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I am pleased to share with you that the DIY AFM is reported by the latest Nature Nanotechnology 10, 480 (2015) that the DIY AFM is assembled by junior high school student and successfully measure PM 2.5 particles.

Microscopes are awesome! They help us see things that are not visible to bare eyes. Optical microscopes can only see micro scale (1/1,000 millimeter) structures. However, you can explore nano scale (1/1,000,000 millimeter) world by Atomic Force Microscopes (AFM). Yet a stock-ready AFM usually costs hundreds of thousands of dollars to buy. Thus we are providing you a solution to make your own AFM optomechanical system out of daily used parts including optical pickup unit (OPU) in a DVD player and piezo buzzers in your watch. The total cost is between 500 to 1,000 dollars (AFM controller not included). Most of the traditional AFM systems use beam deflection method for monitoring the AFM probe, the low cost educational AFM directly use an OPU for the same purpose. This low cost educational AFM is originally designed and made by Dr. En-Te Hwu, Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan. Idea of using circuit boards as structure: Sebastian Buetefisch.

Traditional AFM:

DVD OPU based AFM

DVD OPU based AFM in German National Metrology Institute

顯微鏡可讓我們看到肉眼無法觀察的結構,实在是太棒了!光學顯微鏡能看到微米等級(1/1,000釐米)結構,然而原子力顯微鏡更可讓我們看到奈米(1/1,000,000 釐米)結構。一般的原子力顯微鏡動輒數萬至數十萬美元,只有研究機構可以負擔得起。我們希望透過這次介紹,告訴大家如何利用身邊的元件,包括DVD Rom的光學讀寫頭以及你手錶裡面嗶嗶叫的壓電喇叭,來製作一套自己的奈米級原子力顯微鏡的光機系統,材料價格不超過1000美元(不包含控制器)。傳統原子力顯微鏡大多使用光槓桿原理,而教育型原子力顯微鏡使用像散式光路偵測探針位移,此教育型原子力顯微鏡由台灣中央研究院物理研究所胡恩德博士設計並製作。使用電路板作結構之概念源自:Sebastian Buetefisch.

显微镜可让我们看到肉眼无法观察的结构,实在是太棒了!光学显微镜能看到微米等级(1/1,000毫米)结构,然而原子力显微镜更可让我们看到納米(1/1,000,000毫米)结构。一般的原子力显微镜动辄数万至数十万美元,只有研究机构可以负担得起。我们希望透这次介绍,告诉大家如何利用身边的元器件,包括DVD Rom的激光头以及你手表里面哔哔叫的压电喇叭,来制作一套自己的納米级原子力显微镜的的光机系统,材料价格不超过1000美元(不包含控制器。传统原子力显微镜大多使用光杠杆原理,而教育型原子力显微镜使用像散式光路侦测探针位移,此教育型原子力显微镜由台湾中央研究院物理研究所胡恩德博士设计并制作。使用电路板作结构之概念源自:Sebastian

Buetefisch.

Step 1: Materials and tools 材料與工具

Materials for the low cost AFM are: 1.OPU disassembled from a DVD ROM. 2.Piezo speakers. 3.Signal connector. 4.Precision screws. 5.Circuit boards. The tools needed are: 1.A soldering iron 2.Solder 3.Quick-dry adhesive 4.Epoxy 5.Magnets 6.Screw driver. The consumable is AFM probes (working frequency 300 kHz).

組裝原子力顯微鏡需要材料為:1.從DVD光碟機上的讀取頭 2.壓電喇叭 3.訊號接頭 4.精密螺絲 5.磁鐵 6.電路板結構。 工具為:1.烙鐵 2.銲錫 3.瞬間膠 4.AB膠 5.螺絲起子。耗材為:原子力顯微鏡探針(工作頻率300k赫茲)。

组装原子力显微镜需要材料为:1.从DVD光驱上的激光头 2.压电喇叭 3.信号接头 4.精密螺丝 5.磁铁 6.电路板结构。 工具为:1.烙铁 2.焊锡 3.瞬间胶 4.AB胶 5.螺丝刀。耗材为:原子力显微镜探针(工作频率300k赫兹)。

Step 2: Assembling the AFM base 組裝原子力顯微鏡底座

The optomechanical part of the AFM system is assembled by students from junior high school attached to Tsinghua University. The AFM base is structured by 4 circuit boards which are fixed by solder.

這邊由北京清華大學附屬中學的國中學生來示範,如何自己動手組裝原子力顯微鏡的光學機構系統。底座由4片電路板構成,組起來的結構件使用銲錫固定。

这边由北京清华大学附属中学的国中学生来示范,如何自己动手组装原子力显微镜的光学机构系统。底座由4片电路板构成,组起来的结构件使用焊锡固定。

Step 3: Assembling the AFM piezo scanner 組裝壓電掃描器

Assembling the scanner structure and fix the structure on 4 piezo buzzers which are soldered to the base. The fifth piezo buzzer is fixed on top of the scanner structure.

掃描器由三片電路板組成,焊接掃描器結構後,並以AB膠將結構的四支腳固定在底座的四片壓電喇叭上,並將第五片壓電喇叭固定於掃描器頂端,大部分的零件皆由銲錫固定。

扫描仪由三片电路板组成,焊接扫描仪结构后,并以AB胶将结构的四支脚固定在底座的四片压电喇叭上,并将第五片压电喇叭固定于扫描仪顶端,大部分的零件皆由焊锡固定

Step 4: Assembling the AFM head 組裝光路頭

The frame of the AFM head composed of 5 pieces of circuit board. Assembling the frame of the AFM head then fix the DVD OPU in the center and place the probe adjustment mechanism. Install 3 screws on the AFM head for coarse adjustments.

光路結構由五片電路板組成,首先將光路機構焊接組裝好,再將DVD光學讀取頭以瞬間膠固定於中央,並安裝一片電路板作為探針調整機構。之後將三個精密螺絲透過AB膠固定於光路機構。

光路结构由五片电路板组成,首先将光路机构组装好,再将DVD激光头以瞬间胶固定于中央,并安装探针调整机构。之后将三个螺丝透過AB胶固定于光路机构。

Step 5: Installing piezo scanner connectors 安裝壓電掃描器接頭

The piezo scanner needs 3 connectors for X,Y,Z signal input. Wire those 5 piezo speakers to the connectors which installed in the base.

壓電掃描器需要三個接頭分別接收X、Y、Z三個方向的控制訊號。安裝訊號接頭後,並將五個壓電喇叭透過電線連接至接頭。

扫描仪需要三个接口分别接收X、Y、Z三个方向的控制信号。安装信号接头后,并将五个压电喇叭透过电线连接至接头。

Step 6: Assembling a passive anti-vibration platform 組裝被動式防震平台

Proper vibration isolation can ensure AFM measurement quality, good news is that the vibration table can be built by materials we can easily get:1.Bicycle tube(diameter 10-18 inch) 2.A stone, iron block or other heavy object (weight of 3-10 kg, size of approx. 20x50 cm) 3.Pump for pumping the bicycle tube. Place the stone on top of an inflated bicycle tube, this can be a very simple passive anti-vibration platform.

最低限度的防震平台是保證顯微鏡量測精度的關鍵,好消息是這防震平台的材料隨手可得:1.腳踏車內胎(直徑約10-18英吋)2.一塊石頭、鐵塊或其他長方體的重物(重約3-10公斤,長寬分別約20公分和50公分,厚度不限)。3.一個打氣筒,為內胎充氣。首先將一條腳踏車內胎充氣,接著將石頭放置於內胎上,此即為一簡易的被動式防震平台。

最低限度的防震平台是保证显微镜量测精度的关键,好消息是这防震平台的材料随手可得:1. 自行车内胎(直径约10-18英寸) 2. 一块石头、铁块、或其他外形呈长方体的重物(重约3-10千克即可,长宽分别约20厘米和50厘米,厚度不限) 3. 为内胎充气的气泵。将一条自行车内胎充气,接着将石头放置于内胎上,此即为一简易的被动式防震平台。

Step 7: Sample preparation 樣品準備

Like normal AFM systems, the low cost AFM also needs simple sample preparations. Here we use data tracks on DVD and Blu-ray disks (protection layer are torn out) for AFM system evaluations and calibrations. The DVD and Blu-ray data tracks have pitch of 740 nm and 320 nm, respectively. Besides, the students are very interested in measuring surface nano structures on an eraser. We cut one piece (approximately 1x1 cm) of the sample glued on an iron sample holder (piece of paper knife). The sample holder can be fixed by a magnet glued on the piezo scanner.

低價原子力顯微鏡跟一般原子力顯微鏡一樣,需要稍微準備一下樣品。我們這邊使用DVD與Blu-ray光碟片(將保護層撕除)作為原子力顯微鏡系統測試樣品,因為DVD資料軌道間距為740奈米,Blu-ray光碟資料軌道間距為320奈米。此外清華大學附屬中學的國中生也很好奇想看看橡皮擦的奈米結構。僅需將樣品裁切至大約1公分平方並在背面黏貼美工刀片,即可透過磁力吸在掃描器上進行掃描。

低价原子力显微镜跟一般原子力显微镜一样,需要稍微准备一下样品。我们这边使用DVD与Blu-ray光盘(将保护层撕除)作为原子力显微镜系统测试样品,因为DVD数据轨道间距为740納米,Blu-ray光盘数据轨道间距为320納米。此外清华大学附属中学的国中生也很好奇想看看橡皮擦的納米结构。仅需将样品裁切至大约1公分平方并在背面黏贴美工刀片,即可透过磁力吸在扫描仪上进行扫描。

Step 8: AFM evaluation and calibration 測試原子力顯微鏡

Students use the AFM they assembled for measuring the DVD data tracks (pitch 740 nm), measurement result shows that the actuation area of the scanner is 15x15 micron. Students also compare the AFM measurement result (right image) with optical image captured by a USB microscope (left image). The low cost AFM can easily measure the DVD data tracks which can not be observed by the optical microscope.

首先學生用自己組裝的原子力顯微鏡裝上探針掃描空白DVD光碟片資料軌(結構間距740奈米),由影像可以得知,此原子力顯微鏡的掃描器運作範圍是X與Y方向各15微米。學生並將AFM量測到結果(右圖)跟USB光學顯微鏡所得到的資料軌影像(左圖)進行比對,光學顯微鏡看不到的資料軌奈米結構可由原子力顯微鏡輕易地得到。

首先学生用自己组装的原子力显微镜装上探针扫描空白DVD光盘数据轨(结构间距740納米),由影像可以得知,此原子力显微镜的扫描仪运作范围是X与Y方向各15微米。学生并将AFM量测到结果(右图)跟USB光学显微镜所得到的影像(左图)进行比对,光学显微镜看不到的数据轨納米结构可由原子力显微镜轻易地得到。

Step 9: Measuring the surface of an eraser 量測橡皮擦的表面

Students are very interested in surface structures of an eraser that they use everyday. The surface of eraser is observed by the USB microscope (left image), we can not see clear structures. The same eraser is measured by the low cost AFM (right image), we found that the structures on the eraser surface are very big (several microns in all dimensions). The measurement area of the eraser is 5x5 micron.

接著學生們對於日常使用的橡皮擦表面結構非常有興趣,首先使用USB光學顯微鏡觀察(左圖),看到的結構不是很明顯,而原子力顯微鏡可以清楚看到橡皮擦的表面結構凹凸不平非常粗糙(右圖)。橡皮擦的量測範圍是5x5微米。

接着学生们对于日常使用的橡皮擦表面结构非常有兴趣,首先使用USB光学显微镜观察(左图),看到的结构不是很明显,而原子力显微镜可以清楚看到橡皮擦的表面结构凹凸不平非常粗糙(右图)。橡皮擦的量测范围是5x5微米。

Step 10: Observing PM 2.5 particles in Beijing 觀察北京空氣懸浮粒子

Students like to measure Blu-ray data tracks that the pitch is 320 nm. We can get the high density data tracks in a scanning area of 10x10 micron. Besides, we can find several particles (size approx. 1 micron) on the data tracks. Those particles are PM 2.5 in Beijing.

Due to some proboem in the instructables, here is a link of the step by step process in PDF: http://ppt.cc/bEsH

學生想挑戰結構更小的空白Blu-ray光碟片資料軌,其間距為320奈米。由量測結果可看到密度更高的Blu-ray光碟資料軌,掃描範圍為10x10微米。此外,我們可在資料軌上可以看到數個尺寸約1微米左右的顆粒,此即為北京漂浮在空氣中的PM 2.5顆粒。

由於網站轉PDF檔出了問題,這邊附上PDF連結:http://ppt.cc/bEsH

学生想挑战结构更小的空白Blu-ray光盘片数据轨,其间距为320納米。由量测结果可看到密度更高的Blu-ray光盘数据轨,扫描范围为10x10微米。此外,我们可在数据轨上可以看到数个尺寸约1微米左右的颗粒,此即为北京漂浮在空气中的PM 2.5颗粒。

由于网站转PDF档出了问题,这边附上PDF链结:http://ppt.cc/bEsH

Step 11: Prepare for making your own educational AFM

One working system in Taiwan runs 24-7 for stress test, this system is continuously scanning for more than one week. I am using contact mode AFM probe now (still use that probe in tapping mode). The sample is a Blu-ray disk of mass produced PS3 game ( I think the game is Front Mission Evolved). The are no data tracks on the disk, we can find data pits on the surface. The size of one data pit is about 150 nm.

Actually I work with OPUs for 10 years already....the OPU based AFM paper published long time ago (http://nanotechweb.org/cws/article/tech/33346) It's still fun to play with OPUs.

Using OPU for AFM application seems very easy, but actually there are a lot of tricky parts. One may need to know fundamentals of the OPU, then it would be easier to start working with OPUs. Here is a document about background knowledge of the OPU:

http://ppt.cc/SGYS

http://ppt.cc/ln~N

Good Luck!

Step 12: Some other OPU based instrumentations

Here is a file which introduces various precision measurements based on the OPU, such as AFM, Optical profiler, vibrometer, bio-sensing....you can find more details in the attached file!

Step 13: Measuring leafs surface with nano scale resolution

<p>Simply outstanding. Could you send me the information of the electronics, code, etc. to my email </p><p>fads5235@gmail.com</p><p> Thank you!</p>
<p>Hello Sir</p><p> Its really a great project. Would you please send detail schematic,electronics and software used to control this AFM ?Thank you very much</p><p>email_id: babubinaya@ymail.com </p>
<p>Dear Dr. Hwu,<br><br>Ive just starting my Final Year Project on making an affordable AFM and you're project looks very similar to what I want to do. My intention is to use a different kind of control method in order to position the Z-axis, but I do not wish to design and make the stages (I don't have that much time :S)<br>It would be great if you could email me the schematics, hardware components and maybe some of the software used to control the AFM, thank you very much! :)<br>gasfhnsfazdrgzdf@mail.com<br><br>(Sorry about the weird email address, I didn't want to put my university email on a public comment)<br><br>Great project by the way, its amazing that you've managed to design this incredibly accurate system with very affordable components! :D<br><br>Cheers,<br>Charles<br><br></p>
<p>Hi Charles, please check your mailbox ;)</p>
<p>Dear Dr. Hwu,</p><p>I am a science teacher in North Carolina. Would it be possible to send me the schematics, material list, and any of the software used to create this AFM? Your project is absolutely amazing. I've been trying to build an AFM and having difficulties, and then I found your site.</p><p>Very gratefully, <br>Yours,<br>Duncan</p><p><a href="mailto:dmacpher@hotmail.com" rel="nofollow">dmacpher@hotmail.com</a></p>
<p>Sure!</p>
Can you provide me more information about it I would like to build one device like this.<br>milette.martin@gmail.com<br>thank you.
<p>sent!</p>
<p>Hello!</p><p>I am high school student and i wish to introduce your AFM to people, by making it. could you provide me the files or materials by email? it's woonjy2011/AT/gmail/dotcom.</p><p>also, do surrounding light sources affect the result? i mean, afm uses an photonic way to get datas, so are there noises from the environment? </p>
<p>oh, and thank you very much for great diy work.</p>
<p>Hello!</p><p>I am high school student and i wish to introduce your AFM to people, by making it. could you provide me the files or materials by email? it's woonjy2011/AT/gmail/dotcom.</p><p>also, do surrounding light sources affect the result? i mean, afm uses an photonic way to get datas, so are there noises from the environment? </p>
<p>Hi<br>Im an artist very interested to build one of these and learn more about AFM, your work is very exciting.<br>If it is possible I would very much appreciate some further assistance via email.<br>Also could you please email through the design files, software, code, schematics/blueprints and parts lists for this and the WII AFM? Im so excited to start.<br>nathanxl(at)hotmail(dot)com</p><p>Thankyou</p>
Hi<br>Can you provide me with the software and additional materials used in this project? <br>My email adress is brodi1991@gmail.com<br>Would be great hearing from you
<p>Sure!</p>
<p>Hi Mr. Whoand,</p><p>I would like to build this for a home project I am working on. Can you send me the articles and files used for this project. Also for the Wii AFM controller please</p><p>Thank you!! </p>
<p>Hi I don't have your email....</p>
<p>Im so sorry, I guess I was so excited I forgot. </p><p>jdbriceno6@yahoo.com</p><p>Thank you!! </p>
<p>Sent!</p>
<p>Dear Prof. Whoand,</p><p>I am a highschool junior currently and I am interested in building an AFM (atomic force microscope) at home. Is there any chance you could provide me with the schematics/blueprints and software used to create the AFM, and also is it possible to get in contact with you to discuss someother questions I have. If you could please email me at 2dominikv@gmail.com that would be great.</p><p>Thank you in advance.</p><p>Kind regards </p><p>Dominik Vugrinec</p>
<p>Replied!</p>
<p>Thank you!</p>
<p>dear prof. thank you for your repply.</p><p>email. yahiaom@gmail.com.</p>
<p>Thanks! Sent!</p>
<p>Dear Prof. I am very impressed by the way you have done this AFM by the simplest and smartest way. a want to make one. in my countery rhere is no AFM, not commericial nor diy. i will make a donnation of one other to my university.</p><p>can you send me step by step and schematics and software . thank you in advance.</p>
<p>Hi, please give me your email, thanks!</p>
<p>Dear Prof. Hwu,</p><p>I'm Yeop from Malaysia and wish to explore further potential of this AFM. It would be much appreciated if you could send me the schematics, code, and electronics design files of the project. My email is durratun.seeker@gmail.com </p>
<p>Replied, Happy New Year!</p>
<p>Dear Prof. Hwu<br><br>I am majoring in Biomedical Informatics from the University of S&atilde;o Paulo - Brazil . Its design is amazing! Please could you send the article to me? <br><br>tiago.costa@usp.br<br><br>Thank you so much.</p>
<p>Sent, Happy New Year!</p>
<p>Dear Professor Hwu,</p><p>I would like to build this for a lab project, I will be really greatful if you could send to me schematics, code, and electronics design files of the project. My mail is jsathiskumar@gmail.com</p><p>Thanks in advance for you support.</p><p>Best Regards</p><p>Sathiskumar</p>
<p>Sent!</p>
<p>Hello Professor Hwu,</p><p>I am a french undergraduate student in Physics and I am working on AFM for a lab project. I find you work incredible and I would like to build it too to understand really how afm works.<br>Can you send me the detailed build files to build it ?</p><p>My email is jonathanweb31@gmail.com</p><p>Thanks a lot in advance</p>
<p>Done! Happy New Year!</p>
<p>Professor Hwu,</p><p>This looks like a great project, and I would love to try and build it. I worked a on an AFM during my undergraduate degree for a research project, and now have been put in charge of one used for inline measurements for my job. I would love to be able to play around with this and learn more about how it really works. Could you send me a complete parts list, schematics, and programs? My email is bonifas225@gmail.com. Thank you in advance.</p>
<p>Sure! Happy new year!</p>
<p>hi sir</p><p>I would like to build this for a myself, I will be really <br>greatful if you could send to me schematics, code, and electronics <br>design files of the project. My mail is max.davis.1002@gmail.com</p><p>tnx for your time</p>
<p>Hi Max, I sent you email already.</p>
What wonderful work. I would also appreciate the detailed build files. I am at derekja@makerspace.ca<br><br>Thank you!
<p>Replied to your email already.</p>
<p>Hello,</p><p>I would like to build this for a lab project, I will be really greatful if you could send to me schematics, code, and electronics design files of the project. My mail is</p><p>sebbern28@gmail.com.</p><p>Thanks and best regards</p>
<p>Thanks for your comment, replied.</p>
<p>Dear Prof. Hwu,</p><p>I am undergraduate student taking major in metrology &amp; instrumentation, very interested in learning about nano metrology, I would like to have the information more detailed about your work please, can you send it to me. My mail is apep_ridwan@yahoo.co.id</p><p>Thanks.</p>
<p>I think my student sent it already.</p>
<p>Hello,</p><p>I would like to build this for a lab project, I will be really greatful if you could send to me schematics, code, and electronics design files of the project. My mail is bise.penelope@gmail.com</p><p>Thanks in advance for you support.</p><p>Best Regards</p><p>Penelope</p><p>r time and support.Best Regards</p>
<p>Sure!</p>
<p>Hi Professor Hwu, I am an undergraduate physics major working on a final project for my linear electronics lab. Could I have more details emailed to buckett340 (at) gmail (dot) com?</p><p>Thank you</p>
<p>Dear Prof. Hwu,</p><p>I would like to build this for my lab. Will you please send me the details on the parts and source code? My email address is bduong07@gmail.com.</p><p>Thanks so much.</p><p>Binh</p>
<p>Hi. I would appreciate to build this. If you are able to send me schematics, code, and design files of the project I would greatly appreciate it. My e-mail is sorellapescara@tiscali.it Thanks!</p>
<p>Double post?</p>
<p>Dear Prof. Hwu,</p><p>thaks for the reply, I hope receive soon the details to reproduce your great idea. Regards Sorella</p>

About This Instructable

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Bio: Research Scientist En-Te Hwu E-mail: whoand@gmail.com Linkedin: http://www.linkedin.com/profile/view?id=129035139&trk=nav_responsive_tab_profile_pic
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