finding someone who is sceptic and make him check and report about it does not work either.No big university orders one or asks to really check it and provide a real world testimonial.No government or legal agency steps in to stop the "fraud" either.What is real, what is fake, what is disguise - you can figure it out if you want to.Ok, I could, but why bother if litereally everyone one already did and showed nothing works when it comes to the great unknown?Exactly for that reason alone it is worth it!People might make money now from ads or through clickbait but the topic is older than the internet already.And the proof even older than electricity...So many people would not try unless someone convinced them to try it ;)Might be just a bad joke but gets the point:If you ask 20 people if you can swim through the river to get to the other side then you might get confusing answers.1. No problem it is safe.Fully true but the guy might be from far up the river where it has no crocodiles in it...2. You could try it but a boat is safer as there might be corcodiles here.Still leaves you the option to swim as you can't be sure about the reptiles...You could go on and create a near endless list with bridges up ahead and so on.What it comes to is that depending on HOW you ask and WHO you ask the answers can be as different as day and night.In terms of science and making someone understand it take the most basic approach possible.Remember that time in school when your math teacher confronted you the existence of negative numbers?The confusion with the zero and how to add, subtract or multiply...Your teacher might have been great or you a quick learner but imagine the worst possible way to teach you an understanding of negative numbers!You know that 5 - 8 equals -3.You learned that this is true and why it is so.Imagine your teacher would have explained this extra simple like back with the apples when learning to add numbers."If there are 5 people in a room and 8 people leave the room, then 3 people must go back in so that room is empty!"Makes total sense if you expand the number game from above to 5 - 8 + 3 = 0 !!No sense at all however if you do it with people ;)People are not numbers, pressures or volumes, they are "real" to us.We associate certain things automatically, other we learn to associate and interpret through learning.Learning however is no longer actually doing all that would be involved in less technological world.We like magic tricks because we fail to understand how it is done or sometimes even how it is possible.Today it is for entertainment only.A true magician would never use his skills to scam people.But spend enough and research and you can do the same trick you saw on stage.Some not as good or not all though - thats life...Ask a good magician how how long it took him to get his new trick ready for the stage and quite often you get to hear it was years in the making.Think about that fact when you judge what is possible by dedication ;)

Question by Downunder35m 5 weeks ago


Questions about Capacitors Answered

Does the capacitance stack in a bank? Does the maximum allowed voltage? How do you wire an SCR? How do I determine what the total output voltage/amps will be?

Question by DELETED_Fuogger 7 years ago  |  last reply 7 years ago


Help understanding Vector Graphics

What are they? How do you create them? (in Adobe and CorelDraw graphic suites) Can a photo be saved as a Vector graphic? Thanks group. jt_stuber

Topic by jt_stuber 12 years ago  |  last reply 11 years ago


I need help understanding

On the computer, when you click"you", then "view profile", in the top right hand corner, what does the eyeball, star, and the question mark mean? I know that they mean views, favorites and comments, but is that the stuff that you viewed, favorited, and commented, or is that the stuff other people did to you or you account.

Topic by MagicHonda 5 years ago  |  last reply 5 years ago


Understanding/Interpreting a firmware update

Hi, I'll try to break this down as simply as I can, because there are bits I barely understand myself. Here's what I've got physically: Orca electronic speed control (ESC) for my RC car (based on unknown, unmarked MCU) Orca USB Link for updating firmware on the ESC (USB link is based on Silabs F321) Here's what I've got electronically: I've got a .bin file in my iMac that is the latest update for the ESC and the Orca update software, that acts as the link between the devices Here's what I've already done: I already have a firm grasp on loading new firmware on to the ESC Here's what I want to do: I'd like to be able to toy around with the data in the .bin file, but I honestly have no idea of how to interpret the data contained therein. I've played with it in a few hex editing programs and got a few words to appear in something approaching English, but nothing concrete. I guess the basic problem is understanding what "language" this was written in. (I'm not even sure if it's 8 or 32 bit) I think after that's figured out, I can work backwards from there. Ultimately, I'd like to understand how all of this works and how the MCU interprets the information and signals it's being fed. Any thoughts you can offer on the subject would be appreciated. Here's a kink to the firmware update, should you choose to look at it. Thanks! http://www.orcarc.com/download/ORCAQ%20ver2.1%20111125A.BIN

Topic by monkeyracing 6 years ago  |  last reply 6 years ago


Is my understanding of capacitors correct? Answered

I am currently working on a "Tutorial Tuesdays" video for my YT channel about capacitors covering some of the basic theory, real-world ratings and considerations, and maybe some cool demonstrations with how to use them and stuff. I just want to make sure that I do understand them correctly,so hopefully you smarter people out there can tell me if I am wrong in any way. 1) A capacitor stores energy in a electric field between two electrically insulated conductive plates, the strength of which will depend on the proximity and surface area of the plates, the dielectric constant. 2) Can I compare "electric charge" to mass; "voltage" to density; and "capacitance" to volume as an analogy? (yes, I know I am ignoring dielectric constants and strengths.) 3) If I look at the peak to peak AC current through a capacitor, and the peak to peak AC voltage, can compare the ratio of the two figures to figure out capacitive reactance? (example: If I have one volt peak to peak AC applied across a capacitor, and I see 10mA of current peak to peak, does that mean the inductive reactance is 100 ohms?) 4) Are the most important things to keep in mind with capacitors in general are "working voltage" (the maximum voltage a cap can withstand), "capacitance" (how much charge a capacitor can store for some given voltage)  "ESR" Equivalent Series Resistance, which is how 'good' the capacitor is, and "temperature" (which can potentially adversely affect the performance and ratings of a capacitor)? 5)Uses for capacitors include Energy storage, analog filters, DC removal, voltage transient suppression, voltage smoothing, timing/counting AC coupling, data storage, phase shifting, motor starting, etc. 6) The ---| |---- symbol represents a generic non-polarized capacitor      The ---| (---- or --[] []-- (with one box colored in) symbol represents polarized capacitors    The ---|/|---- symbol (with a slash in the middle being a slanted arrow) represents variably capacitors 7) Should I try to learn how to work with complex impedance (capacitors, resistors, and inductors in all sorts of weird configurations) Also, can I treat reactance in general as a resistance when looking at capacitors in series or parallel with resistive loads and stuff?

Question by -max- 3 years ago  |  last reply 3 years ago


Why "Vortex" for Vortex math and devices?

If you are new to the topic then it might give you a slightly quicker understanding than watching hours of youtube videos.I assume you have seen these various coils that make a sphere shaped magnet spin at insane speeds.They are a good start.You see by normal understanding these Rodin or Vortex coils should not be able to produce a field that rotates that fast.As with a lot of things we tried to use math to explain it in theory and than adjusted the math to match it.Vortex math was born.So how do you explain blue and red to a blind person that never saw anything?I mean in a way they actually know how it would look if they could see?Doesn't work, but we can use a Dyson vacuum cleaner ;)A lot of "tornados" add up to one giant super tornado.Spinning so fast that "all" the dirst stays behind and only clean air comes out.As in nature all the weather cells add up to one that is more powerful than the combined single ones.The tornados that form the term vortex are around the coils.But also around the entire donut as well as every single strand of wire.In any good vortex the rotational speed increases towards the center and bottom of the vortex.You can try that with some floating stuff when you drain your bathtub or sink.Try to imagine and endless tornado that runs around every wire like a spiral.The coil itself adds another spin vector to it and increases the moving speed or the single tornado.Combined it adds up to a very strong tornadoe moving very fast around in the coil pack.As this also creates a rotating field like another tornado in the donut shape it all gets twisted up.Physics as we know it won't fully explain these effects.Vortex devices that produce electricity are usually coils in a special winding configuration and pattern.Like we try to eliminate certain things with basket coils in the HF area a Rodin or Vortex coil tries to utlise these otherwise unwanted stray effects and interferences.Overunity is another term people like to use here but I leave it up to you if such a things is phsically possible with an electrical system.Vortex math tries to explain all these things demonstrated in experiments.However I found two slight flaws in the common approch.1. Only two dimension used.Unlike the coils the simplified Vortex math only operates in two dimensions.A circle instead of a sphere if you like.2. Again, unlike the coil harmony and resonance are neglected.It seems in some cases people try to draw a circle just with straight lines.While in reality you have a never ending, resonant "stream" in three or to be precise four dimensions.Is it the chicken and egg problem?Yes and no.You can only calculate something if you can fully understand it or exactly replicate it in reality.Vortex coils are just way to interpret theories and get some sort of results.And those results are the real problem.We can measure magnatic fields in strenght and direction even frequency.However we can neither make them visible in real time not measure mixed or entangled fields properly.We "see" Mars is our "red planet" but in reality it just the atmosphere, the surface is not red at all in most places.NASA has enough problems to calculated missions to outer space with enough accuracy.Just imagine they would have to do it while considering that around every path our planets make is another spinning "distraction"....That is exactly what Vortex math tries to do while eliminating common math bit by bit.You can see and hear in 3 dimensions.Maybe you are also good in drawing something in 3D on your compterscreen or 3D headset.But how many here could predict the path of a baseball in 3D like they do when watching a game?Depending on your viewing angle you might be way off....Try to know or calculate where exactly the ball is at any given monet in time and how fast it spins in which direction.....Our brains are not trained to think like this!Even if we construct things like a dome we prefer to have straight features.Sure manufacturing is one thing that needs to be affordable.But try to just calculate the support structure if all is actually fully round like a sphere should be.We avoid what is considered higher dimensions as much we can.To calculate a distance in 3D it still seems easier to use two 2D models to add up instead of true vectors.Again only through technology like computer we are able to simulate, understand and actually calculate what we need.Where we ventured around the globe and into our solar system our math was left behind.Finding workaround and good enough approximations still seems the way to go.Instead actually evolving our math to our needs we just add more and more complex formulas and calculations.To fully understand vortex math you need to let go and start thinking in 4 dimensions instead of just 2.Oh, sorry, you might be new to this...Number 4 is time of course.

Topic by Downunder35m 8 weeks ago


need help with understanding an instructable's schematic

I'm not very good at understanding schematics I guess, and am trying to understand the schematic at https://www.instructables.com/image/FT6P10TGTTUHASZ/Assembly.jpg . I've created a rough translation of it at https://www.instructables.com/files/deriv/FQV/10DS/GU2QYOY1/FQV10DSGU2QYOY1.MEDIUM.jpg . Can someone fill in the polarities at the question mark locations and confirm that my interpretation of the wiring intersections is correct please? I'd appreciate any help available. Thanks!?

Question by aeneas shrike 7 years ago  |  last reply 7 years ago


Need some understanding of propeller design?

I need some help in understanding the science behind aqua propeller designs.  For example what is the difference between modern outboard motor propeller vs. what they used in steam boats.  To me the steam boat design looks pretty good.  After all it displaces more water.   I would appreciate the help.

Question by kabira 4 years ago  |  last reply 4 years ago


I need help understanding networks

Hello. i have a few questions about networking, which I was hoping some of you could answer?First off, when I connect a switch to a router, how does the switch get multiple IP addresses for each thing that would like to connect to the switch if the switch is only connected to one port?That's it for now.

Question by Ruby Laser 7 months ago


How to understand electronic part datasheets??

As a winter chore I'm taking electronic components of circuit boards from salvaged power supplies, printers etc (The toxic work which is usually outsourced to Bangladesh etc....). The purpose is to end up with nicely sorted parts, to be used for future projects. I google the numbers on the 'transistors', but the info on datasheets is almost completely meaningless to me. (I rather would find a short description what one can do with it...)

Question by BobS 9 years ago  |  last reply 9 years ago


Help with understanding pinout on circuit board

I'm an HVAC technician and at school they had a bunch of Carrier EMI thermostats that connect to a router with a module. I'm pretty tech-savvy, but I'm not the greatest when it comes to wireless technology. On the board there are spots labeled: Tx, Rx, A2D2, GNDs, GNDp, and 12vdc. Then there are another 2 labeled OAT and OATC. What do these all mean? All I know is that Tx and Rx are transmitting and receiving. Any help is much appreciated.

Topic by musick_08 5 years ago  |  last reply 5 years ago


Trouble understanding audio amplifier schematic Answered

I have been looking at audio amplifier circuits online to use in a small-ish speaker system I am working on. I found the circuit in the image which is a pretty straight forward circuit and has cheap/easy to find parts. My only question is where exactly do I hook the audio input. I am guessing I connect to the .1uf capacitor on the left chip and to the ground, but I don't know. Thanks for your time. the circuit is also here: bp2.blogger.com/_ztWtnthp5tk/RkW7cyJceRI/AAAAAAAAAK0/7-Gi_-bt-ro/s1600-h/circuit-TDA2003+Amplifier+BCL+%28bridge+amplifier%29+18W+for+CAR.jpg

Question by danlab 9 years ago  |  last reply 9 years ago


Need help understanding LED drivers

Ok, I'm a newb to electronics and i'm having trouble figuring something out. Inspired by Dan's instructable, I decided to try and build my own headlamp. However, I've run into a problem. I have no idea what LED driver to use. I'm planning on using three of these bulbs, at 3.7v each and a max wattage of 4. I know if I rig them in series, the LED driver needs to be at least 11.1V, but my question is does the wattage of the driver need to be 12? Or should I rig the bulbs in parallel from my power source, and have one of each of these rigged to them individiually? Also, advice on whether it would be preferable to rig them in series or parallel would be great. Any help would be greatly appreciated. Thanks in advance

Topic by The Insomniac 6 years ago  |  last reply 6 years ago


Is There a easy to understand instuctable in paper rose making? Answered

Question by windowshopper 10 years ago  |  last reply 10 years ago


audio amplifier don't understand wire schematic :/

Www.national.com/ds/LM/LM386.pdf   the one i am having trouble understanding is the 20 gain amplifier

Topic by pattyshaw 7 years ago  |  last reply 7 years ago


Oops! We couldn't understand your request

I finished editing my instruct-able and when i try to publish after changing the thumbnail it gives the error that is showed in the pic attached.  I have tried multiple times but its giving the same error. OS : Windows 10 Enterprise x64 Browser : Chrome Version 54.0.2840.99 m (64-bit) Have tried attaching the image here using the new and old uploader but it isnt attaching too :/ Here what the error message states Oops! We couldn't understand your request. Please contact us to tell us as much detail as possible about what you were trying to do when this happened

Topic by Diy Tech 2 years ago  |  last reply 4 months ago


I need help in understanding faradays law? Answered

So this is where i was trying to understand his law, http://www.6pie.com/faradayslaw.php, the part that i got stuck was on where it says, "Lets figure 5 turns per second, that gives us 300 RPM. If we do a good blade design we might be able to get 300 RPM in 3 to 5 mile winds. 5 turns per second gives us one turn every .2 seconds seconds = .2" I am trying to apply this to a bike and want to know how to get past this step to getting Δt of the formula.

Question by diabloboy 6 years ago  |  last reply 6 years ago


Can I have help understanding this schematic? Answered

I am in the process of building an infrared motion detector. I've finished the infrared transmitter but I haven't been able to start on the receiver yet because the schematic has confused me. One part of the circuit, on the lower-right of the corner, appears not to be connected with the rest of the circuit at all. Until I understand how the two parts interact with each other, I can't continue building. I am still something of an amateur when it comes to solid-state circuitry; maybe someone who's more experienced will know what this means? Thanks. 

Question by ElectricUmbrella 7 years ago  |  last reply 7 years ago


I can't understand Spanish grammar (and pronouns)

Given my native language's partial use of the Spanish language, it should have been easy enough (not counting the time it takes to expand my vocabulary), but no. All I'm aware of is that should you use some type of adjective, in Spanish, it would be the reverse of how we'd use it in English. I took that to heart, but as I find more and more of those common Spanish phrases, it seems that I'm missing something. Oh, and from the same phrases, it seems that the Spanish language also doesn't have too many fixed pronouns (e.g. "que" may be used as a subjective pronoun, or as a question "que?" or "what?"). I can't find a way to get over that. I just need some sort of direction to get over these issues. In the case that you didn't understand anything I said, that's because I'm listening to Eye of the Tiger :P

Question by nutsandbolts_64 6 years ago  |  last reply 6 years ago


I don't understand pro pricing at all

I've gotta say, I don't get the pricing for pro at ALL.  You can pay $1.95 a month, every month. You can pay $2.95 a month, every three months. You can pay $39.95 for 24 months, one time. Now, this may just be me, but I see exactly  0 reasons to go with door No. 2. It is the worst of all possible worlds. Why on Terra would I as a new customer pay another dollar a month over the first option (setting aside the third option, maybe I'm not sure about the site or just don't have 40 bucks to blow)? Is it for the privilege of only paying 3 times a year as opposed to 12? Am I paying all that extra money for more patches or something? IDGI: what am I overlooking here? Enlighten me...

Topic by Lithium Rain 9 years ago  |  last reply 8 years ago


Help me understand car radio and speakers? Answered

Okay so I bought a Scosche radio that is capable of 120W Peak (No clue what that means) Says 30W x4 which means each speaker can be 30W Correct? Well I did not know this and there are also (2) 5.25" 200W Scosche Speakers in the front and (2) 6"x9" 300W Schosche Speakers in the back. So my questions are: 1. Why does my car stereo work fine when the car is just in accessory mode? 2. Why does the car crackle and lose sound when it is on and I am driving? 3. Would I be able to use an AMP to gain more access to power for the speakers? 4. Do I need a different stereo? 5. If I can use an AMP, do I get a 1000W 4-Channel AMP? Here are the links for my speakers: http://www.scosche.com/hd-speakers-5-25-set http://www.scosche.com/hd-speakers-6-x-9-set-1

Question by profitablemlg 1 year ago  |  last reply 1 year ago


Tempered glass screen protectors - understand and beware!

I recently had the joy of needing a new screen protector for my mobile after being dumb enough to drop it on gravel. The hard cover took all the impact but the film protector on the screen was scratched badly. Was old and partially worn anyway so I decided to upgrade to a Tempered Glass screen protector. Being somewhere rural I had no chance to get one in a shop so I ordered online. With no intention of advertising for some sellers, I collected a few links so you can check what I am talking about: Item1 Item2 Item3 Item4 Item5 Item6 So, what is my concern with these? They all can be found on amazon and other online services as well as on local markets... As I said I ordered a glass screen protector. If you check these listings and even some of the packing you will notice they all have a thing in common - being shatter proof and of 9H hardness. I also love this video showing how to remove and fix a glass screen protector! The last time I checked glass had one very distinct feature: It is hard and before it really bends it breaks - unless you use fibre optics of fibre glass cloth... What is my concern and warning here? Pretty simple: Stay away from expensive scams! Some claim their screen protector is only 0.25mm thick, even the 0.2mm one I measured was over 0.5mm with the glue... The hardness of 9H refers to the so called Moh's hardness - look it up on Wikipedia if you like. That means these tempered glass protectors would have a similr hardness than a diamond, or at least close to it. Problem is that they are made from plastic to start with and not glass at all. They claims that the screen protector is flexible because it is so thin - again a fake! Even the thinnest tempered glass will shatter if you bend it enough, not so these plastic ones. If you think I am making all this up try to use a really sharp knife or deburring tool and cut the thin sides of one of these protectors. All the ones I tested could be cut quite easy - and I though glass can't be cut with a kinfe... A nice website showing that the scratch resistance is far from the claims can be found here. And a video showing how a real glass screen protector sounds and breaks can be found here. So is it really all bad and should I avoid getting one? Not really if it is only for the added protection. To be clear here, and without the intention to blame any of the above sellers, some protectors actually do have a top layer made from glass and you can hear it as in the above video - it sound solid and not like plastic if you tap it with something hard. Another factor is the simple fact that plastic absorbs impact much better than glass. So where a real glass screen protector might shatter and crack like in the above video, the fake ones might one get a nasty dint or scratch. But you should be aware and clear about what you get and what to expect from it. These glass imitations are made from a strong polycarbonate plastic, similar to the stuff used for bullet and explosion proof "glas" windows - if you every watched the Mythbusters you have seen the big sheets I mean. The top layer of these things is specially treated to repell water, oil and dirt, it also gives the surface the good scratch resistance. The technique is nothing new, camera lenses, plastic sheets and the clear covers you see over the timetable at your bus stop all use it. The new thing is to intentionally mislable a product to make the consumer think it is glass ;) What is the real difference for the user? Check this video. Here a guy performs a drop test with a real glass screen protector. Thing is once the protector breaks the screen itself is broken too but until then it was not too bad. Here it is demonstrated how a real glass screen protector reacts to certain types of abuse - one of the reason I decided on glass. Compared to the plastic counterfeits just the sound on the glass is worth it, but I think the hacksaw was best. Another video from XDA gives a bit more info on how the glass is made - if you can't seeing a phone being abused then don't watch the drop tests at the end ;) Glass with these hardness levels and types of surface protection will give the user a long and worry free use of the phone. The plastic fakes will perform at a similar level for some time but will show signs of wear long before even the top coat of the glass one fails. Both types have their uses and if the fakes would be labeled correctly the user would actually benefit from that. On bigger screens like a tablet I would actually prefer the plastic ones to prevent damage once it needs replacing. On a mobile used in less than perfect conditions I would also go for plastic as it usually is a bit thinner and will fit better within quality hard covers. But when it comes to real abuse like using with dirty fingers most of the time or mostly outdoors where a lot of dust and fine sand can be involved I always go for glass. If you paid attention to the surface treatment then you already realised that the plastic and the glass are in the same region, making them quite scratch resistant. Still fine sand or metal dust will scratch it.... The difference is in the hardness of the actual material that was covered with the oleophobic film. Glass will not give in any way, where plastic is much softer - so not to be confused with the surface hardness! This mean that sharp and point object will easier penetrate the plastic than the glass, something to be considered if you often ecounter harsh use. In terms of actual protection we need to differenciate between surface quality and actual screen damage. After all when badly scratched we can replace the protector but if the display got damaged we are back to square one. The surface hardness was already covered so let's move on to the screen itself. In some of the above videos you can see the abuse a screen might see in normal conditions, and if we would not drop our phones so often repair shops would not be at every corner LOL I have done quite a few screen repairs, mostly for friends and work mates that did not want to pay the hefty extras in a repair shop. From there I got the stories on how it happened and in almost all cases the screen cracked when the phone landed on the corners. In one case the screen and glass protector failed, including the actual display when the phone was dropped out of a 4WD and landed screen first onto a rock. A glass protector will spread the (direct onto the face) impact force onto a much larger area, where a plastic one will produce a dint onto the actual screen much sooner. So again glass wins in terms of actually protecting your expensive screen. But be aware that all this is useless if the phone lands on the corners!! Let me explain: Both the top glass on your screen and the screen protector have a thin layer of "glue". This acts like a shock absorber, so unless an impact goes deep enough so the pressure on the actual screen is too much only the protector should fail. But the screen itself is a tight fit into the frame of the phone, so all side and corner impacts go directly into the glass. As the rest of the glass has no way to give or go the stresses will crack the screen. How should I treat my phone with the new screen protector? Exactly the same way you would without it of course. But if you don't have a proper cover that offers protection of the corners you should invest in one. Having a quality protector and a good case does not mean your phone can be used as a football, see it as an added insurance in case something does go wrong. For obvious reason it can also pay off to have a spare at hand, if something bad happens that requires replacement of the protector you won't be left with an unprotected screen ;) Last but not least, double it up: For people that already know their screen will see a fair bit of abuse in term of scratches it is a good idea to put an extra film protector onto the glass one. Once it is too scratched you peel it off and replace it, while the glass protector gives you the actual protection for your screen. Corning Willow glass As time of wrinting Corning Willow glass is the only "flexible" glass on the market, unless stated with your flexible screen protector you can assume it will be just plastic. I did not list it above as this high tech material is mainly reserved for displays and at least to my knowledge is not available for screen protectors, although I will stand corrected as I have to assume some big players use it for their protectors. The material is actually a sandwich where an ultra thin sheet of glass stis bewteen two layers of durable coating, read it up on their website it is quite interesting. It won't reach the strength of their famous Gorilla glass so without an outer plastic that has the additional oleophobic coating it won't provide the strenght of real tempered glass protectors. Some phones like the Galaxy Round and the fleixble HTC phones use it for example.

Topic by Downunder35m 3 years ago  |  last reply 4 months ago


Instructable wont publish "We dont understand request?"?

Everytime I click publish it says failed dont understand your request.

Question by jmur1 1 year ago  |  last reply 1 year ago


i'm trying to understand..what does featured mean?

What does the featured category represent exactly? I thought maybe the starred instructables means they have been part of a contest or a challenge.

Question by LeslieLouie 3 years ago  |  last reply 3 years ago


Please help me understand this 12VDC - USB circuit. Answered

This ties into my earlier question about the large resistor (Thank you, Quercus austrina et al). I'm an electronics newbie working on hacking a boombox into an under-cabinet kitchen radio.  One of the things I want to do is provide USB power to charge my BlackBerry while I listen.  I want to repurpose this car power adapter to do that.  It has a cigarette lighter plug, two cig lighter jacks, and one USB port. I have attempted to draw a schematic of the circuit as I understand it.  This is my first schematic, so be gentle.  Sorry about the small size.  You may need to click on it and choose "Original Size" to see it more clearly. Here are my questions: 1) There's a surface-mount resistor (R2) between the big scary "sandstone" one and the LED.  The numbers on that resistor could be read as "102" or "201".  If I understand correctly, it's either 1000ohms or 200ohms.  That's a significant difference. Which is it likely to be? 2) Likewise, the ceramic disc capacitor (C2) appears to be labeled 104, but is very hard to read, since it's hidden behind the other two.  There may be a dot after 104.  Would it be .1µF, then? 3) Did I correctly decode the numbers on the group of four resistors that provide current to the USB data pins? 4) Here's the Big Question:  If I remove the 7805 and everything to the left of it, and hook in 5VDC from a computer power supply, will it function? Thank you for your consideration.

Question by yoyology 8 years ago  |  last reply 8 years ago


How do I understand what the heck a cyborg is?

I'm not a cyborg myself... and I'm making an article about them. Can someone point me in the right direction (DIY bone conduction implants might work, or IR HUD) and I'm talking mostly about a mental fusion of man and machine, which I am sure I and most of Western society are. But  on a more fundamental level. Also, I wrote a few shorts on deaf people, some of whom were cyborgs, so I'd be glad to publish them on t'Internet somehow.

Question by j4jackj 6 years ago  |  last reply 6 years ago


HELP! I need to understand this schematic. Can someone translate the different symbols? I do understand positive/ground.

Http://www.razorconcepts.net/phototransistor.html

Question by ElectroFlex 6 years ago  |  last reply 6 years ago


The mysteries of electricity... do I understand this correctly? (w/ pictures) Answered

Ok, is this diagram correct? Am I understanding all this right?

Question by nepheron 9 years ago  |  last reply 9 years ago


HEY,am here to help you understand swahili to english

Free English to Swahili translation. Translate English to Swahili online

Topic by tuzajohn 4 years ago  |  last reply 4 years ago


They don't understand the publising problem and ask me to contact them ?

I'm new here. I try to put my post on public. I made once but try to make another one. This time they don't let me publish. The error said that they don't know what happen and I have to contact the staffs. I click on 'CONTACT' but their are no contact about reporting problem. Any help?

Topic by tuang.pingfavilunda 4 years ago  |  last reply 4 years ago


Hi, I need some help to understand how is this working. Answered

This is the source of my question. My question is : why is the LED lighting up as it gets dark ? I taught that a LDR (light dependent resistor) is supposed to let current pass only when light is shining on it (source), so why here is it letting current pass only when it's dark. And what is the role of the transistor in this circuit ? Any clarification is much appreciated, Thank you.

Question by Eunix 5 years ago  |  last reply 5 years ago


I need help understanding how to make simple circuits?

I'm very new to electronics, and I want to understand the basics of making simple circuits. For the longest time, I have not understood how people can determine how much power is needed for X amount of LEDs, and how much resistance and so on. Yes, I have taken a physics class, but I'm very rusty on it all :P I hardly remember any of it and I'm hoping the community will help me out. So again to sum up my problem, I need help determining how to make simple circuits that include things like light dependent resistors, LEDs, motors, and simple things like that and especially how do I determine how much voltage, amps, and resistance I will need in the circuits.

Question by XBLmonster 6 years ago  |  last reply 6 years ago


Testing my ability to use Lyrics to understand the meaning of a song

Okay, so I want you to tell me what you think. I am testing my ability to tell what a song means by it's lyrics/song title. Song: Deviate From the Form Artist: Scar Symmetry Okay, so already there is a clue. The word "Deviate" means to swerve, avoid, etc. So obviously, this song is about avoiding something. Now, lest look at the lyrics. First verse: I transcend my earthly form Through some questions never asked before Question the need to be a machine That responds automatically Okay, so "I transcend my earthly form". Transcend means to outdo, or exceed. So, basically, imo basically saying that you are doing better, or knowing better than a human. Knowing whats right and wrong about some questions that haven't been asked before. I suppose they mean something like "When will the next largest technological revolution happen?" Or "What inventions will destroy our planet in the future?". Like questions technological revolutions,  and future disasters or inventions. To back up that paragraph, read the next two lines. "Question the need to be a machine that responds automatically". Or to translate that, why do we need all these machines? Do we really have to be too lazy? What's next, self folding clothes? We do not NEED all these inventions. And later in the song, it talks about how there are changes, and turning into nothing. And what I mean by that, is that there will be so many innovations, that Earth will be pretty much taken over by robots. It will be nothing. All these machines are monotonous. They do not think, or have emotions. They are NOTHING. So to sum it up, I think this song means that they are trying to avoid becoming nothing. They do not like how there is an invention for almost everything ever thought up. They are staying in the past where we did not need all these gadgets

Topic by Flumpkins 9 years ago  |  last reply 9 years ago





I am a complete and total noob, help me understand microcontrollers? Answered

I am a complete and total noob, like, im an idiot when it comes to microcontrollers. I have no Idea what those 3 or 4 letters/labels on each of  the 12 to however many pins they have, and I need to know what they mean and how to use them in a circuit, and finally how you would program them to work with a circuit? Here is what I know so far: There are a few different types of microcontrollers, well okay a lot. And that's about it =) Thanks in advance, Wes

Question by wesie42 8 years ago  |  last reply 8 years ago


hello ,i am a chinese girl~I English not, please understand.

Hello everybody, I am a Chinese girl! A few days ago on the Internet to see this wonderful site, so I joined and became a member. Thus, a Chinese girl on the Internet and can with you. We hope we can good friend.

Topic by china candy 8 years ago  |  last reply 7 years ago


Is there a website that can help me better understand schematics and how to apply them to the project?

I do not know how to simply read a schematic and put each wire wear. If there is a place I can look at to help me better understand how I would like to know about it.

Question by texdirect6 9 years ago  |  last reply 9 years ago


Welt Pocket

Would anyone be served by a welt pocket instructable? I've made these a bunch, and understand how complicated they can be to understand. But I'm not sure if there's an audience for it. Thoughts? Thanks!

Topic by scoochmaroo 9 years ago  |  last reply 7 years ago



Help me understand the wiring for my 12 volt system on my Chinese scooter?

I was trying to put new lights on the scooter and the guy helping me hooked them up and they didn't work so he tried to wire it differently and in the process smoke came from the hand brake lever and now nothing works!!! Please help me understand the whole principle.

Question by 9 years ago  |  last reply 9 years ago


I Need Help In Understanding Electric Motor Dynamometer Testing AC and DC

OK extremely long time reader but first time poster. I need some help understanding dynamometer for electric motors. I would like to test motors under load up to 5HP. I have several motors and I would like to use a selected motor as the generator load. I understand this is a very broad question but I have to start somewhere.   What are some things I might need? Here are some things I have. Motor speed controller  Motor torque controller Electric motors off all sizes 1/3 to 20HP Some have a brake installed. Would I need to use a motor with a brake and apply the brake as the load? I don't want to use water or any fluids as a braking system. Also regenerative would be great also. I thank you for the help.

Topic by d-stan1987 2 years ago  |  last reply 2 years ago


Can anyone suggest a good current book on understanding networking, Wired & Wireless?

I have a basic knowledge of networks but I need to know more without having to go to a year worth of classes. I know how to pick the right hardware, run wire, setup a router, but if I needed to troubleshoot why tcpip is not working, why the speed is fluctuating I'm lost. As always, Any suggestions are greatly appreciated.

Question by ColdScorpion 8 years ago  |  last reply 8 years ago


Can I write a program that my OWI robotic arm edge will understand?

I am a student, I am suppose to program my OWI robotic arm edge to reconize flowers. We picked the CA poppy as our flower of choice, we purchassed a uCAM camera, we are writing a C++ code program for how to move around on a 24 inch board. When we are done with our program, is there a way to get the program to work with the OWI robotic arm edge? Thank You for any help! 

Question by max76 7 years ago  |  last reply 7 years ago