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Picture of Battery-free 5 volt project power
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Now you can have a regulated power supply constantly at your fingertips with NO batteries to replace or recharge! This Instructable shows you how to modify a keychain dynamo flashlight into a lean mean supply that can replace batteries for any projects requiring quick 5 volt direct-current (5V DC) power.

If you've even included digital logic, analog chips, or a microcontroller into a project there's a good chance you've had to find a way to provide 5V DC to your circuit. There are few primary sources of 5V, so you can use a wall wart to convert AC power (which obviously limits where you can take your new gadget) or you can spend extra time building a regulator circuit to get multiple 1.5V batteries to the needed voltage. These solutions are required for some circuits, but for smaller gadgets, wouldn't it be nice to have an always-ready supply so you can go straight to working on other aspects of the project?

By adding a few electronic components to a widely available dynamo flashlight, you can power small devices for short periods without using up outlets or batteries. The improved dynamo is great for the workbench or showing off new projects just about anywhere.

This Instructable covers how to assemble and install a step-up DC-DC converter that turns the varying low voltage of the keychain dynamo's generator into a constant 5V. The step-up circuit charges a large capacitor which provides energy storage and some power even when the dynamo isn't turning.

By following the steps in this Instructable, you can accomplish all this without manufacturing a special circuit board or using hard-to-solder surface mount components. To get the electronic parts inside the keychain case requires some circuit origami, but after about an hour of tinkering you will have a neat device that can source up to 50 milliamps of current at a constant 5V DC while winding and milliwatts of power for minutes after!
 
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Step 1: How it works

Picture of How it works
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Electric generator
Current flowing into a motor creates a magnetic field in coils attached to the shaft, which turns in the presence of a magnetic field from fixed magnets. When a motor is run in reverse -- power is applied by turning the shaft -- a voltage is induced in the coil. Faraday's law says this voltage is proportional to the rate the magnetic field changes in the coil. Thus the faster the shaft is turned, the greater the voltage.

Gear ratios
A series of gears are used within the keychain to get the generator spinning as fast as possible. When you crank the handle, it sets three compound spur gears in motion. One half of each compound gear has a small radius and the other half has a large radius. When the small radius is turned, the teeth at the edge of the larger radius change location at a proportionally faster rate. By cascading these compound gears, the cranking rate can be multiplied several times and the generator shaft can be turned much faster than a human could turn it.

The need for the step-up converter and storage capacitor
The keychain's gear ratio can generate a few volts with reasonable cranking, but the voltage is not high enough to reach 5V. This voltage also varies quickly based on the shaft rotation rate. To get a steady 5V output, a step-up converter is needed. The specific integrated circuit chosen -- the MAX756 -- can turn voltages as low as 0.7V into 5V and comes in a handy 8 pin package. The step-up circuit is based on the application circuit in the MAX756 datasheet.

http://datasheets.maxim-ic.com/en/ds/MAX756-MAX757.pdf

Even though these dynamo keychain flashlights are advertised as needing no batteries, they appear to have three coin-sized batteries inside. The generator is soldered to this coin battery stack in a somewhat crude charging circuit. However, I do not think these batteries are meant to be rechargeable, and they tend to drain quickly after the initial discharge. This Instructable replaces this coin stack with a large capacitor that can be recharged more frequently and is more efficient.

See the schematic for the layout of the entire circuit. The specific components were chosen for easy hand soldering while being the smallest sizes that were still rated for the voltages in the circuit. Note: The MAX756 datasheet has C3 as a 150 uF capacitor. The 150 uF capacitors I found were much physically bigger than the 100 uF ones and wouldn't fit within the small keychain. Thus I replaced C3 with a 100 uF capacitor and it appears to work fine.

Step 2: Parts and Tools

Picture of Parts and Tools
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Step-up converter parts
The parts for the step-up circuit can be obtained from an electronics distributor such as Digikey.

U1 -- MAX756 3.3V/5V step-up DC-DC converter, 8-pin DIP package [Digikey# MAX756CPA+-ND]
C1 -- 0.33 F 5.5V capacitor, coin package [Digikey# 604-1024-ND]
C2,C3 -- 100 uF 6.3V aluminum electrolytic capacitor, mini radial [Digikey# P803-ND]
C4 -- 0.1 uF 25V ceramic general purpose capacitor, through-hole [Digikey# BC1148CT-ND]
L1 -- 22 uH RF choke, axial [Digikey# M8138CT-ND]
R1 -- 1k, 1/4W general purpose carbon film resistor, axial [Digikey# 1.0KQBK-ND]
D2 -- 1A 20V Schottky diode, axial [Digikey# 1N5817GOS-ND]
D3 -- If you are not able to recycle the original LEDs in the flashlight because the leads were clipped too short, you can use any 2 mA LED, round T1 3mm [e.g. Digikey# 475-1402-ND]

Dynamo keychain flashlight
I used a dynamo LED keychain flashlight which was marked as AIDvantage and made by LTA, Inc. (item# 02119) for this project. There are a variety of these sized flashlights on the market made by different manufacturers -- I've seen them at grocery stores (Giant on the East Coast) and computer stores (Microcenter). You can find them online by Googling: dynamo keychain flashlight. They usually cost less than $5.

I discovered there are some minor variations between flashlights made by different manufacturers. One flashlight I got at Microcenter did not have a circuit board for the LEDs -- the LEDs were just soldered directly to the battery. This LED circuit board is nice but not required. If you find that there's no separate circuit board for the LEDs, you can just solder the respective positive and negative leads of the LED+resistor combo and output cable together. A little hot glue inside the faceplate near the LED and output cable can give the assembly some mechanical strength. The other variation was that leads on the switch on this version were also soldered slightly differently to the battery. Otherwise, it was pretty much identical.

Output cable
I used a USB A male to mini-B USB male cable scavenged from a dead MP3 player as the output cable. I chose this cable because the mini-USB input is common for small circuits. Since there are 4 connections inside this cable, you have to figure out which wires are the positive & negative leads. However, you can use any output cable type you want if you know the polarity.

To test the circuit, you will also probably want to have the complementary jack available for the output adapter. I de-soldered the mini-B receptacle from the dead MP3 player and connected red and black wires to power 5V and ground pins, respectively.

Tools
You will need the following tools to build and test the modified dynamo:

-- wire stripper
-- soldering iron, solder, & flux (this Instructable assumes you have soldered before)
-- voltmeter & test leads
-- small Phillips screwdriver (for opening the flashlight case)
-- electrical tape
-- small wire cutters
-- small pliers
-- tweezers (optional, but recommended)
-- adjustable arms vise, third hand tool (optional, but recommended)
-- small flathead screwdriver (optional, but recommended)
-- hot glue gun (optional, but recommended)
-- hobby knife (optional, but recommended)

Step 3: Circuit Origami: MAX756 and storage capacitor

Picture of Circuit Origami: MAX756 and storage capacitor
A. Identify the 8 pins on the MAX756 and orient the chip with pin 1 on the bottom left.

B. Flip the chip over (i.e. rotate 180 degrees through the long axis) and clip pins 4 and 5. These pins go to the MAX756's low-battery indicator feature and are not used in this Instructable. You could modify the circuit and use these pins to determine when the voltage on the storage capacitor (C1) is low. Flip the storage capacitor over so the negative pin is on the left.

C. Place the MAX756 on the storage capacitor so that the chip is roughly between the storage capacitor's negative C1(-) and positive C1(+) pins.

D. Bend the storage capacitor pins towards the MAX756 as if to clip the chip in place. Bend pins 2 and 7 on the MAX756 so they are nearly touching the storage capacitor's negative pin C1(-). Bend pin 6 so it is nearly touching the storage capacitor's positive pin C1(+).

E. Solder together C1(-) and pins 2 and 7 on the MAX756. Then solder together C1(+) and pin 6 on the MAX756.

F. Finally, cut a small piece of electrical tape roughly the size of the MAX756's height and width. Use this piece to cover the joints soldered in E.

Step 4: Circuit Origami: inductor, reference capacitor, Schottky diode

Picture of Circuit Origami: inductor, reference capacitor, Schottky diode
A. Place inductor L1 against pins 1 and 8 on the MAX756. Press the L1 leads against the MAX756 pins so the component is as close to the chip body as possible.

B. Solder L1 to pins 1 and 8 and clip the remaining L1 lead length.

C. Place ceramic capacitor C4 so that one lead touches pin 3 on the MAX756 and the other is pressing against an exposed part of pin 2, which is now mostly underneath the electrical tape.

D. Solder C4 to pins 2 and 3 and clip the remaining C4 lead length.

E. Looking at MAX756 with pin 1 in the upper left, place the Schottky diode D2 on the ledge created by the large capacitor C1. Bend the D2 cathode D2(-) pin -- identified with a band -- around the MAX756 body so that it's touching the positive terminal of C1, C1(+). Bend the D2 anode D2(+) up so that it's touching pin 8 on the MAX756.

F. Solder the D2 pins to the MAX756 and clip the remaining lead length. Trim pins 8 and 3.

Step 5: Circuit Origami: electrolytic capacitors, part 1

Picture of Circuit Origami: electrolytic capacitors, part 1
A. Stand electrolytic capacitors C2 and C3 on their ends so that the negative terminals, C2(-) and C3(-), are next to each other.

B. Bend C3(-) around C2(-).

C. Solder the two negative leads together close to C2. This will create a ground lead for the two capacitors. Make sure not to accidentally solder the positive terminal of C2. Clip the remaining length of C2(-).

D. Flip the capacitors towards you. Bend C3(-) into the channel create between the two capacitors. Near the end of the capacitors, bend the remaining length 90 degrees like you are creating a foot for the two capacitors.

E. With C1(-) facing you, place C2 and C3 on the left side and tuck the C3(-) foot between the C1(-) terminal and the C1 body.

F. Solder C3(-) to C1(-). You are tying the ground pins of C2, C3, and C1 together.

Step 6: Circuit Origami: electrolytic capacitors, part 2

Picture of Circuit Origami: electrolytic capacitors, part 2
A. Bend the positive terminal of C3, C3(+) towards pin 1 on the MAX756 so that it is inside of pins 1 and 2.

B. Solder C3(+) to pin 1 on the MAX756. Trim the remaining length of pin 1.

C. Turn the assembly so that it's resting on the negative lead of C1, C1(-). Cut a strip of electrical tape that's narrower than the width of capacitors C2 and C3 together and about twice as long. Place this electrical tape between C1 and C2/C3 so that it will cover the C2/C3 ground pins. This will keep C2(+) from accidentally touching and shorting to ground.

E. Bend C2(+) 90 degrees so that it's over the C2/C3 solder joint. Then bend it 90 degrees towards the C1(+) terminal.

F. Solder C2(+) to C1(+) and trim the remaining length.

Step 7: Making the output cable

Picture of Making the output cable
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The process for making the output cable depends on what adapter you choose for your projects. This step covers how to incorporate a USB mini-B male cable, since it's a common power plug format. I used a cable that came from a dead MP3 player and had USB-A male and mini-B male ends.

Cut the cable about 5 inches from the tip of the mini-B end. Strip the USB-A end and the 4 wires inside. To determine which wires are the positive and ground, plug the USB-A into a powered USB jack. Test combinations of wires with a voltmeter - if there are red and black wires, they probably provide positive power and ground, respectively.

Strip the outer insulator on the mini-B end about 1/4 inch. Once you know which wires are positive and ground, J1(+) and J1(-), strip these wires in the mini-B end and trim the remaining two wires.

Step 8: Disassembling the flashlight

Picture of Disassembling the flashlight
A. Use a Phillips screwdriver on the four screws to disassemble the flashlight.

B. The flashlight should pull apart easily. Identify which parts are the case top, case bottom, and faceplate.

C. Pull the electronics out.

D. Clip the two wires close to the faceplate. You will use the wire that is soldered to the switch, so keep that wire as long as possible. Then clip the wire and the end of diode D1 (the negative, cathode end is marked with a black line) close to the stacked coin batteries so that the wire and diode lengths extending from the motor M1 are as long as possible.

Step 9: Preparing the faceplate

Picture of Preparing the faceplate
Note: not all dynamo keychain flashlights have a LED circuit board. If yours does not, you can skip this step.

A. Wedge a flathead screwdriver between the faceplate plastic and the LED circuit board.

B. Twist the screwdriver. The faceplate and LED circuit board should pop apart.

C. Find the nub on the plastic faceplate.

D. Clip the nub with wire cutters.

E. The nub side will face out in the new dynamo.

F. Desolder the LEDs from the LED circuit board. Try to extract the LEDs intact and leave the holes open for future pins.

Step 10: Making the faceplate

Picture of Making the faceplate
A. If your LED circuit board is similar to the one in the diagram, orient LED D3 so that the cathode pin D3(-) will go in the hole opposite the flat end of the round white LED1 outline.

B. Bend the D3 anode D3(+) 90 degrees and insert D3(-) into the hole in the LED circuit board.

C. Trim D3(+) after the bend so that it's less than a 1/8 inch long. Clip one lead of the 1k ohm resistor R1 so that it's also about 1/8 inch long. Feed the long end of R1, R1(2), through the hole in the LED circuit board and solder the short ends of R1 and D3(+) together.

D. Flip the LED circuit board over. Solder R1(2) to the hole unoccupied by D3(+) and trim the remaining length. The strip of copper R1(2) is now soldered to is the positive bus.

E. Flip the LED circuit board back over. Feed the output cable through one of the holes in the plastic faceplate. Note that direction of the faceplate is now inverted and the faceplate will stick out when you're finished.

F. Solder the J1(+) through the hole that connects to the positive bus. Solder J1(-) to the ground bus.

Step 11: Completing the faceplate

Picture of Completing the faceplate
A. Apply a little hot glue into the crack between the LED circuit board and faceplate on the cable side. This will give the assembly some mechanical strength.

B. Since you do not need the coin batteries, desolder a wire from the stack. Solder this wire to R1(2). This wire will provide power to LED and output cable after being connected to the step-up converter output.

Step 12: Installing the switch and step-up converter circuit

Picture of Installing the switch and step-up converter circuit
A. Desolder the switch from the flashlight's coin battery stack.

B. Make sure the switch pinout looks similar to the photo, with a wire soldered to the top pin SW1(2) and none on the bottom two. Bend the middle pin SW1(1) about 45 degrees away from the switch body. You can clip the bottom pin.

C. The bottom half of the case has three plastic features on the faceplate side which would prevent the new circuit from fitting inside. Trim these using wire cutters.

D. You may need to use a hobby knife to cut these features down flush with the rest of the case.

E. Put the switch into the bottom half of the case in its original location. Make sure the pin with the wire, SW1(2), is closest to the faceplate end.

F. Place the entire step-up converter circuit in the cavity, with the large capacitor C1 facing towards the switch and the two electrolytic capacitors C2 and C3 in the back. SW1(1) should be pressing against the negative terminal of C1, C1(-). If it is not, bend it towards the capacitor. You may want to put some electrical tape on C1(-) behind the SW1(2) pin so that it does not short.

Step 13: Connecting the faceplate and step-up converter circuit

Picture of Connecting the faceplate and step-up converter circuit
A. Put the motor M1 back into its original location in the bottom half of the case. Extend the wire that's coming out of the motor - the ground M1(-) wire - so that it's touching the middle pin the of switch, SW1(1), and the negative terminal of the large capacitor, C1(-).

B. Cut and strip the M1(-) wire to the appropriate length and solder the wire, SW1(1), and C1(-) together. This is an important connection, so make sure the three are soldered.

C. Turn the case so that the motor is on your left, and bend the cathode lead of D1, D1(-), so that it's touching an exposed part of the positive terminal of C3, C3(+).

D. Solder D1(-) and C3(+) together and trim the remaining length of D1(-).

E. Solder the SW1(2) wire to the negative bus of the faceplate.

F. Solder the wire connected to the positive bus of the faceplate to the positive terminal of the large capacitor, C1(+).

Step 14: Reassembly

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To finish assembly, fit the faceplate inside the bottom half of the case. The faceplate lip should be inside of the case lip to hold it in place.

You may want to place some electrical tape on the motor if you think the diode D1 is at risk of shorting to the motor case.

Put the gears and handle back in their original positions. Consult the photo below to see how they are oriented in the case.

Put the top half of the case on top of the bottom half. The two parts should fit closely together if the step-up converter was made pretty closely to the one in this Instructable.

Flip the new and improved power supply over and tighten the four screws.

Step 15: Testing

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Toggle the switch towards the faceplate. That is the On position.

Hold the dynamo power supply in your left hand and crank the handle with your right hand. Around two rotations per second is good. You should encounter a little resistance -- that's the capacitor charging. After a few seconds the voltage will be high enough the light the LED. As the capacitor approaches 5V, the resistance will drop. At that point, the capacitor is charged.

If you have a complementary adapter with power leads for your output cable, you can connect it to a voltmeter. Around the point where cranking resistance drops you should see that voltage approaches and stays near 5V.

If you encounter resistance but the LED does not light, check the faceplate connections. If the output voltage seriously overshoots 5V, make sure the electrolytic capacitors are correctly soldered. If you do not encounter any resistance and it clearly isn't working, it's possible there's a short somewhere in the step-up converter circuit.

Step 16: Application

Picture of Application
I used the dynamo supply to power a Luminary LM3S811 Evaluation board that prints "5V - no battery!" to an OLED display. Because of the chips used on this board, it draws a fair amount of current...about 80 mA. Consequently it does not run very long on the dynamo power supply until needing some cranking, but it runs long enough to flash different text on the screen. The dynamo power supply will work best with circuits that draw a few mA of current. Circuits may run for up to 10 minutes with no cranking, depending on their minimum operating voltage.

I also tested the dynamo supply with a hobby motor. While cranking, the motor was humming along with 50 mA of current.
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Errol19511 year ago

I like the idea but I am going to incease the size of the leds and as you fit a super capacitor to see what happens hopefully I should be able to get 10min of light

Since I'm trying to create this Joule thief supply with no dynamo flashlight, I'd like to know the reference for the diode D1.
Very detailed tut, just what i was looking for, got a few of these from DX with the intent to make a hand cranked arduino project, and your sweet little circuit origami is just what i needed to give these babys a little extra kick :) im actually thinking of custom casing with 2 generators on 1 crank, and (if i manage to tweak the components and still get it to work) will prolly try rebuild your circuit with a bigger capacitator that can deliver more mA.

I want there to be enough power for some cool things, was thinking of a small rgb pixel matrix and some buttons and joysticks to make a hand cranked little handheld game :D though its kinda far fetched looking at the needed power and what can be achieved with these hand crank units, even when beefed out with your circuit.

Either way, thanks for the great ideas & details!
MrPhelps6 years ago
Wow, I really like your origami :-) I bought one of these keychains from dealextreme, and instead of simple coin cells they contain a 160mAh rechargeable battery ! (about the same dimensions as your 0.33F capacitor). Seems ideal for your project. I've got a question about the inductor you used, the datasheet specifies a much higher saturation inductor, did it work well anyway or did you have issues with the max. current or efficiency ?
Griswold Lighting (author)  MrPhelps6 years ago
Can you post a link to the keychain from dealextreme that had a 160 mAh battery? Did it include the actual charging circuit too? That could be an even better candidate for this project. I will do a test with the breadboarded version and a variable power supply and see if the efficiencies are close to the datasheet's.
This one : http://www.dealextreme.com/details.dx/sku.12932
Actually, it's 20mAh, and not 160mAh ... It's nearly identical to the keychain you used. It brings me another question : why didn't you use the battery that came in your keychain ?
Xixfas MrPhelps2 years ago
ikkeugh3 years ago
I really like the origami, but isn't you motor producing over 5 volts?
(therefor shouldn't a step down switching regultor be used?)
tank10004 years ago
Great tutorial :

Stupid question, What would happen if you increased the size of the capactor?
67spyder4 years ago
Does the step up converter limit current? I have a single 10Ah 3.2V lifepo4 battery left over from an EV project and would love to turn it into a field charger for my andriod tablet
After reading on the data sheet I realize my question is vague. The datasheet shows 500mA in the setup I described, my real question is if I put a large load on this device will it limit current to the 500mA or will it deliver more and burn up?
chrwei4 years ago
this "dead bug" packaging is a work of art!
Agreed. I prefer a experiment card as it's easier for me to connect the leads. It seems that I don't have a talent for creating a dead bug!

Really impressive instructables, it's a piece of art. Thank a lot for that information about MAX756, it'll solve some of my problems about a good 5V source!!!!! :D
Kasm2794 years ago
I built something like this a while back, but it was with a dead dynamo flashlight that had the little plug on the side for cellphones. I pulled the LED assembly out and hot glued a USB port in its place, soldering it to the pins on the power output on the side
GrandSportX4 years ago
Classic Radio Shack mini-multimeter! I got tired of replacing those coin batteries and modified it to work off three AAA batteries. I haven't replaced them in three years now! Haha.
jimthree4 years ago
Great instructable, very clear and well designed! Would any of the other maxim DC-DC converters work for this? The max856 looks like a good alternative.
You know you can find little dynamo keychain things like this that actually have USB out on them. I've seen them on ebay for less than $5. It might be a lot easier to add a battery to one of those than to make a step up circuit.
well done i want that typ of flash light >.<
sasaa5 years ago
Really nicely done mate everything with pictures and stuff :D gonna ask around for a dynamo flashlight :P would love to charge everything :D
eddym5 years ago

I DONT GET WERE R1(1) GOES IN STEP 10 (C)

KT Gadget eddym5 years ago
 If you look at the 2nd and 3rd picture, D3+ is the end that is being soldered to R1(1).
bikeboy5 years ago

I was struggling to put a similar max756 circuit with usb in the removable solar panel/battery pack of my Ikea Sunnan  lamp, to use it as an PDA-battery backup. Your origami idea is a very space efficient solution! ( But I wont not solder directly on IC, too affraid to burn it).

I also plan to hook the battery pack to a forced ventilation woodgas stove ( like this ) and use it on a trek in the Spanish Pyrenees. While I'm at it, I could even stick a peltier to the stove and use heat to recharge the battery pack a bit. If I ever get to making an instrucatble of it, I'll link to yours.

Keep up the good work!

 

muttyfutty5 years ago
Wow!
This Is a very Professional Instructable.
Wonderful Pictures By the Way!
Well Done!
5 *
Bongmaster6 years ago
great :)
Griswold Lighting (author)  Bongmaster6 years ago
Thank you, Bongmaster.
just got one off ebay and looked inside.. not much space to work with XD gonna see what i can come up with tho :) prolly wont be as compact as ures but i will be making it part of a permanent microcontroller project anyway :)
foofaa6 years ago
Hi Griswold Lighting - great Instructable, thank you! A couple of questions, with reference to the the MAX756 datasheet: - if I want the output to be 3.3V, I just need to tie pin 2 to the input voltage (high) by moving its connection to the other side of C3 (or even connecting it straight to pin 1)? - If I wasn't too worried about getting it all back into the case, what's the easiest way to upgrade the stored capacity? Can I just make C3 as big as I can get? I want to hook this to a micro wind turbine to power a small weather station (actually, mainly the XBee that's transmitting the data). Thanks in advance for you help.
Griswold Lighting (author)  foofaa6 years ago
- Yup, to get 3.3V you could just tie pins 1 and 2 together. The circuit would work with a micro wind turbine if the turbine is putting out between 0.7V and 3.3V. If the turbine is actually generating >3.3V, you might be able to just use a voltage regulator. - C1 stores most of the energy. If your volume isn't limited you could use a bigger cap for C1 as long as it was rated for at least 5.5V (if you're stepping to 5V) . The charging time will be proportionally longer.
sonicsworld6 years ago
I like the idea. Butttt if you did it with a bike dynamo you could get fit and charge battery. Just a though I think way to much.
Griswold Lighting (author)  sonicsworld6 years ago
A bike dynamo might be the next project. I chose this small size so I could potentially attach it to a development board.
Gjdj36 years ago
Wow! Nice details and great pictures.
Griswold Lighting (author)  Gjdj36 years ago
Thanks. I have an SD card filled with pictures of it.
aptrlhtemp6 years ago
That's fantastic!
Griswold Lighting (author)  aptrlhtemp6 years ago
Thank you.
is there a way to put an extra 325 ma on this
Griswold Lighting (author)  tater killer6 years ago
Not 'as-is' with this tiny motor and circuit...I'd guess the highest it can go is 100 mA. You could probably get 100's of mA with a design based on the larger flashlights.
NoodlesVA6 years ago
Great solution!
Griswold Lighting (author)  NoodlesVA6 years ago
Thanks NoodlesVA!
FeedTheGrid6 years ago
Nicely done. I want one!
Griswold Lighting (author)  FeedTheGrid6 years ago
Thank you. If you have the time it's a fun build.
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