Hydroxy Gas Generator

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Introduction: Hydroxy Gas Generator

YES, you can melt rock, fuse glass and even boost an I.C.E. ... no Cyril not the ice in a fridge, an Internal Combustion Engine.

But first you'll have to toss out the schoolboy experiments with carbon rods and paper clips dipped in saline or baking soda solutions.
That was fine to demonstrate a concept with lighting the soapy bubbles, but thats pretty much all you're going to do.
If you want to move into the future, then....

Its time to build a better electrolyser.

Better than what you ask?.... well better than all the glass pickle jar and tupperware container contraptions out there.

Step 1: Safety First and Procedures

Firstly, whether you call it HHO, Electrolytic Gas, Browns Gas or my personal choice Hydroxy * is irrelevant, the bottom line is that its very flammable and therefore suitable precautions must be taken.

I cant stress strongly enough that pickle jars or glass jars of any type are not suitable containers to generate hydroxy gas. The slightest accident is going to turn that glass jar into a glass grenade with the unpleasant side effects that usually accompany such events.

To prevent flashbacks you will need a water trap otherwise known as a bubbler, which also has the added benefit of scrubbing the gas clean of caustic vapours. Dont rely on existing arrestors as used on oxy/acet gas welders, the flame front speed of hydroxy is way too fast for them to contain the flame.

The electrolyte I will be using is NaOh a.k.a. Caustic Soda a.k.a. Sodium Hydroxide. Not baking soda, it creates carbon monoxide and erodes the stainless steel electrodes.

I get mine as caustic soda flake from the hardware store, but it is also possible to get decent quality from other places in drain cleaner form. Make sure if going the drain cleaner route that it doesnt have additives or aluminium shavings added.

Caustic soda is as its name implies very caustic, and rubber gloves will be the order of the day if you dont want to see your skin start peeling away. Its probably also wise to add eye protection too.
Initially I start a cleansing cycle with very dilute 5% caustic soda in distilled water, and then the conditioning phase with full strength 23% NaOh in distilled water which is then the time to keep your wits about you.

Note, I dont use river water or tap water or melted Italian snow water or something sucked out of a rock layer far below the surface. I dont want spiders, bugs and chemicals in my 'lyzer, so its less hassle if I start with the good and clean and fresh stuff...trraaalala.

Dont use baking soda, it creates carbon monoxide and erodes the stainless steel electrodes.
Dont use salt, it gives off chlorine gas, very nasty stuff.

  • I use the term Hydroxy in the loosest sense in that I infer it to mean a stoichiometric (2:1) mix of Hydrogen and Oxygen in a common duct electrolyzer, and not a gas consisting of mono-atomic Hydrogen.

Step 2: Design Stage

Electrolytic gas generators have been around since 1916 (US Pat. 1219966) as a quick search on google revealed, possibly even earlier.

That said the 2 main types are the parallel and series versions. Of the 2 the series version is the more efficient type while the parallel versions are usually easier to construct and maintain.

In the parallel type cells you can have parallel connected electrode plates or series connected plates.

More on the different types later.

My preferred choice of gas 'lyzer remains the series type cell because of efficiency.
However the construction is usually more tricky with the series flat plate versions and so I
decide to "roll my own" easier version.

This design was seeded by Nick Stone's "Newb Tube" on the Aquauto.com site. I decided to build my own Newb Tube instead of pointing out all the mods and tricks he should try....thanks Nick :)

My criteria were,
1.cheap S.S. electrodes (tubes),
2.easy maintenance,
3.series connection
4.13.8V working.
This meant I needed 7 cells because rule of thumb says 2V drop across each cell, any more is wasted as heat buildup. However it would'nt be practical to have 8 tubes as it would start taking up space and be awkward to handle/install. A set of 8 nested tubes would also be prohibitively expensive.
Eventually after mulling it over I settled on 3 X 3 nested tube setups, series connected to give me the 2V voltage drop across each cell.

However, due to differing square area's of the different size tubes, it actually had a 1V drop across the Neg outer and the neutral inner with 3V across the pos washer stack and neutral tube. This was with 12V across the whole cell and 4V across each tube set.

Guess a Triple Newb Tube is a good a name as any.

I've also added two different CAD formats(DXF and DWG) of the design, all measurements are in cm.

Step 3: Series Cells

In the series type you have isolated cell electrolytes, with the electrolyte of each cell isolated from the next one, ie no water level equalisation holes drilled in the plates.
You can also have a series connected, common electrolyte (open bath) cell which isnt as efficient as the true series cell, being a lot closer to the parallel cells in operation efficiencies.

Examples below, the cell on its end is my big daddy 120 plate series job(119 cells) for running directly off rectified domestic 240 V AC. The negative connection is at the bottom already in the case with the pos awaiting its turn on the left. There are no equalisation holes drilled in the plates, so its a true series cell as long as the electrolyte level stays below the plate tops.

Step 4: Parallel Cells

This is a parallel connected open bath design by Shigeta Hasebe us pat 4747925.
Ignoring the magnet you will see that every alternate plate is either connected to a pos or the neg power bar. The plates are usually fully submerged in a parallel design.

A good example of 2 parallel groups of series connected plates in an open bath type cell is the Smacks Booster. Smacks home page

Step 5: Electrode Materials

The material of choice is Stainless steel 316L, failing that you could use 304L or even plain old 304 SS.
The plain 304 is cheaper, but will take longer with the conditioning phase due to the higher carbon content, more about conditioning later.
Seeing as Im using M6 threaded rod and M6 nuts and washers which are only available in 304 grade, I went with 304 tubing too.

The inner tubes are 125mm long, the threaded rod is 180mm long and the outer tubes are 200mm long giving me a 60mm working space for foam, sloshing and whatnot.

Step 6: Electrode Preparation

The steel will need to be prepped before decent efficiencies and gas rates are obtainable.

Typically the plates are cross hatch sanded, front and back of the entire plate.

It will be obvious to those skilled in the art that to cross hatch the outside of tubes could be tricky, as well as sandblasting the inside of the tubes. Therefore I blasted the outside and attacked the insides with the brake cylinder hone.

Then the plates are washed clean. The plates should NOT be touched with grubby paws after washing due to fingerprint oils contaminating the plates and reducing bubble formation in that area.

Once the grubby paws are covered in rubber gloves, then assemble and begin the cleansing stage ( 3 days - a week).
Then the conditioning stage also about 3 days to a week. In between the electrolyte will sludge and have to be flushed and replaced with some good and clean and fresh stuff......

For the very last word and finer details on plate prep, the excellent article by Bob Boyce who is legendary in Hydroxy circles is attached.

Step 7: Internal Parts

The Anode, (positive electrode) comprises a stack of SS washers and nuts. Next is the "neutral" electrically unconnected inner tube which is fastened down to the base with the inner spacer.

Last pic is a shot down the tubes to see how it fits together.

Step 8: Internal Spacer

Because this is my own design, the internal spacer needed to be custom built too.
Alas I dont have a lathe or plastic injection equipment, so I had to do it the hard way with a modified tank cutter.

1. cut out the disk from a square to match the inner diameter of the outer tube very closely.
this is to prevent the center anode (washer/nut stack) and the inner tube from moving around and shorting out and also to maintain a uniform distance between tubes and washers.

2. cut the inner gas holes, I used a 3mm bit but larger can also work.

3. cut the slots for the outer tube gas holes, I used a rotary file 6mm dia.

You can then assemble the spacers onto the anode stack which tightens down the stack onto the base plate.

Step 9: Overview

A sort of cut-away to illustrate how it all fits together.

The whole shebang is held together with 8 SS threaded rods.

Dont forget to clamp every hydroxy hose, helps prevent leaks.

Step 10: Perspex Caps

Here we do the perspex top and bottom caps. I went with perspex (Plexiglas®) because it can handle decent temps and resists NaOh.

These are 15mm thick pieces with 2 seat grooves "tank cut" on the bottom plate and 1 seat cut for the outer tube on the top plate.

Nitrile rubber O-rings, also known as Buna-N are then placed into the seats and the tubes then seat against the o-ring sealing the gap as well as insulating the perspex from direct heat.
The nitrile has good resistance to acids and bases. It also offers excellent resistance to petroleum-based oils and fuels, water and alcohols. The temp range is -55ºC to 120ºC.

The front perspex piece has been flame-polished with my favourite gas, hydroxy, the rear one which is the bottom cap has been left alone for comparision.

The top cap in the foreground still needs to have a water fill port drilled inside each tube seat, the threaded hole is a standard ¼in BSP compressor fitting.

The bottom cap has been drilled and tapped for stainless steel M6 threaded rod.

Don't forget to use teflon plumbers tape on all threaded connections, it helps greatly with leak prevention.

Step 11: Power Connections

Lugs were used to make power connections to the 'lyzer, and also 3 stainless steel hose clamps to make a connection to the outer tubes, I dont have a MIG welder and I also didnt want to heat the heck out of the tubes.

I used M6 type power connections seeing as I shouldnt be exceeding the design current of approx 8.5Amps.

Rule of thumb says not to exceed 0.5 amps per in², or face electrode erosion at an accelerated rate. That would equate to 0.0775A per cm², so taking the smallest tube area, the inside of the inner tube which is 111.57cm² X 0.0775A= 8.646A max.
I have seen figures of 0.1A / cm² for 304SS and 0.15A / cm² for 316SS on youtube, but felt more comfortable with figures from long-time experienced experimenters with this technology.

Step 12: The Bubbler

The bubbler can be made in any number of ways, for large gas flow rates I use an old water filter housing that I've modified.
The nylon sight tube is a necessary feature and I made mine in the top cap to indicate the highest water level. Safety dictates that the smaller the volume above the water, the smaller the explosion when you get a flashback.

This device has taken care of a few flashbacks without any problems

Other embodiments of bubblers include but are not limited to 20mm clear vinyl tube as in the pic below, and also Sch 40 PVC pipe with end caps can do serviceable duty as a bubbler.

Step 13: Show and Tell

Strange that this technology has been around since the 1800's and yet its not common knowledge with the general public.

Anyway heres a pic and the video of a hydroxy flame burning underwater.
The water has to be heated somewhat as cold water merely extinguishes the flame. Pictures of melted glass panes and glazed pebbles probably wont be that interesting, its one of those have to be there things :)



I've also included an excel spreadsheet to calculate millilitres per minute per watt which is a nice way of comparing different cells outputs.
Flat plate series cells are mostly 7MMW and up, I've never built a parallel cell so I cant say too much about them.

Some facts from me:

This tube version is 5.75MMW at the moment with probably another week of conditioning left, I expect it to easily get to 6.5MMW.
Flow rate is 600ml per minute which I expect to double seeing as it has double the square area of my flat plate series 7 cell which puts out 600ml at full chat.
Temp after 4hrs is 66ºC on the outer tube and 73ºC inside electrolyte.

Lastly a mod which appeared to drop the power requirements by ± 1A , is to apply shrink wrap to the inner spacer locknuts.
It appears that the open nuts contribute to current leakage which means additional unwanted heat
Pic attached for clarity.

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    225 Comments

    This is a nice Instructable, except for one small point...

    IT DOES NOT MAKE ANYTHING SPECIAL. HHO, BROWN'S GAS, HYDROXY and KLEIN'S GAS ARE ALL SCAMS


    All you are making is plain old molecular hydrogen and molecular oxygen. H2 and O2. Nothing else.

    There's nothing special about burning underwater - it's a stoichiometric mixture of oxygen and hydrogen, of course it's going to burn, underwater or not.


    So many experts without experience - books are great until reality steps in.

    I do not know if this specific unit works or not - but some of these do result in better mileage - yes - I have hands on experience since 1998. The average is around 33% increase in mpg.

    You are not making energy out of nothing - there is potential energy in the nature of the product. Just as a small yell from someone can make a tremendous release of energy from an avalanche (oh no - more energy produced than what you started with!), producing flammable gases from an electric current, and then burning taking advantage of the gas' flammable nature (which also interact with the gasoline and improve its flammability) is not magic and "free energy".

    You obviously have never tried one and probably never will.

    Statements made without hands-on experience are as reliable as Obama making a promise.

    ... 'nuff said - until after you have tried it personally. Heresy is how mistakes like Obama end up plaguing us.

    I'd like to see your results published properly, since every unit tested under laboratory conditions has resulted in either zero or a negative net increase in efficiency.

    If your units *genuinely* increase efficiency by 33%, then why are they not in massive production, earning you millions of dolars a year in licenses?

    And, FYI, if you bother to read what I posted, I did not claim electrolysis produces free energy. That was the project author.

    SNiP
    since every unit tested under laboratory conditions has resulted in either zero or a negative net increase in efficiency.
    SNIP
    As would be expected by someone with no personal experience, an impossible absolute is "used" to "defend" what they are saying, but instead, ends up with a scientifically negative affect n their theoretical position.

    "Every unit tested under laboratory conditions" sounds great - but I would venture to say this statement is something I doubt you can actually back up with solid, factual evidence since it is impossible that you, yourself, could ever have personally witnessed every unit ever tested.

    It also becomes abundantly clear after many years of dealing with people vs science, that the person who allows emotions to dictate their thinking those who will make such absolute statements since they have nothing else to go on.

    Never will hypothetical absolutes without hands-on experience lead to anything but future mistakes which will waste others' time.

    The main argument behind this problem is always someone saying you are getting more energy out of the system than you are putting in. This is a fallacy as shown by the example of an avalanche. A release of potential energy is a commonplace thing in machinery.

    Another example is that the force of a gun's hammer hitting the primer releases a whole lot more energy than that of the spring which powered the trigger. If people mis-applying the laws of physics were around when the gun was being developed, their argument would have been similar to yours,,,"Well youy cannot get more power out of the bullet that the force setting it off - so the concept of a gun will not work." Transfer this concept to bows and arrows etc.

    The release of potential energy by a smaller force is easily within the limits of the laws that govern science. Under the hood, a current from the alternator splits apart a molecule that produces burnable components. These components are fred into a combustion chamber along with gasoline and you end up with the laws of physics/chemistry taking over. You have not added energy, you have added burnable gases.

    ... the pull of the trigger releases the hammer to hit the primer of the case containing the (potential energy changed to kinetic) of the chemicals within.

    .... the muscles of the man pull back the bowstring and the resulting impact of the resistance to pull of the bow (potential energy changes to kinetic) increases the penetration ability of the arrow.

    ... A skier yells and sets off an avalanche (potential energy in the weight of the snow changes to kinetic) that totally wipes out the forest below on the mountain

    ...... A person pulls back the pouch on a slingshot (potential energy in the bands) and ends up hurling a rock much farther than he could have thrown it.

    ... the thrower of the spear utilizes an atlatl to greatly increase the distance and power the spear will have on impact. This is energy increase due to properties of levers. It is not breaking any laws, it is factual, and yet would appear to some that there is free energy being created b/c the man could never throw a spear this far and hard without the atlatl.

    ... The car's alternator supplies current to break up a molecule. The resulting elements are very flammable (potential energy changed to kinetic), so they are fed into a combustion chamber. And b/c someone with only theoretical knowledge misunderstands the situation, the gases fail to combust b/c the theory-only naysayers dictate the gases are not aloud to follow the laws of physics/chemistry and ignite.

    Until you have hands on experience, and can do it with a totally objective mindset - as in wanting to find the truth vs wanting to prove something, please understand that this kind of response, thinking, is what hinders factual science utilizing the scientific method.


    All true science, based on the very definition of the word, is based on observation. You have none, yet are dead sure you know the facts. By definition, your conclusions cannot be scientific and only theoretical.

    I have used a system like this in the past. I am planning on putting it on the car I am getting as a secondary car this coming Saturday (an old Caprice). You can theorize all you want to while I am enjoying the extra cash in my pocket.

    Until you can give some solid, personal, scientific evidence - instead of reading what is on the internet and apparently missing the actual science behind the process, your position remains theoretical only.

    BTW - as to why these are not being sold - take a look on ebay. There is one seller that has similar system, has been selling a long time, directs you to a forum where you can go to discuss the system being installed on the specific make of their own vehicles, offers money back guarantee, and is still going strong.

    One of the main problems behind a system like this is that most people are programmed into thinking they cannot do anything for themselves or seem too lazy to do so. I used to tell people and show them my system. They were impressed, but only 3 out of many ever decided to do it for themselves (and saved money doing it). Welcome to the 21st century where the reality is that the majority of people would rather pay someone else to do things for them.

    Also, in the State of PA where I live, it is law to have your car inspected every year. The inspection laws say that the car must be powered by electric or an internal combustion engine and the inspectors are not allowed to pass a car with a fuel mileage enhancing device on it. I always had to take mine off to get it inspected. It is not illegal to have one, but it is illegal to install them for someone else and the people doing state inspections are not allowed to pass the car if one is present.

    BTW - do not believe me on this please - check out the PA state inspection laws yourself.

    None of your examples release more energy than was put in.

    It is put in slowly, and released quickly. Different power ratings, over different timescales.

    Aha! Exactly...and now we get somewhere ...

    But the metaphor remains - the kinetic energy of the skier's yell is nowhere near the resulting power/devastation of the potential energy converted to kinetic of the tons of the snow in the avalanche. This breaks no rules b/c of stored, potential energy - just like making H2 and O2 gas and then burning them.

    Or let's take this a little closer to home. B/c gasoline vapors are highly flammable, there is lot more energy released from a 5 gallon gas of gasoline exploding than the amount of energy it took to light the match to ignite the vapors.

    Or, let's go a step closer yet.

    If you take a 9 volt battery and one of the small wire "primers" they used to use (maybe still do?) to launch model rockets, but instead put the primer in a 5 gallon tank of gasoline - the power released by the explosion is a lot more than the battery could ever provide, mixed with whatever little energy it took to rig up the system and apply the battery.

    And it takes no more input energy into the system to ignite it whether ort not it is 5, 50 , 500, or 500, gallons of gas that are ignited. But the energy output is much more powerful for each scenario. So where is the increase in energy coming from? Stored, potential/chemical energy due to the nature of the elements involved.

    Paralleling the metaphor... the car battery & alternator provide the amperage to produce the flammable gases (the primer). The gases (potential/chemical energy due to the nature of the elements involved) are burned and supply more energy than if they were not introduced into the combustion chamber to be burned.

    And I quote a main section of my last post:

    "All true science, based on the very definition of the word, is based on observation. You have none, yet are dead sure you know the facts. By definition, your conclusions cannot be scientific and only theoretical. "

    "All true science, based on the very definition of the word, is based on observation. You have none, yet are dead sure you know the facts. By definition, your conclusions cannot be scientific and only theoretical. " 

    True, and yet very wrong.

    The devices claim overunity - I do not need to build and test them to know they do not work, because millions of man-hours of practical and theoretical work have already been put into formulating and testing the Laws of Thermodynamics.

    One of the joys of "true science" is that I don't have to do all the observations myself, I can trust the processes used by others.

    SNIP
    One of the joys of "true science" is that I don't have to do all the observations myself, I can trust the processes used by others.
    SNIP
    You seem to be confusing proven laws with the application of those laws.
    The laws are sound. The application of the laws is what needs be tested.

    Our perception of how the laws actually apply can be tainted by human error. This is why experimentation is needed. It helps to verify if we have perceived the situation properly.

    Mankind "proved" the earth was the center of the solar system by viewing the sun moving across the sky. This was excepted as observable fact and therefore irrefutable. Thankfully Galileo tested the theory no matter how foolish it seemed. His findings were scientific and factual.

    Also, in this case, it turned out the laws themselves were flawed b/c of how mankind had interpreted the data.


    "The application of the laws is what needs be tested."
    No, it doesn't. The claim was overunity. We do not need to test to prove the claim is false.

    "Mankind "proved" the earth was the center of the solar system by viewing the sun moving across the sky. This was excepted as observable fact and therefore irrefutable."
    False. It was assumed without testing.

    "Thankfully Galileo tested the theory no matter how foolish it seemed. His findings were scientific and factual."
    True, although nobody accused him of being foolish.

    What you are saying is "vague assumptions by non-scientists were found to be wrong when tested scientifically, therefore hard scientific laws formulated through years of intesive testing will be proven wrong by amateurs if they insist loudly enough".

    That's practically the mantra of woowoo; "They laughed at Galileo, but he was right. They laugh at me, so I must be right".

    Now, get back to the point and stop distracting yourself: present the verifiable evidence of overunity in electrolysis, or admit that it does not exist.

    SNIP
    "The application of the laws is what needs be tested."
    No, it doesn't. The claim was overunity. We do not need to test to prove the claim is false.
    SNIP
    Sorry for my lack of precise wording. What needs be tested is not their claim since overunity breaks the laws. What needs be tested though is to see if their claimed RESULTS (not what they name the idea or try to match a name to what they see happening) are occurring. And if there are favorable results,then a re-interpretation of the actual events occurring needs to be re-visited. B/c if the results are there, the laws are being held to (or in some cases through the history of science, the laws have been found to be in error).
    SNIP (concerning Galileo)
    True, although nobody accused him of being foolish.
    SNIP
    In Galileo's time the authorities had no concept their observed movement of sun and moon were not proof enough for their earth-centered theory. The concept of using machines to better their knowledge was a new concept.

    They threatened to excommunicate him from the church. What he was doing, although not maybe specifically stated as foolish was called heresy. the very concept, to the authorities, or being a heretic was also being a fool. In other words they thought anyone a fool to not believe what they "knew" to be true.

    SNiP
    What you are saying is "vague assumptions by non-scientists were found to be wrong when tested scientifically, therefore hard scientific laws formulated through years of intesive testing will be proven wrong by amateurs if they insist loudly enough".
    SNIP
    No - this is not an accurate assessment b/c of the history of Galileo's time period.

    We need to keep history in context. The people making the claims of the earth-centered solar system during Galileo's time, were the most educated people in their society. The culture then saw the church as being the supreme authority of God on earth. Hence they were thought of as being the experts. Remember there were very few people who could even read and write back then. It was people in the church who were held up as the most brilliant minds of their day.

    SNIP
    Now, get back to the point and stop distracting yourself: present the verifiable evidence of overunity in electrolysis, or admit that it does not exist.
    SNIP
    I am not sure where the train of discussion got twisted here. All of my examples have shown how there is no overunity. Please go back and review what i have been saying. And i am sorry if my wording has somehow led to the idea I was saying there is overunity.

    I am saying I used a similar system, it worked, and it breaks no known scientific laws,

    The avalanche, the gun, etc. were showing how you can sometimes SEEM to get more energy out of a system than is put in - but a study shows this is not the case. Electrolysis, when used with a car, can increase mileage by taking potential energy of the gases and converting it into kinetic energy in the combustion chamber.

    From having hands on experience, I do know these systems can work (you have to sometimes fool the oxygen sensor and other things on newer cars). And I know believe there are no laws being broken.

    However, if some day something occurs that seems to break a known law - it will not be a new thing in the history of science. It will simply be a time where we have been able to broaden our scope and see something from an entirely new angle not thought of before - like Galileo's telescope.