Introduction: How to Make a Proper Western Union Solder Joint

This is one of the harder solder joints to make. When I was in school this was my favorite solder joint. This joint is almost 100 years old and it's history goes back to the days of the telegraph. This was a common joint that linemen would use and when used with solid wire it does not require solder to keep it together if done right.

From Wikipedia -

"The Western Union or Lineman splice was developed during the introduction of the telegraph to mechanically and electrically connect wires that were subject to loading stress. The wrapping pattern is designed to cause the termination to tighten as the conductors pull against each other. This type of splice is more suited to solid, rather than stranded conductors, and is fairly difficult to complete.

The Western Union Splice is made by twisting two ends of a wire together counterclockwise 3/4 of a turn each, finger tight. Then, using needle-nose pliers, the ends are twisted at least five more turns, tightly. The cut off ends are pushed close to the center wire. "Short tie" and "long tie" variations exist, mainly for purposes of coating the connection with solder. The longer version may aid in solder flow. NASA tests on 22 and 16 AWG wire showed that the Western Union Splice is very strong and is stronger than the wire alone if done properly."

You will need:

Solder and soldering iron

The wires you want to join

and a 3rd hand set up like I have to hold the wires wile I work. Note this is only needed when working with stranded wire.

Shrink tube of the right size. Please do not use electrical tape as it just makes a mess and doesn't work worth a hoot when it gets hot or old. Besides it makes a nasty sticky mess. You can use the liquid "electrical tape" but that too looks terrible

And lastly a banana. I don't know why you need one but you do need a banana.

Step 1: Prepping Your Wire

Because we are using stranded wire this joint becomes much harder to do. First we strip back about 1" on each wire we want to join. Then we twist the wire strands together to make a more solid wire. When wires are twisted in a tight bundle you can better manipulate it and it accepts solder much better.

SAFETY: Wear safety glasses when doing this. Hot solder can do extreme damage to your eyes should you get even a dot in your eye. I know I had it happen and I was blind for a whole summer; never again.

Before we solder there is a point that must be made. Solder when used with heat has a capillary action meaning that it will gravitate to the heat source. When the wire is properly heated and solder is introduced the solder should almost "soak" into the joint. When joining wires I always put the iron on the bottom and the solder on the top. This speeds the completion of the joint which makes sure I do not overheat the wires insulation, compromising the joint.

Step 2: Twisting the Wires

Now we will start the joint. FIRST make sure you put your shrink tube on one of the wires and slide it down the wire so the soldering iron does not start it shrinking. I can not count the number of times I have made a beautiful joint only to find that I forgot the shrink tube and now have to cut out the joint. Now at the half inch mark twist the right wire up and twist it around the wire on the opposite side of the joint. Then do the same for the other wire. With solid wire we would pull the wires to make them tight and then pinch down the last 1/8" of the wire with a pliers. We can not do this with stranded wire as the joint would fail before we soldered.

Step 3: Soldering the Joint

Are you wearing your safety glasses?

First make sure your iron is hot enough to do the job. With it turned on try putting solder on the iron first. If it accepts solder take it right over to the joint and heat the joint and then introduce the solder the instant the solder you put on the iron starts moving. The primer solder as I call it helps heat the joint faster. If it is not hot enough "Have you tried turning it off and on again?"

The solder should appear shiny when done. If it is dull or has a brown residue on it the joint did not achieve proper temperature and is called a cold joint. Cold joints are what makes most cheap electronics from China fail fast or not work at all. If your solder joint looks like I described it go back and heat it up again. Basically when it stops smoking you have the right temperature as it has burned off all the flux. Do not heat it so much that the insulation starts to melt.

When done your joint should look like the last picture here.

Step 4: Tidy Up and Insulate

Here we center the shrink tube over the joint. At this point if there is any sharp points from the solder joint you must correct them or they will render the shrink tube insulation useless. This correction can be done by gently smashing them down with a pliers. Once you have the shrink tube in the right placement apply heat to the tube and it will begin to shrink. Be a bit stingy with the heat as you can burn the tube and then it just looks nasty or doesn't work at all. We want a professional looking joint don't we? As the tube shrinks keep moving the heat until it appears that the tube has finished shrinking. In the photo here I used open flame. This is ok because there are no flammable vapors near me. Should you have to do this is a flammable vapor situation you will need to ventilate the vapors or remove them. Heat guns and hair dryers suck in air and super heat it so they too will ignite fums. Even the switch on them makes spark when starting them.

Do not use this joint in a situation in which it is continually subjected to water or liquid as it will fail. I would call this joint water resistant rather than water proof. This is a great joint for things like car radios should you have to make a harness because one is not available (see Audi Quattro). These joints also have almost no bulk when done right.

Should you have to use multiple joints in the same area stagger the joints so that the don't line up with each other and create bulk in the harness. Generally 1" offset from each joint is best especially if you want to put it in a harness sheath.

Oh I forgot.......Eat your banana.

Comments

author
ringai (author)2015-06-01

You know, RayChem (now a Tyco company) makes a really slick shrink-on solder splice that works as well as a WU and provides a better environmental seal.


http://www.amazon.com/Tyco-Shrink-Splice-Soldergri...

All you need is a heat gun to have the splice soldered and apply/seal the heatshrink tube. Either end of the tube has a bit of hot glue/plastic that seals the joint from water/gas. I love these splices and have been using them since the 70s when they appeared in the "official" aircraft wiring repair kits distributed in navy.

author
izzyspeaks123 (author)ringai2015-06-01

I think those are slick. I personally like shrink/crimp tube connectors. I use them in almost everything exclusively because they can be done in the cold in the dead of winter. Good luck doing this joint with a soldering iron at -20 degrees. The connectors you posted get the job done with no fuss. I use the 3M brand ones only because they are more industrial. But they can be bulky.

author
ringai (author)izzyspeaks1232015-06-02

The solder/shrink splice was _the_ hot toy when I was in the service. The environmental issues associated with protecting the joint and the places where you might be when you have to make that splice are big issues for the military aviation (probably for armour, too).

I spliced together a 120-wire bundle using the raychem splices during a single shift while lying under an F-8 on a flight deck. I am certain it would probably have taken at least two shifts with solder and shrink wrap alone.

author
izzyspeaks123 (author)ringai2015-06-02

Please tell me it was a Crusader. Even when guided missiles became the norm the idea of a 20mm canon was still a cool IMHO. "The Last of the Gunfighters"

author
ringai (author)izzyspeaks1232015-06-03

Heya Izzy,

It was a sorta Crusader :-) An RF-8G photo recon version. No guns, but the fastest F-8's you'd ever see. They got upgraded befiore the cruise in '75 to the big J57-P420's.

Those birds could scream. Our OIC (Errol Reilly - The maintenance guys called ourselves Reilly's Rowdies and used that on our unofficial squadron/cruise patch [officially it was Reilly's Rookies since all of our pilots were newbies]) used the whole runway to take off from Cubi Point. About 1/4 of the way down hit hit burner, rotate at the very end (the last 150-200 feet), and just go. Straight up. The fighters were just too heavy to do that.

I was with in a detachment from the the west coast photo recon outfit. VFP-63 operated the F-8 FRAMP and all the active duty Navy RF-8Gs on the west coast. My wallpaper happens to be the plane that had the cut up wiring bundle.

644-1976.bmp
author
izzyspeaks123 (author)ringai2015-06-03

If the military taught me anything is that you are the best part dead without proper recon. In my world all the recon was done the hard way (up to your armpits in jungle waters). There wasn't much IR recon done at that time; it was done on foot in the parts of the world I was in. Could have saved us lots of hiking and heartache.

author
JCPhlux (author)izzyspeaks1232015-06-02

I love these shrink on splicers but at $1 a shot I save them for hard to reach places or inhospitable environments.

author
izzyspeaks123 (author)JCPhlux2015-06-02

I save mine for just such instances as well as when I am feeling a bit lazy ;)

author
JCPhlux (author)izzyspeaks1232015-06-02

If I only used them when feeling lazy my solder iron would start getting dusty ;)

author
epalmer (author)ringai2015-06-02

Solder splices are great. I was a cable assembler for a while and we used these fairly frequently. I have a butane soldering iron with a torch tip that works with solder splices when I don't have electricity to use a heat gun.

author
k9oic (author)2015-06-01

Thank you for the great 'ible. This was the first solder joint I learned when I started in ham radio at age 14. My Dad taught it to me and he learned it from my grandfather who was a railroad station agent and telegrapher.

author
izzyspeaks123 (author)k9oic2015-06-01

Great to hear from someone who has grown up with this. Someone who has had this passed down through the years. I did this post mainly as a history lesson.

author
Johin_Manning_1985 (author)2016-06-07

Can anyone give me some advice on which is the best soldering iron to use for this project?

This is what I am looking at right now…

author

I presently use a dual range iron. Mine is 30/65 watt if I remember right. Naturally the heavy the gauge wire the more heat you will need.

author
Nrgdragon (author)2015-06-02

make sure it's not a banana split!!(badumcrash)

get it? if you solder up the wires correctly it won't split!?

author
izzyspeaks123 (author)Nrgdragon2015-06-02

Ha.... You crack me up! :)

author
Nrgdragon (author)izzyspeaks1232015-06-03

btw: molten solder to the eye?! *cringes* how did you get it out?!

author
izzyspeaks123 (author)Nrgdragon2015-06-09

Blink fast and scream. It will just fall out, but not before it makes you wish for death.

author
Nrgdragon (author)izzyspeaks1232015-06-09

...*feels for eye*but how could it jump up like that?!

author

Actually the rosin is more likely to spit and sputter into your eye, and is more dangerous in my opinion.

author
bevin.chu (author)2015-06-03

Hey man, thanks for the warning about wearing safety glasses while soldering.

I
wear them when using power tools, but it never occurred to me that
heated solder could bubble up, pop, and fly into one's eyes!

Much appreciated!

You have done people a public service by sharing that.

author

I bought some yellow lens safety glasses (shooters glasses) that work so great and are so comfortable that I wear them all the time. I only take them off to put on my 1.5 magnifying glasses for surface mount work.

author
lhj734017 (author)2015-06-05

according to the doctor, you should always have a banana. its a great source of potassium

author

You will only enjoy having a banana if you've got some skin in the game, and when you've finished joining your wires together without using any solder and you've finished filming the whole procedure, always remember to say: "It's a wrap!"

author
edgarreco124 (author)2015-07-23

author
mcmonte (author)2015-07-07

Neat joint that I will use to fit some eBay driving lights soon.

I usually just shrink the tube with the shaft (not tip!) of the soldering iron. With thinner tubing, I just hover it close and that's enough. Lightly rubbing back and forth also works, as the shaft isn't as hot as the tip.

author
rickfazz (author)2015-07-06

Bananas when frozen are a god substitute for ice cream.

I have used this knot for years never had one fail yet, the joint is stronger than the wire. If it's subject to a lot of movement the wire may fray at the end of the solder, so at times I don't use solder. Never tried it with solid wire.

author
jeasterl (author)2015-06-20

good job been useing this type of solder joint for nearly 40 years (am i that old?)

if you can solder it it is better but a good tight wrap and heat shrink is almost as good

for waterproof try liquid tape with heat shrink over it or squeeze in some silicone then heat shrink carfuly

author
InspectorD (author)2015-06-02

LOL, I learned how to make these in 1958 in the 7th Grade electrical shop class. NOT a legal connection these days for anything but low voltage applications. I still occasionally run across them in old knob & tube house wiring systems during inspections.

author
izzyspeaks123 (author)InspectorD2015-06-09

"knob & tube".. I have always heard them referred to as cloth and pole. Regional maybe?

author
InspectorD (author)izzyspeaks1232015-06-10

Possibly. Knob refers to the nail-on porcelain insulator knobs and tube refers to the porcelain tubes used to line the bored holes through framing. Pretty common nomenclature. Per Wikipedia:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Knob-and-tube_wiring

author
mrpesas made it! (author)2015-06-09

Thanks for the instructable. Used the knowledge for an emergency repair to my A/C last night. Didn't have any heat shrink tubing on hand, so I used electrical tape to cover the wires. Use flux to help with the soldering.

2015-06-08 19.45.00.jpg
author
RichardM10 (author)2015-06-02

Could you expand step 2 a little. The key seems to be quite how the wires are wrapped round each other. I could not quite follow the wording and one more picture would have helped.

I found https://www.instructables.com/id/Master-a-perfect-inline-wire-splice-everytime/ completed the story.

author
izzyspeaks123 (author)RichardM102015-06-09

Sorry I was not more clear on that part. I will do my best to improve in the future. Am I understanding correctly that you found your solution?

author
pcarew (author)2015-06-03

I must be missing something here. This looks like you're simply twisting the wires around on themselves (just starting at the halfway point along the exposed wire) and then soldering. Isn't this what everyone does when they're joining two wires? I'd be happy to be corrected.

author
izzyspeaks123 (author)pcarew2015-06-09

Think of this union as two nooses/slip knots. Usually people will just simply twist them together which makes a weak union. While it will work it will not be durable.

author
spizzak (author)2015-06-05

Cool 'ible, but I could you explain why this is a difficult joint to make?

author
izzyspeaks123 (author)spizzak2015-06-09

Mainly because it frequently confuses the heck out of people and when doing this with heavy gauge wire stranded or solid it can be a bit unruly. If this seems simple to you then you are not like the 15 out of 25 people in my ET class that just could not get it without practice.

author
kdsnest (author)2015-06-05

My Dad was a communications officer in the Marines he showed me this with a simple variation that will work soldered or not for stranded wire. Make a square knot first, cinch it tight, then continue with the WU right angle twist. The connection actually becomes stronger with stress. I used this a lot for road repairs on audio cabling.

author
izzyspeaks123 (author)kdsnest2015-06-09

I will have to try that. What is the "bulk" like when it is completed?

author
MshB (author)2015-06-05

Thank you so much....

author
xtracycletony (author)2015-06-05

Thanks, got some soldering projects for my LED yard lighting this summer! This will come in hand to keep them shining bright for years to come....I hope.

Greetings from Milwaukee!

author
ndronet (author)2015-06-05

I feel the need to go gently smash things.....

author
xtracycletony (author)2015-06-04

Great information, thanks. I'll do my best to make better solder joints!

Tony B.

author
3967 (author)2015-06-04

never thought solder can get to the eye. I wear googles for another reason, the smoke is really unhealthy not only for the lungs, i experienced it is irritating my eyes too. It seems also that the smoke of soldering "always" finds it way to the person soldering. My explanation is , i guess the smoke is some kind on electrostatic loaded.

author
sploge (author)2015-06-04

Love it !!!! Excellent ! thanks !!!

author
blackslax (author)2015-06-03

Nice job. Thanks for this. I'm sure I'll use it in the future often.

I used to work for Fairchild. I am Mil-Std-2000 Cat C instructor and a NASA NHB5300 B Instructor and I have never seen this joint before.

author
discostu956 (author)2015-05-31

Interested to know the story behind solder in the eye if your willing to tell it. I'm getting pretty safety conscious, but safety glasses while soldering is something I never considered. Thanks for the tip

author
SirCooksalot (author)discostu9562015-06-02

I'm not Mr. Safety or anything but I do wear safety glasses when I solder. Super hot liquid metal does funny stuff, you never know. And sometimes you get all up on your project giving the squint eye to some tiny wire...too close to be unprotected. A guy I worked with had a blob of solder go through his work shirt, through his T shirt, and through the lighter in his T shirt pocket, exploding the lighter. Shirt lol, that's a weird word when you start to really look at it. Shirt.

author
ringai (author)SirCooksalot2015-06-02

LOL, I've gotten solder my shirt pocket before. I never used to wear googles, but I do now.

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Bio: I have always been tech support for just about everyone. I am an Autodidact. There is nothing I can't teach myself. I was a ... More »
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