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This is my first instructable!
Please bear with me while I struggle to write proper English. Feel free to correct me!

I started this project just after the 'Let it glow' competition started. I wish I had made much more and finished what I wanted to make. But between school and work, I haven't had as much time left as I wished.
Nevertheless, I leave here a report of my experiments as an instructable, so anyone can try and make what I did.
This instructable is not meant to serve as a guide and teach how to make this contraption. It isn't a guide for the beginners in electronics. It is more like sharing one idea and objective that I wish to pursue.
If you are a beginner/complete ignorant in electronics and wish to make something like this, I'm sorry! But we can try always help you. See the last step.

We have already seen many ambient light projects. Most of them use RGB LEDs:
- To illuminate a room with one color, setting an atmosphere to match your mood
- To create light effects from colour of TV/Monitor or from audio.
There are even a few in instructables.com

Related:
DIY Ambient Light Systems
Light Bar Ambient Lighting
Building your own ambient color lighting bars

Using this competition as an excuse, I started a project that has been on my mind for a while.
I've always wanted make something similar to these ambient lights and fill the walls in my room with RGB LEDs. But, taking it a step further, making all and each one of them controllable. This project will hopefully result on an open-source electronics kit for hobbyists and electronic tinkerers, allowing hardware/software hacking and sensory integration.

Here is a small preview of what I made:

Step 1: Exploring the Idea

I want to be able to fill the walls in my room with RGB LEDs, controlling colour and brightness for each led.
I am going to use a microcontroller for the ease of use and flexibility provided. Unfortunately I can't control hundreds of LEDs with the few pins available on microcontrollers. It would even be difficult to code the control of so many LEDs.
So I decided that I should divide all the LEDs in several smaller bars and for each bar I could use a microcontroller. Then I would use the communication capabilities of microcontrollers to share information between them. This information could be the colour and brightness of LEDs, patterns/sequences of colours and sensory information.
For each bar I decided to use 16 RGB LEDs. This results in a neither too big nor small bar. This way I use an acceptable number of resources for each led, reducing the costs for each bar.
Nevertheless, 16 RGB LEDs are 48 LEDs (3*16=48) for the microcontroller to control.
With costs in mind, I decided to use the cheapest microcontroller I could use. This means that the microcontroller will only have up to 20 I/O pins, not enough for 48 LEDs.
I do not wish to use charlieplexing or some kind of time splitting drive, since the goal of the project is illuminating a room.
The only alternative I could think of is using some kind of latched shift register!

Resuming:
- Make and interactive ambient light
- Make a standard bar of controllable LEDs
- Possibility of connecting several bars to fill a room
- Allow user adaptation/configuration and sensory integration

Step 2: Hardware

As said in the previous step, I wish to make several of bars to illuminate one room. This brings the cost issue to mind. I am going to try and make each bar the most cost-effective way possible.
The microcontroller I used was an AVR ATtiny2313. These are rather cheap and I had a few lying around. ATtiny2313 also has one Universal Serial Interface and one USART interface that will come to good use in the following steps.
I also had three MCP23016 - I2C 16bit I/O port expander lying around, just the right count! I used each port expander to control one colour of the 16 LEDs.
The LEDs... Unfortunately, were the cheapest I could find. They are 48 red, green and blue ~10000mcd 5mm with 20 deg angle. This shouldn't matter for now, since this is only one prototype. Despite this fact, the result is quite nice!

I am running the microcontroller at 8 MHz. The I2C bus is clocked at 400 kHz. The LED switching frequency is about 400 Hz.
This way, if I am capable of driving 48 LEDs without pushing it to the limit, I'll room for more later!

Step 3: Assembly

After designing the circuit, I built it in several breadboards, for prototyping purposes.
After several hours of cutting wires and assembling the circuit, I got this result:
One giant breadboard with 48 LEDs and tons of wire!

Step 4: Control?

This is the most challenging part of the project.
I wanted to make one control algorithm generic enough for handling patterns/sequences and also controlling the brightness and colour of each LED.

To control the LEDs I have to send to the MCP23016 one frame of 4bytes (1 byte = 8 bits). One byte with the address of the IC correspondent to the colour, 1 byte with the command "write" and 2 bytes with the value of the 16bits (LEDs). The IC is connected to the LEDs as "sink", meaning, one logic value 0 at the pin will light the LED.
And now the challenging part, how to make PWM control for 48 LEDs?

Let's study PWM for one LED! PWM explained @ Wikipedia.
If I want the brightness of the LED at 50%, my PWM value is 50%. This means the LED, in one period of time, should be on the same amount of time as off.
Let's take a period of 1 second. PWM of 50% means that in this 1 second, the on time is 0.5 seconds and the off time is 0.5 seconds. PWM of 80%? 0.2 seconds off, 0.8 seconds on!
Easy, right?

In digital world: With period of 10 clock cycles, 50% means that for 5 cycles the LED is on, and for another 5 cycles the LED is off. 20%? 2 cycles on, 8 cycles off. 45%? Well, we can't really get 45%... Since the period is in cycles and we have only 10 cycles, we can only divide the PWM in steps off 10%.

This means the evolution of the pin should be, for 50%: 1,1,1,1,1,0,0,0,0,0; Or even 1,0,1,0,1,0,1,0,1,0;

In programming we can make this sequence of turning on and off an array. For each cycle we output to the pin the value of the index were the cycle is.
Did I make sense so far?

If we want to make LED0 50%, and LED1 20%, we can add both arrays.
For driving the LED0 pin: 1,1,1,1,1,0,0,0,0,0;
For driving the LED1 pin: 2,2,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0;
Resulting in LED0+LED0: 3,3,1,1,1,0,0,0,0,0;
Outputing this sequence of numbers in the port expander IC, we would get the LED0 with 50% brightness and LED1 with 20%!!

Simple for 2 LEDs, right? Now we have to make this for 16 LEDs, for each colour!

For each one of these arrays, we have a combination of brightness for each colour (16 LEDs)
Every time we want another combination of colours, we have to change this array.

Step 5: Making It Easy!

The previous step is too much work for making a simple sequence...
So I decided to make a program, where we tell the colours of each LED in one step of the sequence and we get the three arrays of the step.
I made this program in LabView due to time constraints.

Step 6: First Experiments

Loading several steps in the microcontroller and we get something like this:


Sorry about the poor quality of the videos!

I defined the maximum number of steps of a sequence to 8, and limited the PWM to 20% jumps. This decision is based on the kind of control I am using and how much EEPROM the ATtiny2313 has.
In these experiments I tried to see what kind of effects I could make.
I must say I am pleased with the result!

Step 7: Real-time Control

As mentioned in previous steps, I wish to communicate with all the microcontrollers controlling the LEDs in my room. So I used the available USART interface in ATtiny2313 and connected it to my computer. I also made a program in LabView to control the LED bar.
In this program I am able to tell the microcontroller how long is the sequence, the colour of each LED and the time between steps of a sequence.
In the next video I'll demonstrate how I can change the colour of LEDs and define sequences.


Step 8: Conclusions

I think I was successful in this first approach of my project. I am able to control 16 RGB LEDs with little resources and constraints. It is possible to control each LED separately, creating any desired sequence.

Future work:

If I receive positive feedback from people, I may further develop this idea and make a full DIY Electronics Kit, with printed circuit boards and assembly instructions.

For my next version I'll:
-Change the microcontroller to one with ADC
-Change the MCP23016 for some other kind of serial-in parallel-out that can sink more current from LEDs
-Make open-source software to communicate with the microcontroller and control the LEDs
-Develop the communication between several microcontrollers.

Do you have any suggestion or question?
Or leave a comment!

Hey, I really like this tutorial. But I have one problem, (I'm pretty new at programming microcontrollers) But anyways, could you send me the schematic / link where to buy your ATtiny2313 board? I found a RS232 - TTL converter schematic on the Internet, but I can't find your type of ATtiny board... Did you make it by your self? :) Thanks, Yoshi
I used my own Attiny board. I you want the board layout and schematic I would happy to send it to you.
<p>hey i would like the schematic as well if you don't mind! Thanks!!:)</p>
this is may Email is <a href="mailto:andy.langs@yahoo.com" rel="nofollow">andy.langs@yahoo.com</a>
can you sent Schematic for me please?
I would love to! Please send me ASAP :D Best regards, Yoshi
Hi Hazard. I do not see the program you did with LabView to control sequences. It is possible that we may have a copy? thanks
Sounds like the beginning of an LED Jumbo-Tron!<br /> &nbsp;Best of luck!<br /> <br /> -fab<br />
coooooooooooooooollllllllllllllll work
i realy would like to learn about programming and i was wondering were to begin
About programming microcontrollers? Or programming in general? If you want to program microcontrollers, or make small electronic projects, I sugest you to get an Arduino. Everyone uses it, so there is plenty of information on the internet!
just micro controllers thanks
this is realy cool<sup>as soon as i get my job back i will get started on one</sup>bout i think it would look a lot better with frosted glass over it<br/>
You can make updrade :) with 3 x TLC5940 then you will have 16 RBG pixels and will possible to make millions of color , slow fading, and more more effects :) only you need to have 3 free PWM channels from MCU /for sync with chip/ REGARDS FROM BULGARIA
very nice forgive me if this sounds stupid but couldn't you just connect all the LED's in parralel circuit to the microcontroller? I don't know that much about electronics :D
That way I couldn't control each one independentely :)
oh yeah... well, live and learn.
Hey I have been working on a project like this and was wondering if the shift register that you used is the best shift register for this project or if there is one that is faster or better. a good LED source is ledshoppe.com
Hello! If I were to make continue on this project, I wouldn't use a shift register. I only used it because was what I had at the time. I suggest you into looking the tlc5952 or tlc5951 from TI
What programing enviroment did u use for ur "real time control" and "making it easy"? Thanks nice project
I used <a rel="nofollow" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Labview">LabView</a>. Since its a graphical language, I could developt it faster. It was just for testing the concept.<br/>
so what would use to develop it even more.
What song is that in the first video ?
I don't really know, sorry. I first used the songs are in video credits, but the labels pushed youtube into removing my videos due to 'copyright' infringment. So I used the songs avaible by youtube.
you could make the outputs of your micro go to mosfets. Then you can control a set of leds with one output
I would like to know more about the connection between the LEDs and the computer, software would be nice also. like to build it to.
Nice...How many breadboards u used? Here in Greece any of them costs around 20USD!!!
I used 5 breadboards :D I buy them here in Portugal for 5€! At least this type of breadboard.
I knew i live in an expensive country, If ever come to Greece bring some of them with u...ok? ;))
Awesome project! I am decent with electronics, but this is one of my first projects. Would you recommend this as one of my first projects, or are there any other projects that you would suggest? How much, ballpark, did this cost? Once again, great project ! :)
I spent about 40€. But I already had some stuff. About your first project, I don't know what you'd like to do. Choose something you'd like to do.
This is absolutely stunning, but I think too difficult for "mere mortals" to recreate. You mentioned hopefully being able to create a kit for hobbyists. Does such a thing already exist?
I really wished to make a kit, and put a lot of though into it. Even decided the components to use. Meanwhile I found someone already made something similar and with the same IC I was going to use. So I put the project on pause, until I decide if I will make it, or leave it. I haven't decided and haven't had the time to make it.<br/>Similar and very cool project: <a rel="nofollow" href="http://www.brilldea.com/product_LEDPainter.html">http://www.brilldea.com/product_LEDPainter.html</a><br/>Watch the Youtube videos!!<br/>
I have also a breakout board for the TLC5940 together with an Instructable how to assemble it. <a href="https://www.instructables.com/id/The_Dawm/">https://www.instructables.com/id/The_Dawm/</a><br/><br/>It will be open source and the circuit is really easy to control from example arduino (which has its own library to do it) Will come more projects with it as soon as I have tested it out fully in some projects (recived the board from the pcb factory 3 days ago)<br/>
I already played with TLC5940s, before ending this instructable. But I hadn't the time to use it instead. I am currently waiting for RGB LEDs I ordered, instead of the ones I have now. I'll focus in the idea of interactive, hackable, customizable ambient light.
its so nice :D but the thing I hates is that I'm not so good on electronics ;(
Wow! That is so amazing what you had done there! I really want to build that, however, I don't know microchip programming... 5 star rating!
Then it is a great excuse to learn!
Haha, yes I know, I want to learn and program microchips, however I have to worry about buying a programer and a PC computer (I am a mac computer user).
The <a rel="nofollow" href="http://arduino.cc">Arduino</a> is rapidly becoming a favourite with a lot of Makers, partly because it works with Windows, Mac, *and* Linux, and doesn't need an additional programmer. There are also a lot of excellent tutorials on the web.<br/><br/>jai.<br/>.<br/>
Thank you, I will look into that.
omg, you need to make some PCBs! That's a pretty sick number of breadboards you've got there. Nice instructable.
He could also use strip board aka Pref or Vero board
I will, someday, when I improve the project and be happy with the result. No, I don't have enough breadboards, I always need more and more!
Cool seems to me that this would make an awesome starting point for a full color persistence of vision toy .
That's what I thought! And I will probably explore that possibility afterwards.
Sweet! I'll try this sometime when I can get the parts.
Very Impressive! I just started using the PWM functions on AVR uC's, and I haven't been able to figure out I2C or USART, but this is really cool. You may want to include more source code, the schematic file, and any other information that might help someone recreate your work. Also, where'd you find those port expanders - they look fun to use!
I will include every resource I am asked. I need to organize and comment the code. You just have to give me a few days. I'm not at home for the next week. About the port expanders.. Everytime I see something that might be useful, I buy/sample, even if I don't need it at the moment.
Awesome! Thanks for the tips.

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