Introduction: How to Make a PVC Water / Air / Vacuum Pump!

In this project you'll learn how to make a customizable PVC hand pump that will create vacuum suction, pump water, or compress air. 

A pre-requisite to making the pump will be 2 homemade check valves.  You can learn how to make these cheap PVC check valves here!

Step 1: Watch the Video!



WARNING: Power tools, like a table saw, pose risks of serious injury.  Adequate training and experience are required before operating.  The results and claims of this pump are based solely on my personal experiences with the one demonstrated in the video.  Individual results may vary.  The pump is a simple design and not made, or claimed, to be used in any heavy duty operations, or relatively high pressures.  Use of this content is at your own risk.

Step 2: What You'll Need

Whether you're using vacuum power, moving water, or compressing air, chances are you're using some type of a pump.

I thought it might be good to build a simple pump, mainly for learning purposes, and I wanted to do it with low cost materials.

I've wanted to build a PVC water pump for awhile, but the check valves were around $10.00 each.  That seemed a little steep for a PVC build, so I made my own, which you can see in a different project. 

I was inspired on the pump piston and chamber by a picture I saw on a google image search by someone who used the 1-1/4" and 1" sizes of tubes, and he mentioned he cut the grooves for the O-rings on a table saw.  That was a new idea to me and gave me the inspiration to put this together.

The materials I used are outlined in detail in the picture.

Step 3: Making the Piston

You can see here that the 1" pipe fits closely inside of the 1-1/4" PVC pipe.  

There is just a little gap, but we actually need this to be air-tight to make a proper piston.

The best way that I know of to make an air-tight seal, is by using some rubber O-rings.

To cut grooves for the rings, I used a table saw, and adjusted the blade by holding the pipe flat on the table top, and lowering the blade until I could see that it would only cut about halfway through the plastic.  The goal is to make a nice groove for the O-ring, but not to compromise the structural integrity of the PVC pipe too much.

I cut 2 grooves for redundancy.  One at 1", and another at 2" marks.

I used some wooden braces to keep the pipe steady, and made the cuts by using one hand to hold the pipe on the blade, and the other hand to rotate the pipe slowly.  Of course safety and caution are top priorities when working around power tools and open cutting blades.

The O-rings fit perfectly into place.

This end of the pipe also needs to be capped off to seal it air tight.

You can't really tell in the picture, but I've glued on an end plug that is solid.  In the diagram I said it was a 1" plug, but in reality it was a 3/4" plug that I sanded down to fit inside the end of this 1" pipe.

Now this end of the tube is completely sealed.

Step 4: Finishing the Piston and Chamber

To finish the piston, we need to do a little work on the exterior tube.

I got a 1-1/4" slip cap and used a 1-3/8" forstner bit to drill a hole in the center.

An O-ring was added into the inside of the cap around the hole, and put to the side for a minute.

To insert the piston, the O-rings need some lubrication, or the friction on the inside walls of the pipe will damage them.  I used Vaseline, but some people have suggested Vaseline will eat the O-rings over time, and that some type of silicon grease would be better.

To the bottom of the 1-1/4" pipe I cemented on the coupling, 3/4" reducer bushing, short riser, and threaded Tee.

With the 2 O-rings lubricated, the piston should push air-tight into the larger pipe.  

The modified slip cap can be cemented on top now, and when the piston is bottomed out, there should just be a couple of inches of pipe poking out the top.

Step 5: Painting and Cementing

I chose to paint the fittings black, and the pipe blue, just for contrast.

The handle is made from 2 pieces of 4-1/2" x 1" PVC pipe cut from the scraps off of the piston.

Everything is cemented together as shown in the picture, and when the handle is complete, it cements onto those couple of inches of piston pipe sticking out of the hydraulic piston chamber.  

This completes the piston, and adding 2 check valves to the threaded Tee at the bottom will complete the pump!

Note: Make sure your check valves are pointing the right way :)

Step 6: Testing the Pump

Since the check valves are threaded, they can be moved around, changed out, or positioned in many creative ways.

Using additional PVC pipe and fittings opens up many different options.  The imagination is the limitation.

You could try making this into a pump to move water vertically, or leverage it with your feet for more of a bilge pump type approach.  

This pump seemed to move just over 2 cups of water per cycle.  

With the vertical pump approach, I could pump around 3 gallons per minute.

With the horizontal approach, I could move over 5 gallons per minute because I could put my weight into it and move it faster.


Step 7: Additional Features

The pump was made for pumping water, but it proves extremely effective for compressing air, as well as creating a vacuum.

The pump has an intake side, and an outflow side.  If you hook up to the intake, you create a vacuum.

I blew up a balloon and attached it to the intake side, and on every stroke it got smaller and smaller until it was actually sucked inside the tube.

I tried blocking the valves from both directions, and when I pulled back on the piston I was met with a strong vacuum in the chamber, which pulled the piston back inside with considerable force when I let go.

Because the piston isn't physically attached to anything, the handle can rotate a full 360 degrees.

If you need to clean the piston, or add some more lubrication, you can pull the whole handle out like an oversized plunger.  It goes back in the same way it came out.

I'm planning to use this piston design in future projects that require pneumatic and hydraulic pistons.

In my testing, the valves work great with air and water.  I didn't have any gauges to test the strength of the vacuum so can't say how strong the vacuum would be, but it certainly does create one.

Step 8: Final Thoughts

While there are some special tools used to create this pump (table saw and forester bit), I believe with a little creativity the pump could be made just as effectively without them, making this a simple and duplicatable design.

If you haven't seen the video yet, you can still see it below.

If you liked this project, perhaps you'll like some of my others. 

Check them out at www.thekingofrandom.com

Comments

author
plong16 (author)2017-09-09

what kind of pvc is recommended to make this?

author
jamob (author)2013-09-23

PVC isn't safe for drinking water is it?

author
Stufasa (author)jamob2017-08-01

it is, provided the material is rated for it. For example, cpvc is intended for potable water distribution. Aquarise and Flowguard are two brands of polyvinyl piping that are specifically manufactured for such applications.

author
sokamiwohali (author)jamob2016-08-20

Generally Speaking, no PVC is NOT safe for drinking water. If there's a PVC Pipe that can be used for water, I imagine that it is coated on the inside and expensive. Copper pipe is primarily used for drinking water and on occasion, you'll see nylon flex hose from the copper piping to the water faucets. PVC pipe is usually used for sewage

author
Spenceravery (author)jamob2013-09-26

jamob, I think it is, I have seen pvc pipe that says drinking water on it

author
antioch (author)Spenceravery2013-09-27

Like with stainless steel, there are different grades with PVC. Some are safe for food or drinking water. Some are not so safe. And some leave an unpleasant taste.

author
TwistedFrosty (author)antioch2016-01-25

Like drain/sewage lines

author
hazmat456 (author)jamob2014-02-20

yes it is safe as long as it is clean, the pvc used in this project are auctually plumbing pipes used in most homes.

author
ittehad (author)2017-03-05

I always watch your videos and try them out could you make a new type of desktop weapon

author
ShannonPitts (author)2016-08-22

As always, Grant, awesome stuff. How cool is it that I find my favorite Youtuber (my kids and I just made the balloon slingshots. had a blast) on my favorite DIY forum. Even my wife finds your videos tolerable....lol. Keep up the good stuff.

author
José AntonioA4 (author)2016-07-31

At what height water can be pumped, please?

author
sevenstar123 (author)2016-07-06

Hi

Hope you are having an awesome day!

I read this posting also which is really very informative

I have also one website related to Your Blog www.Leelamvac.com

Have Nice Day

Nice to meet you...

I am waiting for next posting.

Keep Smiling!!!

Thanks And Regards

Sevenstarinfotech

author
Marshall Picco. (author)2016-06-17

This doesn't work.

The outside diameter for schedule 40 (and schedule 80) PVC pipe is 1.315 inches:

http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/pvc-cpvc-pipes-d...

The inside diameter of #219 O-rings is 1-5/16 (1.313) inches:

https://www.amazon.ca/Imperial-70024-Fractional-Ri...

So the ID of the gasket is effectively the same as the outside diameter of the 1" plunger pipe, and the o-rings are not snug on the shaft before you even cut the grooves. When you cut the grooves as indicated, the O-rings are not even held tight to the shaft and are practically falling off. What gives? The 219 O-rings do not work and should be a smaller diamater. I wish I had done this research before I spent money ordering all the parts...

author
drizler (author)2015-12-24

This sort of rig would be quite handy for someone who has a camp or a camper. You could set up your plumbing so you could screw this on and purge the system for winter freeze protection.

author
azimazid made it! (author)2015-11-25

Thank you for your guidance

P_20151125_223956.jpg
author
debian7 (author)2015-08-20

Can this be converted into an auto-refill water gun by attaching a tube to inlet, and a nozzle to outlet?

author
jmoniuszko (author)2015-05-08

Curious why you reduced from a 1-1/4" to 3/4"? Don't you lose pressure through a reduction?

author
TEMPEST12 (author)2013-08-17

Does anyone have an Idea on what depth this would be able to draw water from, or how high it would be able to push the water?

author
MAbduser (author)TEMPEST122013-10-03

In theory, unlimited depth, it depends on your physical strength and how strong the materials are so they would not explode. Lets say your well is 30 meters deep. You will be lifting 15 Kilograms (15 liters) of water per cycle to get only 1 liter in the bucket. But thanks to leverages you can reduce effort. If you use a 1 meter long lever and place the fulcrum at 20 cm from the piston you will be lifting only 3 Kilograms per cycle to get 1 liter in the bucket. (Pardon my English but hope this helps)

author
acheide (author)MAbduser2014-12-10

The greatest depth water can be drawn from "suction lift" is 25 feet at sea level. This link - www.onestopfire.com explains this well.

author
antioch (author)2013-09-27

What are the three things in the first 3 pics of Step 2?
First one seems to be a vacuum cleaner, but the 2nd one with the water in it and the third one (a compressor, maybe?) are beyond me to figure out.

author
Crotus2k (author)antioch2014-07-30

The first two are both vacuum cleaners, I believe. Some cleaners use a tub of water as the "filter media". The dirty air is drawn through the water where all of the gunk, dust, etc. gets trapped. "Wet dust can't fly" according to the rainbow company. The air bubble passes through the water mostly clean and then can exit the chamber, sometimes through a HEPA filter to get everything else out. It works really well, but changing that nasty water isn't too pleasant. The third looks like a compressor. This pump can 'suck' like a vacuum and "blow' like a compressor. The King is Awesome.

author
Spenceravery (author)2013-09-25

I don't know what a #219 o-ring is in dimensions, the hardware store I went to, it was in inches, help

author
arvliet (author)Spenceravery2014-04-21

I was looking for the same info and found this. This looks like a very thorough chart.
http://www.marcorubber.com/sizingchart.htm

author
marcinose (author)2013-12-29

This looks great. What is the maximum PSI that can be attained?

author
Cormaxzyz (author)2013-11-26

I had the same basic idea! (link)

author
Spenceravery (author)2013-09-23

Whoops, meant jamob, sorry

author
Spenceravery (author)2013-09-23

Jambob, I think it is, I have seen pvc pipe that says drinking water on it,

author
poofrabbit (author)2013-08-31

Hey congratulations on being a finalist in the weekend projects contest!

author
osunderdog (author)2013-08-31

After collecting the parts, I put this together in about an hour. Digging the trenches for the o - rings took some time. I used a Demel since I don't have a table saw.

The cap under the pump handle is an important safety component. Without it you might pinch your palm hard enough to raise a blood blister during those first few enthusiastic moments when you realize that it's working as designed. :p

I couldn't find the o-rings specified but I was able find a 10 pack of #17 o-rings at a big home improvement store that would do the job.

I can't find 1" balls anywhere... I'm thinking that I'll use medicine bottles or lids to make the check valves. If I get it to work I'll post a few pictures.

Wonderful Instructable. Great Idea.

author
Cesar07 (author)2013-08-17

great instructable!

Just an FYI, petroleum jelly will cause Orings to swell and degrade.....it is much better to use a Silicone based grease for lubricating orings.

author
osunderdog (author)Cesar072013-08-31

I was wondering about that too. Thanks for pointing it out.

author
bluetang (author)2013-08-19

Awesome!! very good project thank you

author
Jayefuu (author)2013-08-19

I love that you take the time to publish these on Instructables as well as Youtube. I like watching the video for the general idea, then the Instructables instructions for getting more detail. Thanks!

author
Alderin (author)2013-08-12

Great pump! I love the one-way valves you made. Especially the rubber-ball version, very creative use of a toy, elegant and simple design. Bravo!

author
DustySeven7 (author)2013-08-12

Vacume cleaners do not actualy use a vacume. They use high speed motors to creat suction by way of high air flow

author
trouble01 (author)2013-08-11

nice

author
marhar (author)2013-08-11

Sweet! I like the method for making the piston rings. And about half-way through, I was thinking, hmm, this sure seems like a good use for his one-way valves!

author
billbillt (author)2013-08-11

great

author
floppyjoe (author)2013-08-11

Like your work, very professional, just the kind of stuff I like to mess about with.
regards
Floppyjoe

author
Gelfling6 (author)2013-08-10

This just added some insight to a couple of ideas I've had (a all-PVC potato cannon, and a back-pack steam-punk style super-soaker based on fire service indian pumps).

An alternative idea for the check valves, a disk of plastic between pipe and joints, with a piece of inner-tube screwed to the center.

author
comebackin (author)2013-08-10

I love all your projects. If someone doesn't have access to a table saw, maybe a manual pipe cutter would work for cutting the grooves for the O-rings.

author
4equal (author)2013-08-10

awesome project hope i can find all the pieces i need

author
rimar2000 (author)2013-08-09

Very interesting design, this is an useful contraption.

author
Samuel kos (author)2013-08-08

That is awesome but I would use flexible hose instead of the rigid PVC for extension so you have more options

author
Nicapizza (author)2013-08-08

Cool! Do you know what the max psi rating would be?

author
sgfidlin (author)2013-08-08

That is awesome!

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Bio: Random Weekend Projects
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