Introduction: Robot Brain: Build a Single Board Computer in an Evening

Picture of Robot Brain: Build a Single Board Computer in an Evening

Run out of memory on your Picaxe or Arduino? But a PC is overkill for the job? Take a look at this open source single board computer that can be programmed in languages like C, Basic, Forth, Pascal, or Fortran.

This board uses inexpensive ICs and deliberately uses big chips so it is easy to solder. It uses an operating system called CPM running on a Z80, which was popular in the late 1970s to mid 1980s. As a result, there is at least a gigabyte of software available including programming languages, spreadsheet programs and word processors. CPM is a text based operating system and is a simple version of DOS.

This board is perfect if you are building that highly complex robot or home automation system and keep finding that single chip computers like pics, arduinos and atmegas just don't have the memory.

Modern technology means that hard drives and floppy drives can exist on single memory chips, and computers that used to need a three phase power supply can now be emulated on a board powered by batteries.

A number of N8VEM boards are being built all over the world by a group of friendly enthusiasts http://groups.google.com.au/group/n8vem

Boards are an open source design, and you can build your own or buy one from an enthusiast in the US at cost price ($20). Eproms can be purchased pre-programmed or you can program your own.

Let's put one together and see what it can do...

Step 1: Join the Google Group

Picture of Join the Google Group

You can browse the group http://groups.google.com.au/group/n8vem but if you send a request to join the group then you can contribute to the discussion. There is a library of files and lots of pictures of working boards.

I sent a message to the group a few weeks ago and asked to join. I ordered a board and it arrived a week later, which is pretty quick from the US to Australia.

I didn't have many of the parts, so I got the parts list from here http://n8vem.googlegroups.com/web/TestPrototype_BOM_PART-LIST.lst?gda=6DMrhVQAAABRoI8ydU505jGCwGWcAnRLVYTZaCdyJias028kLbDjM7mHeIlRNZNuWyWm5kKNAJr2D8gD3ctlIYKczaAghgqdUwk_6Qi3BU8HCN0q6OYwM6JXPqrFQS5SIfKND7QsaYY

Quite a few stores have the parts, including Digikey, Jameco and Futurlec. All the logic chips are specified as LS parts. LS is a bit old school and the chips use more power and run warm. I substituted all the LS chips for the more modern HCT range. HCT are directly compatible but use far less power. Similarly, I went for a CMOS Z80, a CMOS UART (16C550) and a CMOS input/output chip (82C55).

The board arrived about the same time as the parts, and it was time to start soldering.

Step 2: Solder the Board

Picture of Solder the Board

Soldering was pretty easy and was done in an hour and a half. I decided to socket the big chips and solder the smaller chips in directly. The biggest problem was bending all the chip pins slightly so they fit in the board.

There is a real time clock chip that I didn't need that so I left it out. It can be added later.

I also put a DC plug on my board and a 5V regulator. This board is so efficient it doesn't even need a heatsink on the regulator. I ran it off a 9V wall wart.

The eprom has a label over its window otherwise it might get erased if it goes out into the sun.

The schematic is here http://n8vem.googlegroups.com/web/Printing+TestPrototype-sch.pdf?gda=MaRhCFMAAABRoI8ydU505jGCwGWcAnRLnTJP08ZxIX8TVeSmRPYsxGLTiGlLa5mMzgNTsMYdvKCD3Kr1rUv-XML38vqpBkuybcVT3VtYGKLco-_l-8AzjQJ-kx2wCzwFjd1qSmbYDns

You don't really need to understand the schematic to build this board. But I found it helpful to compare with my first computer which had 8 RAM chips to get 64K. This board has half a meg on a single chip.

The CPU is a Z80. The Z80 came from the 8080 chip, and the 8080 also spawned the 8086, 80286 up to 80586, which was called the pentium because the patent office said you couldn't patent numbers. The 8080 machine code instructions in a Z80 still exist in modern PCs.

Step 3: Program the Eprom

Picture of Program the Eprom

If you don't want to program an eprom, you can always buy one pre-programmed when you get the board. But I figured I might use programmed eproms in some other projects so I got a programmer and an eraser. These used to cost thousands. But I picked up the programmer for $34 including shipping (search for eprom programmer on ebay), and the eraser was $25 including shipping.

The programmer comes with its own software and if you tell it the chip number, it gives you a picture of how to insert the chip and set all the switches. The eproms come blank, but I programmed one, then erased it for 5 minutes and reprogrammed it, just to check it all worked.

The entire rom image is here http://n8vem.googlegroups.com/web/ROMIMAGE.zip?gda=5RkX1kEAAABRoI8ydU505jGCwGWcAnRLTpwShSoH8O7HvxGhdHl1lXeXmbZQXujx0V3ulhJIKNrhtrFcBixfottYTQUy-Muj7WbB0sVAO2Hmgtm1PE2xNg

And this includes the operating system and some useful files. It is kind of like your XP installation disk except this goes into a chip. Unzip the file, fire up the programmer, load the .bin file and program the chip. You can read back the data to check it went through.

The only catch with this programmer is that it needs a parallel port. Some newer PCs don't have a parallel port. I built myself a parallel port extension cable so I didn't have to keep reaching behind the PC. It consists of an IDC D25 plug, and IDC D25 socket and 2 metres of ribbon cable. Use a vice to squeeze the plug onto the connector.

The willem programmer I bought does not show all the settings needed to program a 1 megabyte eprom. On the left of the chip near the bottom, a jumper needs to be moved. The settings are in the manual though, which is a file called Willem PCB5.0 Manual.html in the manual section. This has a lot more detail on the settings.

Step 4: Wire Up a Serial Cable

Picture of Wire Up a Serial Cable

If you go back to step 2 you can see the serial cable in the picture. There are three parts to this:

1) My extension lead that comes from the back of the PC. This is the rainbow cable. I built it the same way as the programmer lead extension cable except that this one uses a D9 IDC plug and socket. It is really useful not to have to keep reaching behind the computer all the time. The extension lead has a female at one end and a male at the other.

2) A null modem. This is a female to female connection. I got the circuit from here http://www.beyondlogic.org/serial/serial.htm (scroll down a bit). Essentially, a null modem joins pin 7 and 8, joins pins 1,4,6 and swaps pins 2 and 3 over. The 9 pin connection then becomes a 3 wire connection -ground, transmit data and receive data. It kind of simplifies RS232.

3) A 10 pin header on the board to a D9 male connector. More about this on the next page.

On the schematic, the male D9 on the left connects to the PC. The null modem is a female to female connection with the connections in the plugs. I could have wired all this with a lot less plugs, but I'll be using the null modem in other projects.

Step 5: Wire Up the Serial Header

Picture of Wire Up the Serial Header

The header on the board is designed to go to an IDC 9 way ribbon cable, and then to a D9 male plug. The only trick is that the 10 way header is designed to take 10 way ribbon cable. If you use 9 way cable there is a gap for the missing wire. I've taken a closeup to help clarify this. If you wire it up right then pin 1 on the board goes to pin1 on the D9. Pin 5 on the D9 should connect to earth on the board. If those two are connected the rest of the wires will be ok too.

Wire 1 is on the left of both views of the ribbon cable. You could use ribbon cable with colours if you like.

The messy stuff on the IDC plug is hot melt glue. Probably not necessary but it makes things a bit stronger.

Step 6: Download Some Software

Picture of Download Some Software

We need some software on the board, and before we can download programs we need a modem program. We will be using xmodem, which is a standard that has been around for years. Xmodem exists as a CPM program, and it exists in many forms on PC programs, such as hyperterminal. So we can use this to communicate between the old and new technology.

Let's grab the hex file of xmodem from here: http://n8vem.googlegroups.com/web/xm50_LB1.zip?gda=O2tYn0EAAABRoI8ydU505jGCwGWcAnRL1RQ8Aj5bHZQJ6hxcf7VyVbwBih-m421sIN3Oibiyd_vhtrFcBixfottYTQUy-Muj7WbB0sVAO2Hmgtm1PE2xNg

Unzip it and you will get two files. You need the one that ends in .hex.

Now we need to send this to the board. You need a terminal program, which emulates a monitor and a keyboard for this single board computer. Windows has one called hyperterminal which usually hides in the start/programs/accessories folder. Or you can use hyperterminal private. Or Teraterm. Or absolutetelnet. Or a dos based program called conex. There are lots of terminal programs around because this was how you dialed into the internet before broadband.

Lets fire up hyperterminal. It will give you three screens and you need all the settings correct! Once you have entered this once, you can save this session and it will create a little file ending in .ht If you then click on that file (drag it to the desktop so you can find it later), it will start hyperterminal with all the correct settings.

First screen=name the connection. Call it SBC and choose an icon.
Second screen. Set the com port. My computer defaults to COM2 on the setup screen, and it needs to be changed to COM1. Go ahead and change to COM1.
Third screen. Baud rates etc. Set the bits per second to 9600. 8 Data bits. Parity to None. Stop bits to 1. And Flow control to None. You will probably only need to change bits per second and Flow Control.

Now you will be presented with the terminal screen. Connect up the board to the serial port and power it up and you should get a welcome message.

If not then get on the Google group and ask for some help.

Now it is time to talk to the board!

Step 7: Download Xmodem

Picture of Download Xmodem

If you bought the battery backed ram chip you will only need to do this once. Indeed, others are working on putting this on the eprom chip so you may not need to do this at all in the very near future. At the > prompt, type h

Don't type anything else. Don' t type Enter. Just a single h, either lower or upper case. The cursor will go down one line but nothing else will happen. Now click at the top of the hyperterminal program on the menu Transfer. Click on Send Text File. In Filename, use browse to find the hex copy of xmodem that you downloaded. It is called XM50LB1.HEX You might need to change the default search for *.txt to *.hex to find it. Click on ok, and lots of numbers will go across the screen for about 30 seconds. Wait till they stop.

Then hit the letter c once, again with no enter. Wait 2 secs and you will be in CPM with a A> prompt.

Now type the following and hit enter:

Save 40 b:xm.com

Now type B: and enter, to change to drive B and you will get a B> prompt.

Now type DIR and enter, to list the files.

There are three drives on this computer, A, B and F. You can see what is on each by typing the drive letter, then a colon, then enter, and then DIR.

The picture shows a screen shot.

Step 8: Grab Some Software

Picture of Grab Some Software

There is lots of CPM software out there. Eg
http://www.loomcom.com/cpm/cpm_cdrom/
http://www.gaby.de/ecpmlink.htm

But let's try something simple. Lets get Basic to add a couple of numbers and print the answer.

To do that, we need a copy of Basic.

Lots of copies are out there, but lets go off on a bit of a tangent and talk about the Altair simulator.

This little program is a complete emulation of a CPM machine running on a PC. It has a large software library, conveniently packaged into disk sized portions, and it runs much faster than a real CPM computer which is very handy when compiling. The simulator is here:

http://www.schorn.ch/cpm/intro.php

Download the software, and download at a minimum the CPM2.2 disk image, and about half of the way down the page, the Basic image. Put them all in the same directory. While you are there, check out all the other languages like C Cobal, Fortran, Pascal.

If you run the program AltairZ80.exe you will get a dos window. If you have downloaded the file basic.dsk, then you can run this with the command
Do basic
In the simulator.

Then DIR to list the files (which are on drive A: and B: )

We want MBASIC and it is sitting in the A drive.

To copy this to a PC directory, type W MBASIC.COM and this will save the file to the directory that the altair program sits in. You can do the reverse with the R command which transfers files from the PC into the altair simulator disks. Indeed, if you want to play with CPM, this is a great way to do it without having to build or buy anything.

If you want to save files on the virtual disk, exit out of the altair simulator with a ctrlE (control key and E). This exits and saves. If you don't want to save any changes, just close down the window with the X at the top right corner.

Step 9: Move the File MBASIC.COM Into the Board

Picture of Move the File MBASIC.COM Into the Board

Let's transfer Basic onto the board.

In the hyperterminal session, go to drive B: and type XM R MBASIC.COM and then enter. This will start up the xmodem program and it will sit there waiting for a file to arrive.

Now go to the hyperterminal menu, and click on Transfer and then Send File. Browse for the file MBASIC.COM. In the protocol section, select Xmodem. In hyperterminal it is the third one down. Click on send and after a few seconds the file will go though. It takes about a minute.

If it works you should get the B> prompt. Type DIR to check it is there.

(Ignore all the B> down the screen - I hit the enter key a few times accidentally)

Step 10: Run Basic and Write a Program

Picture of Run Basic and Write a Program

Now we can run Basic on the board and write a little program.

Eg
mbasic

10 A=20
20 B=30
30 C=A+B
40 print "The answer is: ";C

RUN

Save "MYPROG",A

Now we have a working computer.

Step 11: Compile a Program

Picture of Compile a Program

If you feel really keen, you can compile a program. This produces a .com (the equivalent of an .exe on a PC). Com files can be run as independent programs, and can even be set up to auto run when the board starts. Now the board can function as a standalone controller, without ever needing to be connected to a PC.

The N8VEM board can compile programs on the board, or you can use the altair simulator. The latter is faster but it doesn't really matter. If you do want to compile programs, then you need the following:

MBASIC.COM , BRUN.COM L80.COM BCLOAD, BASLIB.REL AND BASCOM.COM

C is a bit different, but I think it still uses the L80 linker.

See the screenshot for how to write and compile and run a program.

And stay tuned, because soon there will be hard drives, a mini LCD display, a display that uses an old vga monitor http://www.tvterminal.de/index.html#english with keyboard interface, a flash drive and input and output boards!

Comments

mkpeker (author)2017-04-10

Hi,


At last my monitor type OS (with inline assembler and disassembler )is ready
Please setup and try this v1.0b
you can find all necessary information in my Efex pages;

https://mkpeker.wixsite.com/efex


please send me your comments than I can improve software

Thank you

mkpeker (author)2017-04-08

Efex is standalone. Dont need N8VEM or CP/M barebones

jcosta18 (author)2016-03-14

Hello, Seem a realy nice project. The links aren´t working, there is a another way to access them?

James Moxham (author)jcosta182016-04-09

The N8VEM site shut down. Many of the people moved over to Retrobrew Computers eg https://www.retrobrewcomputers.org/forum/index.php

taurus123 (author)2010-08-06

Hey guys Are you really serious??? CPM?? DOS?? Wakeup and review the technology. Why should anyone fool with a dinosaur like this, while you can buy an ARM board for $150? Get real.

Gelfling6 (author)taurus1232013-06-24

Because, sometimes, even the new technology is even more cluttered-up that the SCP-DOS 1.0 that later became Q-DOS/MS-DOS. (as Doug Goodall described.) and limited to bloat by libraries, excess code that gets hauled in, that's not needed. The Z80, was the powerhouse in its day, and today (believe it or not, a LOT of items on the market use a variant of the Z80, as their controller.) CP/M, was a simplified OS, made to run in (here's the bloat-ware shocker) UNDER 8K. (that's 8192 BYTES,) of memory. Yes, everyone knows about the Raspberry-Pi, the Arduino, the Beagle-Bone, etc.. But this was (a) a platform built from scratch, (b) using a FREE OS (pretty sure Novell gave CP/M's source code away for free when they folded. All they wanted, was Concurrent-DR-DOS for Netware when they bought-up the remainder of Digital Research Inc.) AND... SCP-DOS, (Seattle Computer's OS for the 8086) was a Intel Upconverted (Intel's 8080 to 8086 translation software) version of CP/M-80 (at the time, still copyrighted by Digital Research.)

KhoiS (author)Gelfling62015-02-07

You're right ,but i still prefer to use a Z80 CPU to make a computer with TV Screen,instead of using a serial monitor

Saturn V (author)taurus1232010-09-06

Let's see....
A $20 board that I make and feel a connection to with basic, simple programming
OR 
A $150 boardthat I get from Amazon nd shipped to my house with confusing advanced programming.

Point made.

tinker234 (author)2011-05-25

nice wow

etopsirhc (author)2011-04-11

so where can u actually find 1 to buy in kit or completed , and how many digital and analog I/O pins can u use for it ? *hoping for more than the audrino mega*

James Moxham (author)etopsirhc2011-04-11

The project has evolved a lot since this was written - lots of I/O boards are available now. There is a discussion group here http://groups.google.com/group/n8vem

Also the propeller chip might be worth a look http://www.smarthome.jigsy.com/propeller same size as a Z80 and almost the same cost, but it can do so much more - talk to an SD card, keyboard, drive video directly, mouse, and run an entire CP/M emulation if you want. More memory than an arduino, though it might be best to start with Arduino or Picaxe first before moving to the Propeller

djsures (author)2011-02-27

wow CPM. that's hilaroius! you don't hear those 3 letters anymore. it sure had its time back in the day. i was really young but was raised in an ultra-geeky family so i was very familiar with CPM. the fact that this board even has a uart is great! i might have to order one and play around with it for fun. :) nice instructable.

also, i think anyone dealing with newer microcontrollers can benefit from understanding the history of CPM. the Z80 may not be a comparable chip. but it sure has its place in history. you need to know the history before you can understand the technicals to move forward :)

Douglas W. Goodall (author)2011-01-31

Calling CP/M-80 a simple version of DOS is not right.

CP/M-80 existed for quite some time before DOS.

While Gary Kildall at Digital Research was writing CP/M-86,
Tim Patterson at Seattle Computer Products wrote a quick
and dirty copy of CP/M-80 for the 8086 to sell with his 8086
two card set. He called it 86DOS. Later after DRI released
CP/M-86, Tim sold the 86DOS to Bill Gates for $50K, and
subsequently, it became MS-DOS.

So you see, DOS is actually a cluttered up version of CP/M-80.

jlon (author)2010-05-19

The link for the ROM image here on step 3 is apparently stale.  Is there a current one?

inventerboy (author)2010-02-03

 so can i control a robot with any pc with this like a micro controller.or is it just extra memory space

James Moxham (author)inventerboy2010-02-03

It is like a microcontroller but with a lot more memory - more like a mini PC. The main use would be if you are using microcontrollers like Picaxe/Arduino and finding you run out of memory all the time. Also this board is more flexible - Picaxe can only program in BASIC and Arduino only in C but this board could use Basic or C (or many other languages too).

Since this instructable the board has got smaller - it now has an SD card with 64Mb of space and can drive a VGA screen directly, so you can truly have an independent computer for only about $50. 

Kiteman (author)2008-08-19
That second link in step 1 is awfully long.

Try making it into a link like this:
[http://n8vem.googlegroups.com/web/TestPrototype_BOM_PART-LIST.lst?gda=6DMrhVQAAABRoI8ydU505jGCwGWcAnRLVYTZaCdyJias028kLbDjM7mHeIlRNZNuWyWm5kKNAJr2D8gD3ctlIYKczaAghgqdUwk_6Qi3BU8HCN0q6OYwM6JXPqrFQS5SIfKND7QsaYY this]
Which looks like this.
James Moxham (author)Kiteman2008-08-19

I might see if I can copy the files to another site as I agree, the google links are way too long. Will fix in the next day or two.

or just go into the edit step, type the word (s), select them, and hit link then paste the link.

Derin (author)James Moxham2009-04-19

Or just use this link:
http://tinyurl.com/d4wanr

PKM (author)Kiteman2008-08-19
Your link text got cut off there, oh cruel irony :)

James: Kiteman means
[http://n8vem.googlegroups.com/etcetera Text of the link]
ends up like this: Google or this: your very long link
killersquirel11 (author)2009-10-21

One thing which I think is worth mentioning is when you order from digikey, try to wait until you have multiple projects to buy stuff for.  Shipping is generally the biggest cost there so by ordering as much as possible at once you will cut down on the money you pay for shipping

Also, another, more powerful option is to build a Mini ITX computer (pulls ~35-40W) which can run OSes like Linux and/or Windows (with probably easier setup and programming).

baneat (author)2009-03-04

very nice, but here's the question we all want to know. can it run crysis??

Dr_Acula (author)baneat2009-03-04

Err - not as such. But that does look a fun game. Looks like something to exercise my new graphics card - I might check it out.

szlatyka (author)2008-12-31

I'm sure I'll build one in the next year XD. I have already put a Primo togehter (it's a hungarian microcomputer from the 70's, based on the East German Z80-clone U880), so this will be fun too!

seabeepirate (author)2008-12-23

Pretty impressive.

iamdenteddisk (author)2008-09-28

uber cool,I love the z80 processer especialy for asm, some where here I got the original Cpm disc set all 6..its been about 10year since I used cpm. how much was total project for the computer? I got 2eprom programers 1 a new universal and an old stagg PPz gang programer that was used on the original cpm and z80'S I use it to make cartriges for C64-128 robots I build but my love is the ti86 calculator for its z80ASM I got to know how similar they are? you got to be canadian because that chineese eraser you show only came in 240V unless thers a new version? im intrested cause mine just shot its wad a few days ago..

Canadian? You are very close. Australia actually. Please sign up to the Google group. The project is evolving day by day - have a look at the discussion section. The next part is a hard disk drive interface. Eprom programmers and erasors have come down a lot in price in the last 20 years - now I can finally afford them! There must be 110 to 240V adaptors around in the US from electronics shops. Certainly there are 240 to 110V ones available here. Eproms have come down in price too. I've been using a system where you write some code, program an eprom, find a mistake, program another and then erase them in batches of 6 or so. It can be just as fast as dowloading programs to pics/picaxes/basic stamps. In fact it can be faster, because the willem programmers use the parallel port and many pics use the serial port.

I did join the group but didnt have much time to "snoop". I will be going back today to to find as much info as I can. You might want to look into eeproms, "electronicly eraseable" for prototypeing it is a little more eficenet because of wait time also if you bring your erase time for eproms up to 45min you risk less chance of corruption. I dealt with that alot on a non working programs with flawless code is hard to figure out/debug but corruption is possible by not fully eraseing the chip from previous program, causeing strange checksums. Very informitive you are james, thats in the budget and my main concern for timeing is interface as devices like cdrw,hdd,usb are the common goals of most builders but I also require interface with the phillips "pcf8574" I2c EXPANDER and I know it is possible with most z80's and you say it has RTC builtin so if it is variable the computer rocks in my book I want 10 of them!

Addit - I didn't answer the question about cost. It was about $50 including the $20 for the board. I already had a few bits so hopefully that is the right price. I got all the bits at futurlec. Digikey also do a good price. The TTL chips are only 30c each or so. You can pay different prices for the Z80 - as low as $2 if you are ok about ones that only go to 4Mhz. Or pay $8 and get the more fancy CMOS ones that go to 10Mhz and don't even run warm. The eprom, ram and UART were the most expensive bits.

marcwolf (author)2008-09-17

Very nice little system.. And powerful too. Z80.. I remember those from my CPM days.. Had a Kaypro-2, and a TRS-80 Model 1 Level 2 :> :> Definately something to keep in mind for future projects. Dave

ll.13 (author)2008-08-20

Nice Instructable!
I really want to get into basic computer electronics, probably start with an Arduino. :-)

James Moxham (author)ll.132008-08-20

Absolutely. I wrote this last year for picaxe https://www.instructables.com/id/Control-real-world-devices-with-your-PC/

And Arduino is very similar. Start simple. Learn to solder. Learn to make a led flash. Learn a language like Basic (picaxe) or C (arduino).

Then if you do move into bigger boards like this one, your language programming skills will still be relevant and useful.

PKM (author)2008-08-19

This is really cool! The board reminds me of the inside of my old BBC, with those big chunky non-SMD chips everywhere. I appreciate the hands-on attitude to "just because it's technically a complete computer with an operating system and programming languages doesn't mean we can't solder anything" as well :) IDK why but I have a massive thing about devices with this level of technology- imagine this board with a character LCD on the TTY output, and maybe a packet radio connection for ghetto long-distance WLAN, and you'll see what I mean. It might be my inner steampunk coming out- it's got just enough potential to be able to do almost anything, but isn't so complex and abstract as to resemble magic like modern computers do. Anyway- thanks for indulging my retrotechnofetishism!

James Moxham (author)PKM2008-08-19

All those things are in the pipeline. The LCD prototype is on the bench in pieces, and the radio hardware already is working. Just need to think about the software protocols for radio packets and how to hand them over reliably from computer to computer. Thankyou for your encouraging words!

mycroftxxx (author)James Moxham2008-08-19

The book "Making Things Talk" is a good resource for radio protocols.

sedition (author)2008-08-19

Great instructible! I'm gonna have put this on my list of weekend projects.

jdege (author)2008-08-19

My first computer was a Heathkit H8 - 8080 processor, running at 2MHz. S50 bus, 4k RAM, expandable to 16K.

And yes, it ran CPM. Or it would have, had I ever managed to get it running.

James Moxham (author)jdege2008-08-19

Now you can get it running! Before the internet everyone was working alone, or maybe with support from a few people in a local computer group. Now, if something doesn't work, the whole world can help.

ongissim (author)2008-08-19

Cool, it's similar to the 6502 computer that I'm making an instructable for.

Bongmaster (author)2008-08-19

looks fun :3

About This Instructable

67,650views

146favorites

License:

Bio: Dr James Moxham is a general medical practitioner in Blackwood, Australia. His interests include general family medicine, medical politics, microcontrollers and tending a rose garden ... More »
More by James Moxham:Arduino String Manipulation Using Minimal RamCharlieplex 30 Led BargraphArduino Dual 20x4 Display
Add instructable to: