Instructables
loading
loading

A Low Cost DIY Atomic Force Microscope/低價DIY原子力顯微鏡

FeaturedContest WinnerContest WinnerContest Winner
Picture of A Low Cost DIY Atomic Force Microscope/低價DIY原子力顯微鏡

Microscopes are awesome! They help us see things that are not visible to bare eyes. Optical microscopes can only see micro scale (1/1,000 millimeter) structures. However, you can explore nano scale (1/1,000,000 millimeter) world by Atomic Force Microscopes (AFM). Yet a stock-ready AFM usually costs hundreds of thousands of dollars to buy. Thus we are providing you a solution to make your own AFM optomechanical system out of daily used parts including optical pickup unit (OPU) in a DVD player and piezo buzzers in your watch. The total cost is between 500 to 1,000 dollars (AFM controller not included). Most of the traditional AFM systems use beam deflection method for monitoring the AFM probe, the low cost educational AFM directly use an OPU for the same purpose. This low cost educational AFM is originally designed and made by Dr. En-Te Hwu, Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan. Idea of using circuit boards as structure: Sebastian Buetefisch.

Traditional AFM:

DVD OPU based AFM

DVD OPU based AFM in German National Metrology Institute

顯微鏡可讓我們看到肉眼無法觀察的結構,实在是太棒了!光學顯微鏡能看到微米等級(1/1,000釐米)結構,然而原子力顯微鏡更可讓我們看到奈米(1/1,000,000 釐米)結構。一般的原子力顯微鏡動輒數萬至數十萬美元,只有研究機構可以負擔得起。我們希望透過這次介紹,告訴大家如何利用身邊的元件,包括DVD Rom的光學讀寫頭以及你手錶裡面嗶嗶叫的壓電喇叭,來製作一套自己的奈米級原子力顯微鏡的光機系統,材料價格不超過1000美元(不包含控制器)。傳統原子力顯微鏡大多使用光槓桿原理,而教育型原子力顯微鏡使用像散式光路偵測探針位移,此教育型原子力顯微鏡由台灣中央研究院物理研究所胡恩德博士設計並製作。使用電路板作結構之概念源自:Sebastian Buetefisch.

显微镜可让我们看到肉眼无法观察的结构,实在是太棒了!光学显微镜能看到微米等级(1/1,000毫米)结构,然而原子力显微镜更可让我们看到納米(1/1,000,000毫米)结构。一般的原子力显微镜动辄数万至数十万美元,只有研究机构可以负担得起。我们希望透这次介绍,告诉大家如何利用身边的元器件,包括DVD Rom的激光头以及你手表里面哔哔叫的压电喇叭,来制作一套自己的納米级原子力显微镜的的光机系统,材料价格不超过1000美元(不包含控制器。传统原子力显微镜大多使用光杠杆原理,而教育型原子力显微镜使用像散式光路侦测探针位移,此教育型原子力显微镜由台湾中央研究院物理研究所胡恩德博士设计并制作。使用电路板作结构之概念源自:Sebastian

Buetefisch.

 
Remove these adsRemove these ads by Signing Up

Step 1: Materials and tools 材料與工具

Picture of Materials and tools 材料與工具
P_20140116_230842_HL.jpg
P_20140425_135119.jpg

Materials for the low cost AFM are: 1.OPU disassembled from a DVD ROM. 2.Piezo speakers. 3.Signal connector. 4.Precision screws. 5.Circuit boards. The tools needed are: 1.A soldering iron 2.Solder 3.Quick-dry adhesive 4.Epoxy 5.Magnets 6.Screw driver. The consumable is AFM probes (working frequency 300 kHz).

組裝原子力顯微鏡需要材料為:1.從DVD光碟機上的讀取頭 2.壓電喇叭 3.訊號接頭 4.精密螺絲 5.磁鐵 6.電路板結構。 工具為:1.烙鐵 2.銲錫 3.瞬間膠 4.AB膠 5.螺絲起子。耗材為:原子力顯微鏡探針(工作頻率300k赫茲)。

组装原子力显微镜需要材料为:1.从DVD光驱上的激光头 2.压电喇叭 3.信号接头 4.精密螺丝 5.磁铁 6.电路板结构。 工具为:1.烙铁 2.焊锡 3.瞬间胶 4.AB胶 5.螺丝刀。耗材为:原子力显微镜探针(工作频率300k赫兹)。

Step 2: Assembling the AFM base 組裝原子力顯微鏡底座

Picture of Assembling the AFM base 組裝原子力顯微鏡底座
Assembling AFM base 02.JPG
Assembling AFM base 05.JPG

The optomechanical part of the AFM system is assembled by students from junior high school attached to Tsinghua University. The AFM base is structured by 4 circuit boards which are fixed by solder.

這邊由北京清華大學附屬中學的國中學生來示範,如何自己動手組裝原子力顯微鏡的光學機構系統。底座由4片電路板構成,組起來的結構件使用銲錫固定。

这边由北京清华大学附属中学的国中学生来示范,如何自己动手组装原子力显微镜的光学机构系统。底座由4片电路板构成,组起来的结构件使用焊锡固定。

Step 3: Assembling the AFM piezo scanner 組裝壓電掃描器

Picture of Assembling the AFM piezo scanner 組裝壓電掃描器
535daf11d535cf59680000b0.jpg
535daf42d535cf82430000bc.jpg

Assembling the scanner structure and fix the structure on 4 piezo buzzers which are soldered to the base. The fifth piezo buzzer is fixed on top of the scanner structure.

掃描器由三片電路板組成,焊接掃描器結構後,並以AB膠將結構的四支腳固定在底座的四片壓電喇叭上,並將第五片壓電喇叭固定於掃描器頂端,大部分的零件皆由銲錫固定。

扫描仪由三片电路板组成,焊接扫描仪结构后,并以AB胶将结构的四支脚固定在底座的四片压电喇叭上,并将第五片压电喇叭固定于扫描仪顶端,大部分的零件皆由焊锡固定

Step 4: Assembling the AFM head 組裝光路頭

Picture of Assembling the AFM head 組裝光路頭
DVD head on the AFM head.jpg
P_20140120_112756_HL.jpg
Piezo buzzer for AFM probe excitation.jpg
Assembling the AFM head02.jpg

The frame of the AFM head composed of 5 pieces of circuit board. Assembling the frame of the AFM head then fix the DVD OPU in the center and place the probe adjustment mechanism. Install 3 screws on the AFM head for coarse adjustments.

光路結構由五片電路板組成,首先將光路機構焊接組裝好,再將DVD光學讀取頭以瞬間膠固定於中央,並安裝一片電路板作為探針調整機構。之後將三個精密螺絲透過AB膠固定於光路機構。

光路结构由五片电路板组成,首先将光路机构组装好,再将DVD激光头以瞬间胶固定于中央,并安装探针调整机构。之后将三个螺丝透過AB胶固定于光路机构。

Step 5: Installing piezo scanner connectors 安裝壓電掃描器接頭

Picture of Installing piezo scanner connectors 安裝壓電掃描器接頭
P_20140119_154920_HL.jpg

The piezo scanner needs 3 connectors for X,Y,Z signal input. Wire those 5 piezo speakers to the connectors which installed in the base.

壓電掃描器需要三個接頭分別接收X、Y、Z三個方向的控制訊號。安裝訊號接頭後,並將五個壓電喇叭透過電線連接至接頭。

扫描仪需要三个接口分别接收X、Y、Z三个方向的控制信号。安装信号接头后,并将五个压电喇叭透过电线连接至接头。

Step 6: Assembling a passive anti-vibration platform 組裝被動式防震平台

Picture of Assembling a passive anti-vibration platform 組裝被動式防震平台
DSC05819.JPG

Proper vibration isolation can ensure AFM measurement quality, good news is that the vibration table can be built by materials we can easily get:1.Bicycle tube(diameter 10-18 inch) 2.A stone, iron block or other heavy object (weight of 3-10 kg, size of approx. 20x50 cm) 3.Pump for pumping the bicycle tube. Place the stone on top of an inflated bicycle tube, this can be a very simple passive anti-vibration platform.

最低限度的防震平台是保證顯微鏡量測精度的關鍵,好消息是這防震平台的材料隨手可得:1.腳踏車內胎(直徑約10-18英吋)2.一塊石頭、鐵塊或其他長方體的重物(重約3-10公斤,長寬分別約20公分和50公分,厚度不限)。3.一個打氣筒,為內胎充氣。首先將一條腳踏車內胎充氣,接著將石頭放置於內胎上,此即為一簡易的被動式防震平台。

最低限度的防震平台是保证显微镜量测精度的关键,好消息是这防震平台的材料随手可得:1. 自行车内胎(直径约10-18英寸) 2. 一块石头、铁块、或其他外形呈长方体的重物(重约3-10千克即可,长宽分别约20厘米和50厘米,厚度不限) 3. 为内胎充气的气泵。将一条自行车内胎充气,接着将石头放置于内胎上,此即为一简易的被动式防震平台。

Step 7: Sample preparation 樣品準備

Picture of Sample preparation 樣品準備
P_20140121_122731_HL.jpg
P_20140425_140026.jpg
P_20140425_140045.jpg

Like normal AFM systems, the low cost AFM also needs simple sample preparations. Here we use data tracks on DVD and Blu-ray disks (protection layer are torn out) for AFM system evaluations and calibrations. The DVD and Blu-ray data tracks have pitch of 740 nm and 320 nm, respectively. Besides, the students are very interested in measuring surface nano structures on an eraser. We cut one piece (approximately 1x1 cm) of the sample glued on an iron sample holder (piece of paper knife). The sample holder can be fixed by a magnet glued on the piezo scanner.

低價原子力顯微鏡跟一般原子力顯微鏡一樣,需要稍微準備一下樣品。我們這邊使用DVD與Blu-ray光碟片(將保護層撕除)作為原子力顯微鏡系統測試樣品,因為DVD資料軌道間距為740奈米,Blu-ray光碟資料軌道間距為320奈米。此外清華大學附屬中學的國中生也很好奇想看看橡皮擦的奈米結構。僅需將樣品裁切至大約1公分平方並在背面黏貼美工刀片,即可透過磁力吸在掃描器上進行掃描。

低价原子力显微镜跟一般原子力显微镜一样,需要稍微准备一下样品。我们这边使用DVD与Blu-ray光盘(将保护层撕除)作为原子力显微镜系统测试样品,因为DVD数据轨道间距为740納米,Blu-ray光盘数据轨道间距为320納米。此外清华大学附属中学的国中生也很好奇想看看橡皮擦的納米结构。仅需将样品裁切至大约1公分平方并在背面黏贴美工刀片,即可透过磁力吸在扫描仪上进行扫描。

Step 8: AFM evaluation and calibration 測試原子力顯微鏡

Picture of AFM evaluation and calibration 測試原子力顯微鏡
Junior high school student is operating the AFM .jpg
AFM probe and the sample.bmp
DVD Data Tracks.jpg

Students use the AFM they assembled for measuring the DVD data tracks (pitch 740 nm), measurement result shows that the actuation area of the scanner is 15x15 micron. Students also compare the AFM measurement result (right image) with optical image captured by a USB microscope (left image). The low cost AFM can easily measure the DVD data tracks which can not be observed by the optical microscope.

首先學生用自己組裝的原子力顯微鏡裝上探針掃描空白DVD光碟片資料軌(結構間距740奈米),由影像可以得知,此原子力顯微鏡的掃描器運作範圍是X與Y方向各15微米。學生並將AFM量測到結果(右圖)跟USB光學顯微鏡所得到的資料軌影像(左圖)進行比對,光學顯微鏡看不到的資料軌奈米結構可由原子力顯微鏡輕易地得到。

首先学生用自己组装的原子力显微镜装上探针扫描空白DVD光盘数据轨(结构间距740納米),由影像可以得知,此原子力显微镜的扫描仪运作范围是X与Y方向各15微米。学生并将AFM量测到结果(右图)跟USB光学显微镜所得到的影像(左图)进行比对,光学显微镜看不到的数据轨納米结构可由原子力显微镜轻易地得到。

Step 9: Measuring the surface of an eraser 量測橡皮擦的表面

Picture of Measuring the surface of an eraser 量測橡皮擦的表面
Eraser.jpg

Students are very interested in surface structures of an eraser that they use everyday. The surface of eraser is observed by the USB microscope (left image), we can not see clear structures. The same eraser is measured by the low cost AFM (right image), we found that the structures on the eraser surface are very big (several microns in all dimensions). The measurement area of the eraser is 5x5 micron.

接著學生們對於日常使用的橡皮擦表面結構非常有興趣,首先使用USB光學顯微鏡觀察(左圖),看到的結構不是很明顯,而原子力顯微鏡可以清楚看到橡皮擦的表面結構凹凸不平非常粗糙(右圖)。橡皮擦的量測範圍是5x5微米。

接着学生们对于日常使用的橡皮擦表面结构非常有兴趣,首先使用USB光学显微镜观察(左图),看到的结构不是很明显,而原子力显微镜可以清楚看到橡皮擦的表面结构凹凸不平非常粗糙(右图)。橡皮擦的量测范围是5x5微米。

Step 10: Observing PM 2.5 particles in Beijing 觀察北京空氣懸浮粒子

Picture of Observing PM 2.5 particles in Beijing 觀察北京空氣懸浮粒子
Blu-ray tracks with nanoscale particles.jpg
20140121_16h45m57sTrace Topo.jpeg

Students like to measure Blu-ray data tracks that the pitch is 320 nm. We can get the high density data tracks in a scanning area of 10x10 micron. Besides, we can find several particles (size approx. 1 micron) on the data tracks. Those particles are PM 2.5 in Beijing.

Due to some proboem in the instructables, here is a link of the step by step process in PDF: http://ppt.cc/bEsH

學生想挑戰結構更小的空白Blu-ray光碟片資料軌,其間距為320奈米。由量測結果可看到密度更高的Blu-ray光碟資料軌,掃描範圍為10x10微米。此外,我們可在資料軌上可以看到數個尺寸約1微米左右的顆粒,此即為北京漂浮在空氣中的PM 2.5顆粒。

由於網站轉PDF檔出了問題,這邊附上PDF連結:http://ppt.cc/bEsH

学生想挑战结构更小的空白Blu-ray光盘片数据轨,其间距为320納米。由量测结果可看到密度更高的Blu-ray光盘数据轨,扫描范围为10x10微米。此外,我们可在数据轨上可以看到数个尺寸约1微米左右的颗粒,此即为北京漂浮在空气中的PM 2.5颗粒。

由于网站转PDF档出了问题,这边附上PDF链结:http://ppt.cc/bEsH

V_20140121_155816.mp4(516x292) 23 KB

Step 11: Prepare for making your own educational AFM

Picture of Prepare for making your own educational AFM
P_20140421_010038_HL.jpg
P_20140421_010058_HL.jpg
20140429_21h38m49sTrace Topo.jpeg
20140430_21h05m04sTrace Topo.jpeg
5360fd2fd535cf1a73000104.jpg

One working system in Taiwan runs 24-7 for stress test, this system is continuously scanning for more than one week. I am using contact mode AFM probe now (still use that probe in tapping mode). The sample is a Blu-ray disk of mass produced PS3 game ( I think the game is Front Mission Evolved). The are no data tracks on the disk, we can find data pits on the surface. The size of one data pit is about 150 nm.

Actually I work with OPUs for 10 years already....the OPU based AFM paper published long time ago (http://nanotechweb.org/cws/article/tech/33346) It's still fun to play with OPUs.

Using OPU for AFM application seems very easy, but actually there are a lot of tricky parts. One may need to know fundamentals of the OPU, then it would be easier to start working with OPUs. Here is a document about background knowledge of the OPU:

http://ppt.cc/SGYS

http://ppt.cc/ln~N

Good Luck!

Step 12: Some other OPU based instrumentations

Here is a file which introduces various precision measurements based on the OPU, such as AFM, Optical profiler, vibrometer, bio-sensing....you can find more details in the attached file!

Step 13: Measuring leafs surface with nano scale resolution

1-40 of 349Next »
xiang34202 days ago
I like this project very much,Could you please send me schematics and labView program to my email( xiang3420@163.com),thanks.
xiang34202 days ago
I like this project very much,Could you please send me schematics and labView program to my email( xiang3420@163.com),thanks.

This is a great project! Could you please send me steps and schematics to build the AFM to my email - yaris10001@gmail.com

Best,

Yari

guest95 days ago

Your antivibration desk has no effect while vibrations are transmitted through bunch of wires. Fit wires to the antivibration desk to avoid vibrations propagation. Use clamps or just put something heavy on them.

sincerely
Samuel

whoand (author)  guest95 days ago

Hi Samuel, thank you for your comment! Actually we fix the cables on the desk if we would like to get atomic resolution.

ahad44511 days ago

Dear, Dr. Whoand

Very thanks to your nice project. I'm mechanical engineer and very interested to try your way in this Project. Would you send me more detail and information about this project?

Please contact me by my email: jimevprg@gmail.com

kind regards

Ahmadi

whoand (author)  ahad44511 days ago

Hi Ahmadi, I am busy for research projects. My student is taking care of the DIY AFM related discussions. He will contact you soon.

Dear, Dr. Whoand

I am an physicist engineer of the materials science . I do research in the area of thin solid films . Very impressed me this wonderful invention . I would like to do the same at home. Is Honorable Doctor could provide me detail of design ? Please reply to the email krzysztof.antmann@gmail.com
Cordial Greetings from Poland. THANK YOU SO MUCH !!

Hi Krzysztof, I am passing your email to my student. He has very detailed instructions and also operation videos about the DIY AFM system.

wilkeriuri13 days ago

Dear, Dr. Whoand
I am a Biotechnology master student in Brazil . I graduated in Electrical and Computer Engineering. I would be very grateful if you could send me the detail of constructing . My Email is wilkersouza@gmail.com. Thanks for a help....

Wilker Iuri

whoand (author)  wilkeriuri11 days ago

Hi Wilkersouza, my student had sent you some more details.

문도박15 days ago

Dear, Dr. Whoand

I am a student and I really want to know how to make AFM in detail. I would be very grateful if you could send me the references and more detail of constructing your project. My email adress is qkranseh@gmail.com

Thank you for your help.

whoand (author)  문도박11 days ago

Hi, my student has very detailed construction about the DIY AFM. I will pass your information to him.

man u are amazing but can u do this at low cost we are not able to back this project with this budget
whoand (author)  mihir.sahu.35511 days ago

hmm...what do you mean?

Dear Sir, I would say its an extraordinary project. As you send detailed steps to build this to everyone who commented here , I also request you to send me steps and schematics to build AFM on my email - abhijeet.sokashe@gmail.com
whoand (author)  abhijeet.sokashe11 days ago

Hi Abhijeet, sure I will let my student contact you.

DebrajK15 months ago

DEAR SIR

CAN YOU SEND ME CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS OF THIS PROJECT TO KUNDU.SPY@GMAIL.COM

I WILL BE GRATEFULL TO YOU

whoand (author)  DebrajK15 months ago

I can send you some references....

DebrajK1 whoand1 month ago
thank you siri m sorry for not replying before i was in school
troymessina1 month ago

This is amazing! I am very interested in the schematics for the circuit boards and any other parts you made for this project.

Thank you!!!

Troy Messina

troy@themessinas.net

whoand (author)  troymessina1 month ago

My student will contact you.

I truly appreciate it! Thank you!!!
eerry2 months ago

Hi Mr Whoand

I am very interesting about your project. please sent me example AFM labView program. for my little project , thanks. please sent to my email (ervan.erry@gmail.com), thanks

whoand (author)  eerry1 month ago

Hi, my student will contact you soon.

y56645791 month ago

感人的项目。。。 多谢分享 实在让人想跃跃欲试

在动手此之前 有几个问题请教下您

驱动压电扬声器的电压范围是多少 扫描时是步进式的加压么 加压的幅度大约多大

探针工作时的信号是什么样的状态 在接近物体表面时是从震荡趋于平缓么

在探针开始工作的时候 要先驱动探针那边的压电扬声器产生探针共振频率的振动么

探针碰触物体信号会有畸变么 会损伤探针么

您使用的激光头 采集 和 控制设备 是什么型号 能否分享下设计图跟labview的软件

望您不吝赐教 我的邮箱yawgmoth@126.com

多谢

whoand (author)  y56645791 month ago

Hi y5664579, my student will contact you.

SantiagoR11 month ago

Same as every one else just wanted to see if u can send more a more detailed material and construction instructions. My email is Srodriguez.ta@mysummitps.org

whoand (author)  SantiagoR11 month ago

Hi SantiagoR1, thanks for asking!

pemberun1 month ago

Dear Dr. Whoand,

I congratulate you for this project.Thank you for making this technology available for everyone.I am very interested in this project.I want to build an AFM for my research.

Can you send me a more detailed material and construction instructions

(articles,papers,reference materials, drawings,circuit diagrams,

parts list, OPU datasheet , PCB circuit ,LavVIEW code)

by email?

My email: pemberun@yahoo.com

Thank you for your help.Have a nice day

whoand (author)  pemberun1 month ago

Thank you for your comment, you will receive some references from my student.

jolomon1 month ago

Using wire cutters to make STM tips.

http://www.nanophys.kth.se/nanophys/facilities/nfl...

whoand (author)  jolomon1 month ago

Thanks! that's the simplest way to make STM probe.

Can I request schematics, circuit boards, etc. and other detailed information on how to build this? Thank you very much! Great project.

rpilgrim276@gmail.com

whoand (author)  quantumphoenix1 month ago

Will do.

OlalaHitches3 months ago

Hello Prof. Whoand,

I'm very interrested by this project, and i want to try this adventure !

Could you send me all needed informations for make this wonderful AFM !

Very good job, Many thank's for that !

My mail : anilkocakurek@gmail.com

From Italia...

Can you forward the references Dr. Whoand sent you? Thanks!

rpilgrim276@gmail.com

whoand (author)  quantumphoenix1 month ago

Hi, don't worry. My student will send it.

whoand (author)  OlalaHitches1 month ago

Hi OlalaHitches, my student will contact you. Thank you for your asking!

whoand (author)  OlalaHitches3 months ago

Sure!!

1-40 of 349Next »