Instructables
Pump water with no electricity, no gasoline, just gravity!

Sound crazy or impossible? Don't worry, it does obey the laws of physics, but I'll try to explain the operation later. This instructable shows how to build a fairly simple water pump that needs no energy input other than water flowing from a higher point to a lower point. Most of the pump is constructed from PVC, with a couple of bronze pieces thrown in for flavor. I was able to source all of the parts from a local hardware store (Lowes) for a bit under $100.

To function, the pump does require a reasonable amount of water that will drop at least 3'-5'. The level that the pump can raise water to depends on the water's head (total drop the water will make).

This design was worked out by Clemson University.

If you like what I've done, please take the time to give it a rating, and I'd love to hear your input. Thanks!
 
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Step 1: Bill o' Materials

Picture of Bill o' Materials
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Before you can really do much, you've got to go out and buy some stuff. One of those sad facts of many projects. But if you want to build this (and it's a lot of fun to see it work), print out this list and head to the plumbing dept of your hardware store.

Materials for the Pump
  • 1-1/4" valve
  • 1-1/4" tee (buy two of these)
  • 1-1/4" union
  • 1-1/4" brass swing check valve
  • 1-1/4" spring check valve
  • 3/4" tee
  • 3/4" valve
  • 3/4" union
  • 1-1/4" x 3/4" bushing
  • 1/4" pipe cock
  • 100 psi gauge
  • 3/4" x 6" nipple
  • 4" x 1-1/4" bushing
  • 4" coupling
  • 4" x 24" PR160 PVC pipe
  • 4" PVC glue cap
  • 3/4" x 1/4" bushing
  • Short (4') section of 1-1/4" PVC pipe
  • Old Bicycle Innertube

This parts list comes directly from the Clemson website. I recommend you look there for help in identifying what each of the pieces look like, if you're unsure. I'm also not convinced that the 100 PSI gauge, or all of the things that make it possible, are necessary. This will probably drop the price a good bit, and I haven't found a need for it on my pump. The associated pieces are: 100 PSI gauge, 3/4" Tee, 3/4" x 1/4" bushing, the 1/4" pipe cock. Four things not needed. But have them if you like.

Connections Note Read through the instructable and understand all the pipe-fitting connections that will happen before buying materials. The store may not have exactly what you're looking for, and you may have to improvise. I wound up getting some different parts because my local store didn't have the exact parts I was looking for. This usually appears in the form of not having a threaded fitting, but having a smooth pipe connection, or vice versa. Not a problem, you can figure it out.

Installation Materials
  • Long section of 1-1/4" PVC ("drive pipe", connects pump to water supply)
  • Garden Hose (male end threads into 3/4" union, supplies pumped water)
  • Bricks, blocks, rocks to prop up and anchor pump
  • Shower Drain assembly (must be able to attach to 1-1/4" pipe, for attaching pipe to water supply)

Build Materials and Tools
  • PVC Primer (I used Oatey Purple Primer)
  • PVC Cement (Oatey again, just what they had)
  • Teflon Thread Tape
  • Hacksaw
  • Measuring Tape
  • Clamps
  • Pocket Knife
  • Lab gloves (keeps the chemicals on the pipe and off your hands)
  • Bike Pump (to inflate the innertube)

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MattL28 days ago

habolooby:

Sweet find and good job publishing for us, although I'm lost as to what the purpose of the 1 1/4" union is. Can you explain?

Thanks,

Matt

This ram pump was a very brilliant project, I am planning to build one here in the Phils. more power to habolooby and God bless!!

jo9999993 months ago

So i am planning on building a two tiered pond with water fall, and thinking about using this. would it work if instead of water pulling out of the check switch valve it poored back into the lower tier of the pond?

Mãos que faz5 months ago

Parabéns, muito bem desenvolvido e custo beneficio excelente.


BuffJackson6 months ago

I don't know if anyone is still monitoring this post but I have a question. Forgive my stupidity I am a city boy. I presently live on the intracoastal in a 5th floor condo. If we had some kind of crisis and I needed to pump brackish water up to my condo, is that even possible. Without any electricity (crisis) and the need for water I am wondering if it would work. I know I would have to to use reverse osmosis to filter the water but I have a 92 yr old mother who i care for and want to be prepared if a crisis comes. Anyone know? If it wouldn't work any ideas?

habolooby (author)  BuffJackson6 months ago

Hi! Still keeping an eye on this - I
feel terribly guilty about not having time to post any further
instructables, so I try to make up for that by answering questions here.

As for your question, this sort of pump requires relatively fast
moving water through the pump with some force behind it. I think there
might be easier & more reliable ways of keeping your condo hydrated.
The only intercoastal I know of is in Florida, so we'll assume you're
at decent risk for hurricane type crises. There are a lot of high
quality resources out there for preparing a hurricane emergency kit. The
fact that you're working on preparing for something like this is great.

Water is critical for survival. People can go for quite a while
without food, but things get ugly quick without water. Stockpiling water
can be a good idea. Survival guidelines recommend a gallon per person
per day. The WHO PDF has a good explanation. Depending on what your roof /
outdoor access is like, you might be able to set up a tarp and collect
rainwater with it.

Ultimately, I'd suggest starting over at
Ready.gov, and then gathering the gear for the kit recommended by FEMA.
It has some really helpful reminders, like prescription medications
(likely very important for a 92 year old). After that, you can work on
ways to source more water during a disaster. Good luck!

Links:

WHO PDF: http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/publica...

Ready.gov: http://www.ready.gov/build-a-kit

FEMA kit: http://www.fema.gov/media-library/assets/document...

OK I have a question that I dont seen to have been able to get a decent answer to as yet...maybe someone here can help...?

My situation is that I have a small stretch of riverbank attached to my property that is pretty much flat.
I am not allowed to put any tubes or pipes into the river, but have the right to channel some water onto my property for use in irrigation etc.
The house is perhaps 30 or 40 meters higher than the water source, and the gravity fed storage tank another 5 meters above that.

So my question is, if I were to channel the water into a long shallow resevoir with a capacity of between 7 and 10 thousand liters, and include a controlled outlet pipe of proportionate dimensions at the furthest and lowest point, would the accumulated weight of the water exiting the tank be usable for a ram pump, given that the pump will be pretty much horizontal to the outlet pipe, with little or no run of pipe from the tank to the pump ?

I look forward to your responses as my brain is getting mashed from reading and reading and reading into this subject, and maybe now I can just get some straightforward answers...
How much drop will you have?
I have read 40 to 1 is possible. 40 up for one down but plan to use a lot of water and get very little water up. You might use between 40 and 100 liters for every one liter you pump up. You might use a lot more. But for that height you will need a design that has some adjustment. So that you can adjust the speed of the water ram. Habolooby did a good job on this, but for your needs, I think you will have to have an adjustable check valve.
gideonfox1 year ago
Thanks! it works great!

I was wondering if spring check valves with more or less psi requirements make a difference; one spring check valve i found had a small week spring in it and others required some force to open? The one i used which you may have used, was one i picked in-inbetween the spring strengths i found. 


cod16281 year ago
Can the Spring check valve be replaced with a swing check valve? I don't see the purpose of the spring valve, normally a spring valve is used in the vertical position...Are the two supposed to be swapped?
habolooby (author)  cod16281 year ago
Hi! So the swing and spring check valves are in the correct places by this design, but it might work if you swapped them.

A couple nice things about their current locations: You can vary the cycle rate of the pump by rotating it between pressure chamber pointing toward the sky (force of gravity parallel to motion of swing check valve) and pointing to the horizon (force of gravity perpendicular to swing check valve). If you had a spring check here, you would have to vary the spring pressure in order to change the cycle rate. This has been done on other pump designs, but is best accomplished with a home-built spring check. Doable, just adds to the project a little bit.

The nice thing about the current spring check location is how it closes once the pressure across it approaches equilibrium, rather than requiring backflow. To me it seems like this helps the efficiency of the pump, but I could very well be wrong about that.

I'll close with the same request I think Instructables lives by - try out your ideas, make some changes, let us know how it goes! And thanks for reading.
ewolvin1 year ago
Could I make this pump smaller using 1/2 inch ?
habolooby (author)  ewolvin1 year ago
I believe so. But as the diameter decreases, cross sectional area decreases (by the square of the change) so your flow rate will drop. Smaller pipes will also exert a proportionally higher frictional drag on the water, etc etc. So it's possible, but the pump may have reduced output / lift / something along those lines. But if you've got the time and materials, please try it out and let everyone know how it goes!
hi need a ram pump. i have about 10 gpm of water with about 15 to 20 foot of fall and I need it to go about 130 foot vertical. well the plans you have here work for me.
Thanks
habolooby (author)  Nate Waller1 year ago
Hi Nate,
offhand I can't say for certain - I've only ever had the chance to test it out on relatively low fall situations. There are calculators online that will estimate what you can hope to achieve with various conditions. You might check them out, and they might give you some ideas for how to modify this design to reach your targets. Good luck!
Alterman1 year ago
Nice instructable, congrats. How high can it pump?
azharzaidi2 years ago
Hi everyone.

This is the latest design of the pump. Picture two shows the pump operating on the site.
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azharzaidi3 years ago
I made a number of Ram Pumps or Inertia pumps that are working successfully for the last 3 to 4 years without any problem. I deviated for the main design and have used a base plate to attach all the required parts to it. You may see the pictures attached. It is very convenient and the attachment of base plate has given an added advantage that the pump can be bolted to the ground.
Final%20Design33[1].JPGlatest2[1].JPG
Azharzaidi, I am well impressed with your design for Ram Pump can you please post or email instructions with Materials for the Pump.
many thanks
tcuyos3 years ago
how much would it cost to build a ram pump that will supply 20 households?
just some approximationss. i badly need it.. thankyou
habolooby (author)  tcuyos2 years ago
Hi tcuyos,
sorry for not getting back sooner. Very busy these days (but that'll never change, will it?) Anyway, as far as your question about supplying 20 households. The short (and disappointing answer) is: it depends.

Mostly, it depends on how much each household would need, what your water supply looks like (how far the water drops, how fast it flows, how far below the houses the pump would be). Lastly, for supplying many houses, I would expect that you'd do better to build a number of pumps. I really don't know how well these scale (and the cost of larger materials would probably be prohibitive even if they do scale well).

Look around online, I think that there are some good calculators based on the water head (overall drop), flow rate, pipe diameter used to build the pump. Keep in mind that you'd end up pumping water to a storage barrel (located a bit above where the water will be drawn so that you have constant pressure) because these pumps don't do high flow as much as they do constant low flow. Hope that you're able to sort out your water needs!
krakeelram2 years ago
greetings,
thanks for the practical design and instructions. I have made mine with 60m of 40mm inlet pipe and 25mm outlet pipe, the drop is about 10 meters and the supply is about 20 liters a minute. I have only attached 100m of pipe to the outlet, going about 20 m uphill. Eventually I hope to get the water 80 m up the hill. The pressure is good, the brass valve snaps shut very quickly, problem is unless I break the pressure manually it stays shut. I have tried reducing the inlet pressure and angling the pressure chamber but no joy so far. I have not given up yet and have had great fun playing around with the ram. The parts cost me a lot less than expected, around 50$ (excluding pipes)

There is an almost identical pump for sale for an exorbitant price

http://www.aquaafrica.co.za/store/index.php?main_page=product_info&cPath=2_18&products_id=194&zenid=5a1dfaf3daf84a3a77b94289de5dbe4a

their pressure chamber is a lot smaller, does that make a significant difference?
cheers
habolooby (author)  krakeelram2 years ago
After pondering this for a bit, I have a couple of suggestions. It's been a while since I've had the chance to play with the pump, so you'll have to bear with me.

First, as mentioned by one of the commenters below, sometimes priming the pump can be a bit of a challenge, involving repeatedly pushing down the flapper valve. I can't remember for sure, but I think that there should be a pressure spike then drop following the closing of the brass swing check valve. I think having some back pressure on the other side of the pump helps that pressure drop occur, which would allow the check valve to open up again. Make sure to also check the orientation of your plastic swing valve (just in case).

If you still don't have any luck with that, it's time to get a little more creative. It's possible that the static pressure of the water head is enough to keep the brass flapper closed, period. So perhaps we need to help gravity out, and add a spring that pushes down on the flapper to help it open up after closing. I've seen other designs that actually use compression springs rather than gravity to do the whole operation of the brass check valve. Perhaps you could use some hose clamps to fix an angle bracket to the side of the brass valve, and then run some allthread with a spring around it (and washers + nuts to hold everything in place etc) so that it would push down on the check valve when it's closed.

If you think of the brass valve as a spring valve that's just using gravity to provide the downward force, then you'll see what tilting the pump is doing. As you rotate the swing valve motion from inline with gravity to perpendicular to gravity, you're decreasing the spring force of the valve, so it takes less flow / pressure to close the valve. This is handy in low flow / pressure situations where the pump might have trouble closing the valve initially, but that isn't your problem. You've got too much of a good thing at the moment! We just need to figure out how to put it to use properly.

As far as the volume of the air chamber, it may well have an effect. Basically, the air chamber acts as a spring, storing some of the pressure of the water that's forced past the plastic check valve, and then releasing that to push the water in the outlet pipe higher. A bigger chamber is equivalent to a looser spring, but once the pipe is filled it shouldn't be a huge difference... But on this point I'm really not 100% sure.

While I don't have an immediate solution for you, I hope that some of this has helped. You're clearly up to the challenge, so let us know how it goes. Try out some different builds! Swap out parts, make your own, get a little crazy! And when you get it all working, toss up some photos, because that would be pretty cool. Good luck out there.
Bardouv5 years ago
I looked into making one of these to fill my rain barrels during a long spell of drought, but the stream was about 1200 feet away and the change in elevation seemed too much.
Actually, if you work it right, as long as the main pipe is a couple of meters long running downhill then connect to the pump, the psi should be able to pump it back up about 5-10X the length the the main pipe.
jtejwani3 years ago
well im not too suprise i've my doubts about dem people infact i have doubts on everything that isnt natural including secrets sociaties,religions,peace corps united nations and the goverments im getting ahead of myself but good stuff mon really good stuff link me if new vibes
The Great Sphinx Of Giza
marean4 years ago
Very nice way to display your instructions. I already have a Clemson ram that does not work and I am going to take it apart and attempt to build this one. If I can get it up and running I will do cart wheels. Thanks Marean
mathieulj5 years ago
Excellent application for a phenomenon that has been known for a while. Good work and keep it up.
super 4005 years ago
Thanks for the great lesson ! I built a pump from your design with a couple small changes due to availability of parts . I had some 2" pipe so I used that for a drive pipe with a reducer to 1 1/4 . Also the shut off tee I bought for the supply side was actually a mis- labeled bigger valve so I left it off . No big deal because I have collared hose which keeps the hose full when disconnected on that end . It took me about 5 hrs. total to build and install it . It works great ! Took me a few days of searching and studying different plans to decide which one to go with. Ultimately yours was the cheapest and easiest, also requiring the least amount of tools . I have it running on about 4 ft head pressure pumping up 20 feet or so . My drive pipe is 35 ft. long and my delivery hose is is approximately 200 feet long emptying into a 55 gal. barrel on the high side of my garden . We timed the volume at .54 gal per minute . Perfect for our needs . Thank you much !
cosmo1kitty5 years ago
Pure Genius!!! Unlike some of your other commentators...I actually constructed this yesterday and put it to the test. I have a very small creek that runs year round and wanted to utilize it for my landscaping needs. My husband constructed the pump and we went to the creek for set up. We dug a small area out as a catch and placed a large waste basket in it to catch as much water as possible. We fastened a small metal mesh across the top of the waste basket to keep out as much debris as possible. My husband then connected a 3" pipe to the basket for 30 feet and then reduced down to a 2" for 20 feet and finally down to 1 1/4" for 20 feet. The complete fall from basket to hydrolic ram pump is approximately a 12 foot elevation drop. Needless to say, the water shot out the end of the pump like a fire hydrant. Why did we do this, you might ask???? Well, simple....our creek is about 150' BELOW our home and needed to pump up this elevation in a 3/4" poly pipe for a 500 feet distance. It took a bit to get the pump going. In fact, we thought it wasn't going to work. Nothing was happening. However, I read the very short sentence that stated that you may have to push the check valve flapper down a few times to get the pressure up to par. I pushed it down probably 15 times before the pump started doing on its own. I was amazed!!!! We ran up the hil and within five minutes we had water!!! I figured maybe a trickle...being the elevation difference, but we had a nice steady flow. We figure that it will only take about two days to fill up a 1500 gallon holding tank. Thanks for the awesome invention!!!!!!!
habolooby (author)  cosmo1kitty5 years ago
Haha, that is excellent! Great to hear of a successful build and implementation, and I'm really glad that it worked out so well. Cheers!
It's awesome!!! We checked it today to see if it was still working....and it was!!! We can't wait to water our garden with FREE, NO ELECTRICITY REQUIRED, water!!! Pure Genius! As Yes....this is ACESSENDING up an elevation rise of approximately 150' !!! It's easy to dig canals and ditches for lateral flow....it takes a brain to figure out how to get water to flow AGAINST gravity. Thanks again.
A good name5 years ago
I'm getting sick of the "no energy required" crap that I've been reading off of all these hydraulics pumps... Water flows from a higher point to a lower point always. Basically you could dig a canal to where you needed the water, and the same purpose is served. Alternatively, get a really really long hose.
I'm sure by "no energy" means that no additional energy be required to input into the system to make it function, other than the falling water. What is it with some people and semantics?
habolooby (author)  A good name5 years ago
Well, I'll grant you that "no energy required" is a bit cliched regarding ram pumps at this point, but take time to read the entire instructable. You might see that the comment was made a bit tongue in cheek. Of course there is energy required. Work is being done, in the physics sense of the word. These pumps are capable of lifting water well above the top of the inlet pipe. So a canal or really long hose can't accomplish what these can. The lifting ability comes from wasting a huge portion of the water that flows through the system, and using the kinetic energy of that water flow.
I think you got the best Ram Pump design on instructables.
So basically you're harvesting the kinetic energy from the water flowing downhill to make it flow... uphill? My knowledge of physics is limited, to be sure.
habolooby (author)  A good name5 years ago
Haha, yeah, that's the basic idea there. And you only get to move a very small bit of water uphill. No worries about physics knowledge, it took me a long while to wrap my mind around exactly how these things worked, and actually seeing one work helped a lot. Rather than boring you with a physics lesson, let me see if I can come up with a good quick explanation. Though some physics will probably crop up...

Water doesn't like to be compressed. And things in motion like to keep moving, unless something is there to stop them (friction or a wall). So, when you get a column of water moving down the inlet pipe at some speed, it wants to keep moving, but suddenly it's stopped by the brass swing check valve. Think multi-car pileup on the highway perhaps. Car 1 stops, car 2 slams into car 1... anyway, when the water is stopped, it causes the water pressure in that area to spike. Going to take a brief aside here, but just keep in mind that the pressure around both check valves has gone way up.

In an open column of water, pressure is determined by the height of the water level above the point that you're looking at. The equation is Pressure = Density of the Fluid * Acceleration due to Gravity * Depth of water. So if you had two pipes, one twice as tall as the other, both filled up with water, the pressure at the bottom of the taller one would be twice as great as the pressure in the other pipe. The only real important part of all this is that pressure at the bottom of some pipe depends on how high the top of the water is above the bottom.

So if we stick a hose on the outlet of the pump, it acts very much like the pipes that I was just rambling on about. The higher you lift the end of the hose, the higher water has to go to get out of the hose, and the higher the resulting pressure at the pump-end of the hose. Which is importantly right on the other side of the spring check valve.

OK, back to the fact that when the swing check valve closes, the pressure spikes on the inflow side of both check valves. As long as the pressure rises above the pressure on the other side of the spring check valve, some water will be forced past the valve, until the pressure on both sides is more or less equal, when the valve will again close. This happens over and over, each time pushing just a little water past the spring check valve, and slowly moves the whole column of water up the hose.

The height that the pump can lift water to is limited by the height that the incoming water drops from, based on the increase in pressure generated by the water stopping.

Righto, I hope I didn't bore you too much with all of that, and I hope that this all helped explain how these odd little creatures work. There are some other very odd / cool pumping methods out there that can do strange things just using water dropping some distance. Go and google "pulser pump" if you're interested.
Yeah lets see you dig a canal that lets water flow UP hill.
Shut Up Now5 years ago
very innovative. this could be turned into a nice physics lesson.
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