This is a simple circuit based on transistor 2N 2222A and some resistors, there are 2 LED s and when one is on other will be off and this will be repeated in equal intervals of time

## Step 1: parts list

2 x  2N2222 transistor

2 x 10k resistor (brown black orange)

2 x 390 ohm resistor( orange white brown)

2 x  100uf electrolytic capacitor

1 x blue LED (or other colors u like)

1 x red LED (or other colors u like)

battery ( 3 - 9v)

switch

<p>Would someone please explain in detail exactly how that schematic works to produce the flip-flop effect?</p><p>Thanks</p>
<p>hi friend,</p><p>its called an oscillator circuit. <br><br>the capacitors are the real key to this circuit. The caps alternatively charge and discharge, which causes the two transistors to alternatively turn on and off.<br><br>check this circuit <a href="http://www.falstad.com/circuit/#%24+1+5.0E-6+81.92041607667615+68+5.0+50%0Ar+224+160+224+240+0+330.0%0Ar+304+160+304+240+0+47000.0%0Ar+384+160+384+240+0+47000.0%0Ar+464+160+464+240+0+330.0%0Ac+224+240+304+240+0+9.999999999999999E-6+1.4320522416531634%0Ac+384+240+464+240+0+9.999999999999999E-6+-3.032536053591649%0Aw+464+240+464+304+0%0At+384+320+464+320+0+1+-4.9331229468694815+-1.2687826252387493+100.0%0Aw+304+240+384+320+0%0Aw+384+240+304+320+0%0At+304+320+224+320+0+1+0.4685346516246693+0.6318042680390833+100.0%0Aw+224+240+224+304+0%0Ag+224+336+224+368+0%0Ag+464+336+464+368+0%0Ax+255+276+276+280+0+16+C1%0Ax+413+277+434+281+0+16+C2%0Ax+192+324+213+328+0+16+Q1%0Ax+478+326+499+330+0+16+Q2%0A162+464+96+464+160+1+2.1024259+1.0+0.0+0.0%0A162+224+96+224+160+1+2.1024259+1.0+0.0+0.0%0AR+176+96+176+128+0+0+40.0+5.0+0.0+0.0+0.5%0Aw+176+96+224+96+0%0Aw+224+96+304+96+0%0Aw+304+96+304+160+0%0Aw+304+96+384+96+0%0Aw+384+96+384+160+0%0Aw+384+96+464+96+0%0Ao+10+64+6+35+1.25+9.765625E-5+0+-1%0Ao+7+64+6+35+5.0+9.765625E-5+1+-1%0Ao+5+64+0+35+5.0+1.953125E-4+2+-1%0A" rel="nofollow">here</a>. for better understanding.</p>
<p>I do appreciate your help, but instead of detail you have given me an overview and an animation. The animation shows what is happening in the circuit except nothing about the orientation or state of the capacitors. It doesn't tell me what the graphs at the bottom mean. What it really doesn't show is why these things are happening. Why does one capacitor charge while the other discharges? Why are both transistors not &quot;ON&quot; at the same time?<br><br>I feel this understanding is important to my continued advancement in the electronics field. To understand how is meaningless if you don't understand why.</p><p>I built this circuit and it works, but I still don't understand it.</p>
Which capacitor is charging when the left led is on? Thanks
<p>consider the circuit from the link in my previous reply. c1 is discharged when left led is on. change the simulation speed(top-right corner of page) in the link for better understanding.</p>
<p>hello..can this circuit use 3v of voltage?</p>
Next time solder the transistors at last as they are quite heat sensitive.
I am wondering are the transistors 3904 or 2N2222A because all I have is 3904. And for the 390 ohm resistor can I use 330 ohms, sorry I don't have many parts!:)
This is a late post but for anyone in the future, yes, you can substitute all of those parts and it will work.
Those should work, as long as its NPN, (to an extent)
Can I use BC547 instead of 2N2222A ?
Any NPN will work for the most part.
I replaced an led with a piezo buzzer and I used new batteries, and suddenly only the other led will turn on when its powered up. How can I change my circuit so the piezo and led blink opposite? It has worked a while ago but after recovering the project, with new batteries, it doesn't work. Help please, <br>Thanks, <br>Clayton
I have a few questions;<br>1.) are the 10k resistors that are wired to the capacitors for discharging them?<br>2.) if using a 3 volt supply should i use a weaker resistor as opposed to the 390 ohm?<br>3.) how fast does your run, im looking for police light for an rc car fast<br>
1) yep, <br>2) use a 10k variable resistor adjust its value for a 3v supply and reduce value of 390 ohm to lower values<br>3)you can use a 10k variable resistor in place of 10k resistor or change the capacitor value to change the flash rate
can i operate this with aproximately 7 volt battery??
yes
what is the timing of leds turning on &amp; off...??
about 1 second, you can increase or decrease the fading effect by changing the values of both the capacitors
thank you.i remember toose days when i maded this stuffs.cool
thanks
maybe this is better
ok
Just one correction: It should be called Astable, not FlipFlop
actually chief this is called a flipflop http://talkingelectronics.com/projects/5-Projects/Projects16.html
An astable multivibrator and a flip flop are basically the same type of circuit. However flip flops generally require an input or timer on a gate to make the state change whereas an astable multivibrator is not stable in either state and will constantly change between states without an input or timing circuit.
magic monkey You are Correct!! Normally a Flip flop needs a clock pulse to change it's output Logic state 1 or 0. Where as an astable Multivibrator uses FEEDBACK to sustain oscillation( LED FLASHING)
ok
We made this at school and made christmas lights. When we made it the curket dyagram was called a FlipFlop.
Not bad at all! .....would've like to've maybe seen a few more steps/photos, though.
thanks
good work sooraj bhai :)<br>keep it going <br>god bless you .
thanks a lot<br>
Good Job. Looks pretty cool!