Introduction: Hovercraft

Picture of Hovercraft

This is a full size(4ftx8ft) one person hovercraft built over one summer for less than $200. It was built with no prior experience or knowledge of hovercrafts but with sheer determination to build something different. So check this project out, hope you like it.

Disclaimer (March 2013): I have not made any changes to this Instructable since the early days of this website, 2006.  Take this Instructable as an example of how not to build a Hovercraft.  The homemade thrust fan and unshielded rotating parts make this homemade craft pretty dangerous.  If your building a hovercraft of your own please consider the safety aspects large rotating parts and apply this understanding in your design.  For a great example of how to build a working and safe hovercraft see this Instrucable 10-HP-Hovercraft  

Step 1: The Skirt and Base

Picture of The Skirt and Base

Lets start out with a little history, I built the hover craft during the summer between my sophomore and junior years of high school. It was built by a good friend, Brain, and myself Doug. Like I said I built the entire craft for less $200 including the engines and the fans. I will explain how I did it soon but lets start out some of the main things you will need to get started.

3hp Horizontal Shaft Engine $50 at a local lawnmower repair shop
4hp Vertical Shaft engine took it off one of my lawnmowers
5.2 moisture resistant Lauan Plywood 4ftx8ft
Styrofoam 4ftx8ft
1/2in Plywood 2ftx4ft
A couple 2x4 8ft
A couple 1x2 8ft
1/4in bolts and nuts 1in- 3in
Wood Screws 1/2in - 1in
Plastic sheeting Painters Sheet (this is the skirt material)
Brass Grommets with punch You can get this as a kit

This is about what I started out with but in no way is this everything youll need. Also keep in mind that this is how I did it, if you plan on taking on a project like this do it how you want to and with what is available to you. Use this as a guide so that you do not make the same mistakes I did.

Lets start out from the ground up. On a hovercraft the only thing that touches the ground is the skirt. The skirt is the part of the hovercraft that holds air to lift the craft. Like in the second picture my hovercraft has two engines, one for lift and one for thrust. The lift engine pushes air under the craft and the skirt holds the air in. As more air is pushed under the craft pressure builds up and lifts the hovercraft off the ground. This is how a hovercraft hovers, the only thing in between the base of the craft and the ground is air.

But before I designed the skirt I designed the base of the craft. It has to be light(this is the most important) and it has to be strong enough to hold the weight of a person and the engines and everything else. Keep in mind though that when hovering the craft is actually more stable than when its not. The air pressure helps to hold the weight evenly over the entire craft.

This said here is how I made the base. I got two sheets of 4ftx8ft lauan and a piece of 2in thick Styrofoam. The lauan was the cheapest and the lightest sheet of plywood I could find at home depot. One note, I got almost everything for this hovercraft at home depot. Lows or any hardware store will probably have the same items I got.

The base is just the two sheets of plywood with the Styrofoam sandwiched in between. Holes are drilled all the way through this sandwich and bolts are used to hold all of the components on the base.

Back to the skirt which is one of the more trickier parts of a hovercraft. It has to hold its shape under pressure and it has to be the right size. To big and it will drag on the ground which will slow the craft down or not let it move at all and to small and it will not hold enough air to sustain lift.

To overcome this I designed my skirt to have 8 different pieces that I sewed all together with nylon string. For each of the four sides of the craft there are two skirt pieces. A upper half and a lower half, which are same shape. The picture shows what each part looked like. Basically the same design for all four sides just different lengths. The skirt is actually smaller than 4ftx8ft by 2in on all sides. This is done so that the skirt can sandwich between the Styrofoam and the top piece of plywood. So you will need four longer skirt pieces and four shorter ones.
Each piece first needs its flap folded over and sewn. To sew the skirt I used a standard sewing machine and sewed along the seam lines which are 1/2in from the edge. Now take two pieces one short and one long and sew them together at the angled end. Now do this again for all the other pieces to form a two rectangles. Now put one rectangle on top of the other and sew along the outside perimeter. This forms the whole skirt but its not done yet.

Now duck tape along the seam for added strength then flip the skirt inside out so the seams are in the inside. Punch holes on the inside of the skirt in the middle of the flap on the top and the bottom of the skirt with the grommet kit. Put holes on all corners and every foot along the length of each side. Drill holes through the base that line up with the grommets. Sandwich the top of the skirt between the Styrofoam and the top piece of plywood and then use 1/4in bolts to hold it all together.

This completes the skirt and the base. This is the most general part of the build. The rest of the craft is built specific to the engines, fans and components I used, you will have to adapt these plans to fit your components.

Sorry about the pictures I could not get them to show up very well. I included the DWG file though. The last picture is the overall skirt put together showing the flap folded over with the dashed line and where holes should be put with the circles.

Step 2: The Lift Engine

Picture of The Lift Engine

The lift engine and fan were added next. Here is what I used, a 4hp lawnmower, a 20in dia. fan that I think came off a air conditioner, angle steel, a piece of sheet metal, some nuts and bolts.

I cut a big hole in the base with a jig saw and then added the engine. The angle steel as seen in the picture is in a u-shape that lifts the engine so the fan is not below the bottom level of the base. I welded these pieces together but they could be bolted together with a bunch of L-brackets. They are bolted to the base and connected with a piece of sheet metal. The sheet metal has a large hole cut in it with smaller holes around it for the bolts that hold on the engine. The larger hole is so the engine sits flat on the sheet metal. The fan is just bolted onto the engine shaft just like blade was when it was on the lawnmower. Then some 1x2s and more L-brackets were used hold on some aluminum flashing to make a fan shroud. You can get aluminum flashing at any hardware store, its used for roofing but all it is, is aluminum sheet metal. A bike brake and cable of an old bike was used to control the motor.

Step 3: The Thrust Engine

Picture of The Thrust Engine

The thrust engine was a little bit harder than the lift. It has a larger fan, a pulley reduction and a large fan duct. I started off with the fan. It was hand made with a welder and some steel. This is not a good idea, the fan has to be perfectly balanced and the pitch of the blades has to match the power of the engine. I you are going to build a hovercraft do not build you own fan. I was lucky that my fan did not fly apart and kill me. Do not do what I did here and get a good fan to use.

So once you have a fan you need to build a duct. I used more lauan plywood to cut out the shape and screwed in a bunch of 1x2s to hold the two pieces together. Then I wrapped more aluminum flashing around the whole thing to make the duct.

The fan was mounted to a 1/2in shaft that ran through two brass bushings with a pulley on the other side. This was all mounted on a 2x4 and plywood frame. Then a smaller frame was made to hold the engine up so that the belt would fit. No type of clutch was used on the engine which is typical for most hovercraft. This finished the thrust engine and fan.

Step 4: Steering and Controls

Picture of Steering and Controls

The steering for a hovercraft is done through air deflectors placed behind the thrust duct. For these I just used the circle I had already cut out for the duct itself. I cut one of them in half and screwed a 1x2 on the rounded edge of each half. L-brackets were attached to the duct hold them on and allow them to turn. Then rope was attached to the deflectors and run through eye-bolts. The rope was criss-crossed under the duct so that moving the control stick left would turn the hovercraft left and right turns right. The control stick was just a piece of PVC pipe with a hole drilled through the bottom so that it could pivot.

The Thrust engine is controlled by a lawnmower throttle cable and the lift engine was locked into full throttle. I could have mounted the bike brake on the control stick but it would have been just one more thing to worry about so I just left it wide open.

Step 5: It Hovers!!!

Picture of It Hovers!!!

So here is a picture of it finally hovering. Looks pretty good, but really the project did not go as well as planed. It hovered and I could ride it but that was while I was testing and it did not have the thrust engine or fan on it. Once I added the thrust stuff it would not hold all of the weight. All is not lost though, the build went well and I learned a lot.

So I you are planning a project like this here are a few tips so you do not make the same mistakes I make:
1. Use more powerful motors or motor if you build a single engine craft
2. Get already made fans do not try to build you own
3. Use light components, this is the most important it has to be a light as possible
4. If you do not know what you are doing, get some plans off the internet, try Universal Hovercraft they have got some good stuff


col01by (author)2017-02-01

hello I live in Australia and I am in year 10 and I am building a hovercraft for systems as a school project its a single Pearson one with a lawnmower engine for a lift and lean for forward propulsion but I don't know where to get a lift fan do you have any iedaes

JackN10 (author)2016-08-20

I can get ahold of a 15.5 hp engine, but would that be too much? And if i made the frame in aluminum and just used one sheet of plywood would it work well?

santhosh kumar98 (author)2016-07-30

im trying to build an hovercraft with wheels.

im sure i will.let me upload the video as soon i complete


GregQ (author)2015-05-18

I don't get how you were so concerned about the weight of the base using light weight wood, etc. when you end up sitting on it. If it can't lift a heavy base, there's no chance of it lifting a person.

hovercraftorg (author)2013-11-21

Lawn mower blades are very dangerous, we use the same fan blades as used in air conditioners pitched at about 37.5 degrees. It is important to add proper fan guards front and rear - hovercraft racers don't like doing this as it slows air thru the duct, but there was a fatality in NZ, someone lost a few fingers in Australia last year - if you want your kids to play guitar or piano, make sure you fit proper guards.

weargle (author)2013-05-18

i couldnt get a fan so i made one using the lawn mower blades by bending them

KrystianEly (author)2013-04-22

i have a prodject in college where we have to use the information over the 2 years to build something, everyone chose a go-cart but i chose a hover craft im building this on my own, do you think it will be worse if i was to add slightly bigger engins? thanks.

pavilion89 (author)2013-04-03

My craft is about 8 icnh height, 8feet length, 4 feet wide and capacity for a person only. is 2.8hp enough ?

Doug Costlow (author)pavilion892013-04-05

I don't think that will be enough unless the craft is very light. check out this same size but uses a 10hp engine

pavilion89 (author)2013-04-01

what is the suitable material to built a fan for engine of 2.8hp?

Doug Costlow (author)pavilion892013-04-03

I would not recommend building your own fan, especially not like the steel fan I built for this craft. Most fans/props I've seen are made from wood or have plastic baldes connected to a center metal hub. Also, if your building a craft similar in size to mine, 2.8hp won't be enough power.

assaultpioneer (author)2013-01-17

Wonder if you could make two smaller almost hoverboards connect them to make a hover "pontoon boat" or catmeran

Dovim (author)2009-01-29

hey, awesome guide. i have a couple questions though. how fast can it go? can you make it have more surface area while using the same skirt and engine setup? and i thought of a way in which the forwards thrust fan might be replaced by a spinning wheel which could be lowered and maneuvered like that of a motorboat (i don't know very well how to explain it). thanks

Doug Costlow (author)Dovim2009-01-30

It didn't really go anywhere, read the last step. Why would you want to make it bigger? If you did make it bigger with engines similar to mine, it would be way underpowered and probably not hover. An outboard wheel could work but I think it would defeat the purpose of a "Hover"craft

Dovim (author)Doug Costlow2009-02-01

Ah, i see. so it was too heavy for the fan to actually accelerate it, right? well, an outboard wheel would solve that problem, i think. also, i see the purpose of a hovercraft as a vehicle that can go on land and water, so if the outboard wheel could also be used as a fan in the water, then the purpose would be complete. also, an addition of an outboard wheel would lead to the only speed limit being air resistance, since it doesn't touch the ground (as different to all other vehicles), whereas the wheel could be lifted so it didn't touch the ground. the result is it could just keep accelerating and accelerating. The results could be interesting. The thing about making it bigger was merely curiosity, though. i can see that it would have no practical purpose, and if i could make it smaller without losing stability, then it contributes to making it lighter, thus faster. As i said, the results could be interesting. i'll have to do a lot of thinking on it, but the hovering mechanism of your hovercraft seems like a great way to start.

double_g (author)Dovim2009-03-27

I'm not sure if this is true as I'm rather new to the hovercraft scene, but from what I've read it seems that increasing the area actually increases the lift generated. I'm not sure where the page was that said this but if you crunch some numbers on the following website you'll find that this seems to be true.
If someone can explain this it would be much appreciated, since I haven't yet figured it out (I'll ponder on it a bit more in the meantime and see if I can come up with a logical explanation).

Of course weight to lift gain must be considered.

-hope this helps future builders


Doug Costlow (author)double_g2009-03-27

If you increase the size of the craft and therefore the area the pressure needed to maintain lift will decrease but the amount of air needed to be forced under the craft will increase. This usually means you have to use a different fan or a more powerful lift engine. During the design of the craft you have to decide what you want. If you want a bigger hovercraft you need to match that with the right size engine and lift fan, but if you already have the engine size set then you need to decide on the right size craft. The guy that created that site from your link says he used Hovercrafting As A Hobby to create the calculator so I would start there.

double_g (author)Doug Costlow2012-11-19

Thanks I built my hovercraft for my high school senior project. I've planned on making a bigger better version so I'll definitely take your advice for that if I ever get back around to it. Alas plans for the new version are in a long list of projects not the smallest of which being my senior project for my undergrad in electrical engineering.

Pfarmkid (author)2012-06-30

how did you make the steering controls?

threewingwonder (author)2011-11-22

You could build your own fans from wood, all you would have to do is check out Universal Hovercraft with a search. I have built a hovercraft from plans that I got from them. turned out to be a very versital craft.Mine was 6ft x 12 ft and had a 5 hp lift motor and a 30inch home made lift fan and 2-5 hp thrust motors with 48inch homemade thrust fans. I now have plans for a little bigger craft for exploring. You should really check out :Universal Hovercraft, they are based in Cordova Illinois. A very good place to start a hovercraft adventure.They have plans,supplies and advice/tutorails for hovercraft builders.Great ible though

Pfarmkid (author)threewingwonder2012-06-30

How much did it cost?

PickPacket (author)2009-04-09

That looks safe..

pufferboytbh (author)PickPacket2009-04-09

THIS IS IN NO WAY SAFE. For our cadet's "Pioneer's" platoon (building stuff), we built 3 full sized hovercrafts for use. The prototype on it's first run tore itself apart, srapel flying everywhere, nearly killing myself and many other cadets. In building these hovercrafts, ensure that there is a metal mesh over the air intake (and outakes) and that the propellers are insulated in metal. Depending on your propller speed. Have fire equipment ready. Being 14, I don't want me or my cadets to die.

Jaredicus (author)pufferboytbh2011-11-22

What branch JROTC are you? I am army JROTC.

By the way... The same thing happened about a month later. With the metal, the propeller stayed in the engine housing, causing only damage to the engine, housing and propeller. The hovercraft remained floating, while we remove the two year seven cadets from the craft, set up a perimeter, and killed the engine. The craft didn't even sink! MUCH SAFER.

szulli-randall (author)2011-10-09

Does anyone think it's possible to make it hover a few FEET off the ground?

jbowman7 (author)szulli-randall2011-11-05

they're called hoverwings, google it

szulli-randall (author)jbowman72011-11-08

I ment without wings.

jbowman7 (author)szulli-randall2011-11-09

Then no, it's not possible, the skirt has to be touching the ground to maintain the air cushion. but you can still hit jumps with a sturdy hovercraft. Look up hoverwings though, they're cool.

Doug Costlow (author)jbowman72011-11-22

Large hovercraft, like the ones the military use, hover a few feet off the ground but that height is sort of proportional to the their size. A small hover craft that hovered that high would most likely by unstable, remember your sitting on air, so nothing but your balance will keep you upright.

Not sure if even they hover that high actually, maybe periodically though

geckomage (author)2011-11-22

will this hold a 260 lb person like myself? :P i normally go muddin in my truck when i wana have fun driving something. but this'd be fun :D

gopalrr (author)2011-04-19


can you share details of how you did the 70%/30% distribution of air thrust to lifting and propulsion ?


Doug Costlow (author)gopalrr2011-11-22

that distribution is typical of a hover craft that uses a single engine to turn one ducted prop. the duct is split to divert 30% of the air underneath the craft for lift and the rest for thrust. My hover creaft used two engines and fans so that distribution is different

rocketman20 (author)2011-08-19

Where did you get the fan you used for trust.

Doug Costlow (author)rocketman202011-11-22

I made it from sheet metal and angle iron, but I would not recommend doing this at all. Get a purpose made prop thats been properly balanced.

elina0 (author)2011-11-22

OMG! This seems me too heavy..

rbland (author)2011-08-02

you probably want to put some sort of cage around the vents too:

rocketman20 (author)2011-05-03

Are the Brass Grommets just for attaching the skirt to the base? Also does the skirt have holes in it? I am trying to build a hovercraft myself but am having a hard time understanding how the skirt works.

Doug Costlow (author)rocketman202011-08-01

they are just for attaching the bottom edge of the skirt to the base with small rope

jdhover (author)2011-07-28

so is your base piece hollow or is it ducted?

Doug Costlow (author)jdhover2011-08-01

its a sandwich of t pieces of 1/4" plywood with 2" of Styrofoam in between

nibbler125 (author)2010-07-20

you need a real fan that metal one has no airfoil and you could easy double youre lift with a good wood one it will cost allot more tho up to 200$

ss2pheonix (author)nibbler1252011-04-15

or just make one yourself, assuming of course you have basic air foil knowledge and the ability to carve

ss2pheonix (author)2011-04-15

i think i would have used one 12hp engine or bigger from a lawn tractor and rigged the mowing deck to feed the air for the lift and controlled the drive fan with the drive train from said lawn tractor.

tgo (author)2008-11-16

would a water bed matress work for the skirt or would it be too heavey

Doug Costlow (author)tgo2009-01-24

I think it would be to heavy.

ilpug (author)Doug Costlow2011-02-09

it works fine. canvas tarp coated with polyurethane sealer is perfect.

vhayden (author)tgo2009-08-19

There are ready made plans for using a water bed mattress for the skirt. If you are interested, let me know.

geoslim13 (author)vhayden2010-02-20

i am!!!! i know you aren't replying to me but i have a friend, well my grandmas friend that has become a family friend, that has a water bed and is thinking of getting rid of it along with his treadmill (different project) that could work.  it is a king or queen (whichever is bigger)!!!!

About This Instructable




Bio: I enjoy building things more than actually using them.
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