This is a 1S14P lithium ion pack made out of 18650s found in laptops. Each 18650 cell is 2 amp hours or 10 watt hours. 14 18650s in parallel is 140 watt hours and 28 amp hours.

I think the single biggest reason for following this instructable to the T is because by the end you will have a self contained pack and charger which completely fits into this project box. Dimensions are 6x4X2 inches. Here is the name of the project box on ebay

aluminum project electronic enclosure box 6 x 4 x 2

Since I started working with battery packs I have learned that there is a lot of math involved. It's only 4th grade math mind you, but very important. All through the instructable I explain the numbers involved so you will be better equipped to make your own pack.

I think the single biggest reason for following this instructable to the T is because by the end you will have a self contained pack and charger which completely fits into this project box. Dimensions are 6x4X2 inches. Here is the name of the project box on ebay

aluminum project electronic enclosure box 6 x 4 x 2

Since I started working with battery packs I have learned that there is a lot of math involved. It's only 4th grade math mind you, but very important. All through the instructable I explain the numbers involved so you will be better equipped to make your own pack.

## Step 1: The Math and Other Important Details

"Amp Hours" means how many amps can be drawn from the pack for how many hours. A single 18650 is 2.6 amp hours. 2.6 amps can be drawn for one hour. Different currents can be drawn with nearly the same proportions. 1 amp could be drawn for 2.6 hours. In reality, batteries are different capacities depending on how much current is being drawn from them. The more current drawn, the lower the capacity. This is beacuse at high currents more capacity is lost as heat. Here is a vast collection of discharge curves for different 18650s. Another resource for learning about batteries of all kinds if battery university.

"Watt Hours" means how many watts can be drawn from the pack for how many hours. A single 18650 cell is 10 watt hours. You can draw 10 watts from one for 1 hour or 2 watts for two hours. My pack is 140 watt hours so you could draw 20 watts for 7 hours. There is an upper limit for power drain. If I were to draw more than 140 watts / 28 amps from the pack I would be at the maximum current load for the pack. Before I got anywhere near that though the pack would shut off because the PCB only allows no more than 8 amps to be drawn. This pack is designed to power low current devices for a very long time.

Amp hours and watt hours can be converted back and forth using the formula Volts x Amps = Watts. If you have a 10 amp hour battery you can convert it to watt hours by multiplying by volts. 10 amp hours X 3.7 volts = 37 watt hours. If you have a 64 watt hour hour battery you divide by nominal voltage to get amp hours. 64 watt hours / 14.7 volts nominal (a 4S pack) = 4 amp hours

Nominal voltage means average voltage. A 1s battery configuration, as in this instructable, varies from 4.2 volts (charged) to 2.5 volts (discharged). 3.7 is the average voltage. In a 4s configuration the voltage varies from 9.6 to 16.8 volts (14.v volts nominal.

18650s come in different capacities for several reasons.

1. It is cheaper to make cells of lower capacity

2. The older it is, the less advanced at the time was the technology to make them

3. By the 200th charge cycle, an 18650 only hold 80% of its original charge.

New 18650 are 2.6 amp hours / 10 watt hours. I will use those numbers when referring to the capacity of my pack for the rest of this instructable for simplicity's sake. Remember that these numbers are for best case scenario.

Can you mix cells of different capacities? You are not supposed to but it is okay. In a perfect world you would use cells all of the same manufacturer, same age, same capacity and you would get a higher capacity battery. Since this project is about doing it yourself for low cost, then it is okay to mix capacities. 14 new 18650s would cost 140 dollars. I got all mine for free. The average amp hour capacity of the individual cells in my pack is 2 amp hours. That gives a 14x2=28 amp hour theoretical maximum capacity of my pack. i drained the pack using a watt meter to measure the actual capacity which turned out to be 21 amp hours or 75% theoretical capacity which I was satisfied with.

"Watt Hours" means how many watts can be drawn from the pack for how many hours. A single 18650 cell is 10 watt hours. You can draw 10 watts from one for 1 hour or 2 watts for two hours. My pack is 140 watt hours so you could draw 20 watts for 7 hours. There is an upper limit for power drain. If I were to draw more than 140 watts / 28 amps from the pack I would be at the maximum current load for the pack. Before I got anywhere near that though the pack would shut off because the PCB only allows no more than 8 amps to be drawn. This pack is designed to power low current devices for a very long time.

Amp hours and watt hours can be converted back and forth using the formula Volts x Amps = Watts. If you have a 10 amp hour battery you can convert it to watt hours by multiplying by volts. 10 amp hours X 3.7 volts = 37 watt hours. If you have a 64 watt hour hour battery you divide by nominal voltage to get amp hours. 64 watt hours / 14.7 volts nominal (a 4S pack) = 4 amp hours

Nominal voltage means average voltage. A 1s battery configuration, as in this instructable, varies from 4.2 volts (charged) to 2.5 volts (discharged). 3.7 is the average voltage. In a 4s configuration the voltage varies from 9.6 to 16.8 volts (14.v volts nominal.

18650s come in different capacities for several reasons.

1. It is cheaper to make cells of lower capacity

2. The older it is, the less advanced at the time was the technology to make them

3. By the 200th charge cycle, an 18650 only hold 80% of its original charge.

New 18650 are 2.6 amp hours / 10 watt hours. I will use those numbers when referring to the capacity of my pack for the rest of this instructable for simplicity's sake. Remember that these numbers are for best case scenario.

Can you mix cells of different capacities? You are not supposed to but it is okay. In a perfect world you would use cells all of the same manufacturer, same age, same capacity and you would get a higher capacity battery. Since this project is about doing it yourself for low cost, then it is okay to mix capacities. 14 new 18650s would cost 140 dollars. I got all mine for free. The average amp hour capacity of the individual cells in my pack is 2 amp hours. That gives a 14x2=28 amp hour theoretical maximum capacity of my pack. i drained the pack using a watt meter to measure the actual capacity which turned out to be 21 amp hours or 75% theoretical capacity which I was satisfied with.

## Step 2: Cells and Charger

My brother works in a lab at a university and has access to their e-waste dumpster. People throw away their broken laptops not knowing the batteries are still usable. If you don't have access to broken laptops you can sometimes find used 18650s on Ebay for 1 or 2 dollars each. You could just buy new ones too. Then they are around 10 dollars each.

New 18650s at Batteryspace.com

I am using a 3 amp 4.2 volt charger from batteryspace. The battery pack is 28 amp hours so at 3 amps it takes 9 hours to fully charge. It would be more practical to use a larger charger here. 18650s can be safely charged at up to 1C. C means rate of charge. A single new 18650 is 2.6 amp hours and so could be safely charged at a maximum of 2.6 amps (1C). Since the whole pack is 28 amp hours it could be safely charged at up to 28 amps. That would be a little scary if you ask me. With the charger I have the pack is charging at .1C

There is also a 6 amp charger on batteryspace but it is 3 times the size of the 3 amp charger. It would not have fit in my project box. It will still charge completely overnight.

New 18650s at Batteryspace.com

I am using a 3 amp 4.2 volt charger from batteryspace. The battery pack is 28 amp hours so at 3 amps it takes 9 hours to fully charge. It would be more practical to use a larger charger here. 18650s can be safely charged at up to 1C. C means rate of charge. A single new 18650 is 2.6 amp hours and so could be safely charged at a maximum of 2.6 amps (1C). Since the whole pack is 28 amp hours it could be safely charged at up to 28 amps. That would be a little scary if you ask me. With the charger I have the pack is charging at .1C

There is also a 6 amp charger on batteryspace but it is 3 times the size of the 3 amp charger. It would not have fit in my project box. It will still charge completely overnight.

## Step 3: PCB

You need a PCB before assembling the battery. The most important function of the PCB is to make sure the pack does not drain below 2.5 volts. Lithium ion is a volatile chemistry compared to standard alkaline batteries. If you discharge a lithium ion battery below 2.5 volts it will be "broken" and will never recharge. PCBs also shuts off the circuit if there is a short circuit. It prevents overcharging, and prevents too much current from being drawn. All of those thing could lead to broken batteries or at worst a fire. 18650s are pretty safe. Go on youtube and look for "overcharge 18650". You won't find anything really exciting. Look for overcharge lithium polymer on the other hand, or puncture lithium polymer, and you are in for some real fireworks.

Here is the PCB I used.

The PCB is simple to wire up. There are only 4 contacts on the board. 2 are for pos and neg from batteries and the other are for pos and neg to the charge/discharge terminals. Charge the battery though the PCB to lower the risk of oversharging. This is unlikely beause the smart charger automatically shuts off at the correct voltage. I soldered the charger to the charge/discharge terminals.

Here is the PCB I used.

The PCB is simple to wire up. There are only 4 contacts on the board. 2 are for pos and neg from batteries and the other are for pos and neg to the charge/discharge terminals. Charge the battery though the PCB to lower the risk of oversharging. This is unlikely beause the smart charger automatically shuts off at the correct voltage. I soldered the charger to the charge/discharge terminals.

## Step 4: What Do Can You Do With This Voltage Range

This is a 1S14P lithium ion pack made out of 18650s found in laptops. That makes the voltage range between 3.6 and 4.2 volts. What are you going to do with that voltage range? you might be asking yourself.

1. The battery pack is less complex so you can make it smaller, and cheaper

2. You don't need a balance charger

3. New advances in DC boost converters allow you to step up the voltage to more usable voltages.

4. At a range of 2.5 to 4.2 volts it is easier to charge with low voltages produced by solar, wind, USB, or bike dynamo voltages

1. The battery pack is less complex so you can make it smaller, and cheaper

2. You don't need a balance charger

3. New advances in DC boost converters allow you to step up the voltage to more usable voltages.

4. At a range of 2.5 to 4.2 volts it is easier to charge with low voltages produced by solar, wind, USB, or bike dynamo voltages

## Step 5: Light

I use this battery for my recumbent bicycle. It powers my light. The light is a Cree XM-L T6. You can find them on Ebay for between 10 and twenty dollars. They are very bright. I took the end off of mine and soldered wires to the positive contact and to the metal body for the negative contact. I can plug it into the pack using RCA plugs. The attaching hardware are 2 conduit hangers from Home Depot.

Normally this light is powered by 1 18650 and lasts an hour. With 14 cells in parallel it lasts 14 hours at full brightness.

Normally this light is powered by 1 18650 and lasts an hour. With 14 cells in parallel it lasts 14 hours at full brightness.

## Step 6: Charge Cell Phones and Other USB Devices

Lately there has been a myriad of new DC boost products on the market, all for very low prices. Go on ebay and search for DC boost and see what you come up with. Here are the names of some I found on Ebay which would work so you can find them easier.

LM2577 Boost DC-DC Voltage Step-up Power Converter 3-34V to 4-35V

DC-DC Boost Buck Converter 3.5-28V to 1.25-26V Step Down Step Up Voltage Module

The first one is 2 amps and the second is 1 amp. Because the capacity of this pack is so large you should get the highest current DC boost module you can find. As long it can boost voltages at least as low as 3.5 volts (the lower limit of lithium ion) it will work. Most of the time DC boost converters are 80 percent efficient at converting 3 volts to 5 volts. That is a little inefficient but because of the size of the battery and the small current draw of USB devices it doesn't really matter.

Consider a cell phone for example. My cell phone is 5.5 watt hours / 1200 milliamp hours. I have used watt meters to determine that my cell phone draws 2 watts while charging. Because the DC boost converter is 80 percent efficient it draws 20% more than 2 watts which is 2.4 watts. The battery pack expends 20 percent more energy than my cell phone's 5.5 watt hours to charge which is 6.6 watt hours. The battery pack is 140 watt hours divided by 6.6 watt hours is 21 times I could charge my phone.

However, because my batteries are old and because actual battery capacity is always less then theoretical capacity I should really expect 75 percent of theoretical which is 15 times I could charge my phone.

I epoxied a 4 port USB hub to the outside of my project box. I am using a 2 amp boost module. Standard USB power is 500 milliamps so this boost module could power 4 USB devices simultaneously. This way I could charge my cell phone, gps device, camera, external speakers, all at once.

Most DC boost modules have a lower limit of 3.5 volts and lithium ion batteries can be discharged down to 2.5 volts. That looks like it would be a problem but it is not. 95 percent of the capacity has been used by by the time the voltage dips below 3.5 volts.

Well there you go. Feel free to ask if you have any questions.

LM2577 Boost DC-DC Voltage Step-up Power Converter 3-34V to 4-35V

DC-DC Boost Buck Converter 3.5-28V to 1.25-26V Step Down Step Up Voltage Module

The first one is 2 amps and the second is 1 amp. Because the capacity of this pack is so large you should get the highest current DC boost module you can find. As long it can boost voltages at least as low as 3.5 volts (the lower limit of lithium ion) it will work. Most of the time DC boost converters are 80 percent efficient at converting 3 volts to 5 volts. That is a little inefficient but because of the size of the battery and the small current draw of USB devices it doesn't really matter.

Consider a cell phone for example. My cell phone is 5.5 watt hours / 1200 milliamp hours. I have used watt meters to determine that my cell phone draws 2 watts while charging. Because the DC boost converter is 80 percent efficient it draws 20% more than 2 watts which is 2.4 watts. The battery pack expends 20 percent more energy than my cell phone's 5.5 watt hours to charge which is 6.6 watt hours. The battery pack is 140 watt hours divided by 6.6 watt hours is 21 times I could charge my phone.

However, because my batteries are old and because actual battery capacity is always less then theoretical capacity I should really expect 75 percent of theoretical which is 15 times I could charge my phone.

I epoxied a 4 port USB hub to the outside of my project box. I am using a 2 amp boost module. Standard USB power is 500 milliamps so this boost module could power 4 USB devices simultaneously. This way I could charge my cell phone, gps device, camera, external speakers, all at once.

Most DC boost modules have a lower limit of 3.5 volts and lithium ion batteries can be discharged down to 2.5 volts. That looks like it would be a problem but it is not. 95 percent of the capacity has been used by by the time the voltage dips below 3.5 volts.

Well there you go. Feel free to ask if you have any questions.

<p>nice pack i am planing a 12v 500ah pack</p>

<p>i plan on making 3 of them for my rv</p>

<p>Thanks for the instructable. Just curious where you state: "You can draw 10 watts from one for 1 hour or 2 watts for two hours." Should that not be 2 watts for 5 hours or am I doing the math wrong?</p>

How<br> to make 48volt battery pack for my scooter

<p>i have a device which runs on 36 V and draws an input current of 2.5 A. how can i use these laptop batteries to work with my device. ? i need a battery backup with 36V, 2.5A which lasts for an hour. thanks for the awesome article</p>

Even cells in series will drift in voltage and capacity over several cycles. The only way to get 200+ cycles out of these or most Li based cells is to recharge them at 80% SOC or in other words, after only using 20% of its capacity. However, to do this, you will need a circuit that will learn the discharge curve of the cells and cut it off at this SOC level.

<p>If I use a protected cell, do I still need a separate pcb?</p>

As long as all cells are protected cells... then no. You do not need the Step 3 pcb. In fact, using the extra board may actually cause problems! <br>With a protected cell, unless it already has solder tabs, consider using a battery holder (like the 3xAAA holders in cheap 9 led flashlights only bigger) that way, when one or two cells go bad, they are easier to replace.

<p>Lots of good info, thanks for posting your interesting project.</p><p>Could you use multiple chargers similar to the one you bought to individually charge multiple packs, thus giving a serial pack with balance charging?</p><p>IE, could you make a 36V pack by adding 3 of these in serial, and charging each one with a separate lithium charger while they are connected in series?</p>

<p>Nice pack, and I love the all-in-one inclusiveness. One word of caution though, without a balancer, over time it is highly likely that your cells will drift in voltage. As that continues you may over discharge or over charge one of them. This could cause a dangerous catastrophie. Do yourself a favor and balance after 10 cycles or individually charge every cell to the same voltage. Its a hassle, but its a safer and cheaper alternative. </p>

The cells wont drift in voltage because they are all connected together. Its impossible for one battery to be a higher voltage than another one. A 1S battery never needs to be balanced. <br><br>One thing which can happen is there could be one battery which is so worn out that it can lower the voltage of all the other ones. Say one battery can only be charged to 4 volts. The battery would reach 4.2 volts while charging but would then drop to 4. The other batteries would try to charge the one cell at 4 volts but it is worn out so all the other batteries do is drain their power until all the cells are the same voltage as the worn out cell.

"3. By the 200th charge cycle, an 18650 only hold 80% of its original charge." <br> <br>Seriously? Ever since Li-Ion came out, I have never successfully gotten 200 cycles out of any of them (except the one in my phone). You are talking about the standard "A" size, are you not? <br> <br>I like the design and all the calculations you have explained. I've been working on a smaller (pocket size) NiMH version for those disastrous moments when one's phone dies in the middle of an important call.

<p>Idk if you will even read this given how long ago your post was. But I'd be willing to bet that you never got 200 cycles because you are using lower quality cells. Try something like the "Samsung Li-ion 18650 3.7v" batteries. I guarantee you will get at least 1000 cycles if you don't abuse them. My longest running pack is on 1832 cycles (built in counter) but It only discharges fully once a day. It may not hold a charge like it used to but It holds about 71% of what it did new and still chugging. </p>

I found that li-pos have a good run. I made a small, pocket sized solar rechargeable phone charger using a li-po. I originally designed the circuit to work using a 1400mah li-ion batteryn upon testing I found it wouldnt output the full stored charge. I have yet to figure out why. It would charge my phone 60 percent. after it peaked out at 60 I tested the output and found that the battery was still charged and had a good mah rating but just gave up. I replaced it with a 600mah li-po battery and it charged my phone to to fullest. It completly drained. I dont know if I messed up somewhere in the circuit or math but I found that the lipo did work better. more than half of the current was cut in half but it preformed a lot better. both batteries were rated at 3.7 volts (only difference was the type and mah). I tested both out on a commercial lipo and li-ion charge controller and got the same results. It could have been the li ion, maybe there was a flaw. lol I rambled a lot.

Ramble away. That's where the valuable data is often hidden. My negative experiences are specific Li-Ion however, after the number fires that have been attribute to Li-Po, I'm not game to go there. Ni-Cd 100% cycled every charge "should" have a working life approaching personal old age. Even Ni-Mh can act up at times.<br><br>Does Li-Po deteriorate over time just like Li-Ion?

actually alot li- ion have a small circut protection board in them. yrs might've been messed up.

these were recycled from a laptop battery pack so these didn't have the circuitry on the battery.

How long would it take to charge a smartphone with this pack?<br>

Nice power pack!