Travel for free with the power of the sun!

How to build a Solar Powered Trike

The purpose of this project is to build a vehicle that:

-Provides free, 'green' transportation for short distances (<10 miles), thus it must never
plug into a wall socket, or emit any pollutants.

-Charges while at work

-Is cheap, simple, and low maintenance.

-Draws attention to the practical application of green energies, and promotes Fossil Fuel alternatives.

-Reduces excess automobile wear and pollution from cold driving / short, in town trips.

-This is a is a project for Dr. Reza Toosi's 'Energy and the Environment, a global perspective' class at California State University, Long Beach. We look at the sources, technologies, and impacts of energy on our environment.

Link to other class projects, some of Dr. Toosi's ENG-302i lectures, and other interesting videos.


Short video:


Step 1: Acquire a vehicle

Find a lightweight vehicle with low rolling resistance. A two, three or four wheeler will do, depending on how much work you want to do, but the concept is the same. Four wheeled vehicles may be regulated under different laws. Of course the best vehicle is one that you already have, if you happen to have a three or four wheeled pedal powered vehicle. In the interest of simplicity, a three wheeler was chosen for my project. This Schwinn Meridian Trike was $250 new, readily available locally, and the basket provides a convenient location for batteries and solar panels with minimal fabrication.

The first thing to be done was completely disassemble the trike and paint it a bright 'fern' green. This step may not be necessary, but I felt that it was in my case since this is a school project that is supposed to grab your attention, and let you know that it is a true green vehicle. It is a vehicle that does not use gas, and does not plug in to a wall socket, which would defeat the purpose since electricity from the grid likely comes from a non-renewable energy source. It runs on pure solar energy.

Before painting the frame, I used this stage as an opportunity to reinforce the frame where the Batteries were going to mount. Lead acid Batteries are heavy, but they are relatively cheap.
One tube was welded in to distribute the load over 4 points on the axle carrier instead of two.
It also ties the rear sub-frame together, which makes the tube the load bearer rather than the weld beads, which may eventually fatigue and fail.

High pressure (65psi) tubes were equipped and the Trike was meticulously assembled in order to minimize rolling resistance.

While the welder was out a battery mount was fabricated, and bolts welded to the basket to be used as battery mount studs making removal easier. 12 volt LED's were put in the reflectors and wired as brake lights through the brake levers that cut the motor when you brake. They are wired through only one of the three 12 volt batteries.
<p>superb, congrats for this project..</p>
<p>Here is what the big brother did at the 2013 World Solar Challenge. Stella Lux for the 2015 challenge is even better. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2767806/Meet-Stella-solar-powered-car-drives-500-miles-SINGLE-charge-warns-traffic-lights-change.html These are 4 passenger vehicles.</p>
<p>Hello</p><p>Congratulations for the project.</p><p>I want to do the same with my recumbente trike but i&acute;m putting the pannels in the top of the trike. But since my solar pannels are 22v 0,5amps i associate 2 to have 44v 0,5v and another set of two to reach 44v 1 amp, so total of 4 solar pannels.</p><p>I connected a rectifying bridge with a capacitor to have stable current, and that makes the maximum voltage of around 43v and the minimum of 40v.</p><p>I connected a battery of 36v 2ah and it did recharge it, but now i order one 36v 15ah ebike battery and i&acute;m hopping it will recharge. My only doubt is that if a current between 0,5 - 1 amp is enough to start recharging a 15ah battery. Because if that work i wont need any MPPT RIGHT?</p><p>The secrect, i think, is to associate solar pannels to not exceed 44v then we will have a much easy system without any chargers, my only doubt is if a small current can charge the battery. If yes that is the best way of charging because a small current means the battery will last more.</p><p>Thanks</p>
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<p>Well done. My friend built a canopy over his to put the solar panels on</p>
<p>Nice but I think I will learn more about it on http://inplix.com</p>
<p>it would be a very valuable addition to have plug in capability for 'extra range' - not too much cost and or battery would thank you on cloudy days, extra heavy loads and unplanned extra distances and speeds ....</p>
<p>I know some adults with disabilities and some seniors who are capable of building and peddling, and would be appreciative of having solar power as an alternative so they could take longer jaunts</p>
Wouldn't it be easier to just pedal?
Unless you're disabled, which adds a whole new dimension, doesn't it? Thanks again people for thinking outside your own tiny box.
Well then, how does the disabled person get on and off? What if it malfunctions during the ride? How is a disabled person to construct one?
Would you like to know the range of disabilities a person can have or are you asking me personally...perhaps you're offering to help. A one-handed person could do all those things...one-legged...an auto-immune disease...Chronic Fatigue Syndrome...Fibromyalgia....Lyme disease. Perhaps a 20 second period of thinking before you ask.<br>
Most of the people with those diseases could peddle. Those with severe pain are most likely already medicated. Someone with that severe of pain would be smart to choose something professionally made rather than this homemade thing. They would need something reliable. I honestly believe that this is an impractical vehicle for disabled people. I'd appreciate it if you could offer criticism without insulting me.
You're seriously asking what use a disabled person has for an electric bi/tricycle?<br><br>Please, think for a minute. If you can't come up with anything I'll do my best to hide my frustration as a physically disabled person and explain.
<p>but there are studies that are showing. the use of pedal bike can an do reduce the pain.</p>
Hey this would be good for me as I have arthritis ! I am not &quot;Medicated&quot; as I do not like the side effects. I can peddle for some distance and would not mind having something like this. A Motorized Chair to me just makes me more sedentary and prone to worse diseases, like diabetes.<br>Being a couch potato is not my idea of having a life and this trike would make my life worth living. Thank You dpearce1 for posting this I'ble.
And I'd appreciate it if you'd try to give disabled people the credibility they deserve. Sarcasm toward your questions was well deserved, given the lack of critical thinking necessary to make them possible. <br>Where are you getting your information about what people with the diseases I mentioned are capable of? Are you inventing it? I am on Trazadone and Morphine and it doesn't manage my pain....if I push too hard, I end up setting myself back weeks or months or going into a full relapse, so pedaling is not always possible .<br>My history is one of being an Olympic caliber athlete with a range of skills from building computers to being a certified arborist. There's little I cannot do, given the tools and time and I can assure you, I make things better than you can buy (if you have the money to buy off the shelf). <br>You can't fit all disabled people into the same box, so just decide if it's practical for yourself and let others decide for themselves.
<p>For your next instructable make how to get less chubby from taking the exercise out of riding a bike. </p>
<p>Yeah I have designed and set up one of these for my crippled sister.</p><p>Same bike - the lot - only I made up a pusher trailer.</p><p>In very SIMPLE terms....</p><p>I use 50W of panels, and that in the sun - for say 8 hours per day = ONE x 400W hour of charge to the batteries.</p><p>She makes one or two short trips of about five to fifteen minutes per day - drawing about 200W.</p><p>Now and then she will do half an hour or so of travelling.</p><p>Never runs flat, the batteries are more or less always charged up fully.</p>
All you people need to realize that those solar panels could take as much as a week or longer to recharge the batteries. A good example is a cordless rechargeable lawn mower. They use an almost identical setup - 24v motor and two 12v batteries. One mower manufacturer sells a solar panel as an option and tell you up front that it will take at least 3 days if in full sun. But you can't keep the panels always pointed at the sun without a tracker. Most of the cheaper solar panels are nothing but trickle chargers that just keep batteries topped off like on RVs or other vehicles that have a lot of accessories that drain a battery even if not being used. And no, you can't ride down the road perpetually with sun power and no batteries. It's just common sense. There are experimental solar cars that have competitions, but they have huge arrays of solar cells and use flat terrain and hug the ground and are streamlined.
<p>Naaaa you just don't get it.</p>
<p>So the system isn't perfect. I'm not either but I get by.</p><p>I think this is one of the BEST instructables I've ever seen.</p><p>And it raises a LOT of questions in my mind. How would it do with higher efficiency panels? Or high tech batteries? Is there a way to get regenerative energy BACK into the panels when you are going downhill? This Instructable is 6 years old now. I'd LOVE to see someone that is smart about electronics &amp; bikes tackle an update to this.</p>
<p>Naaaa Solarbipolar &quot;THINKS&quot; that just because you add a &quot;small&quot; solar panel or two, a motor and a battery to a bike, that you have nothing better to do with your life, that what they think, which is to be driving around under solar power, for 8 hours a day, every day, drawing 200W non stop to drive a motor on the bike.</p><p>They don't &quot;Get it&quot; - that the world actually works differently to their 'ALL or NOTHING' thinking....</p><p>This set up works REALLY well for occassional short trips.</p>
You have such negative comments. Where is your Instructables at?? This Instructable is AWESOME!!
I have a Black &amp; Decker cordless electric lawn mower also. There are numerous nay sayers that can say how things cannot/or should not be done. Make a constructive criticizim solution part of your suggestion. This is a well done Instructable that hopefully challenges others to see how they may improve it. It sparks interest and challenges others to come up with a better way- Stay positive. No matter what country you live in, stockpile &quot;stuff&quot; for inventing. :)
We don't need to &quot;realize&quot; any such thing. He presented the math and the limitations of the system, and his numbers add up. He's not deep charging the battery, but rather topping it off.
I thought the spokes and wheel of the bikes were made out of sturdy aluminum. Are they? <br />
<p>noo its either steel or stainless steel. aluminum wouldnt handle the stress at all.</p>
Thanks for alerting me to the Schwinn Meridian. Cool even without solar power.<br /> As an alternative I might look at the old 80cc 0.01Hp &quot;Chicken Power&quot; two cycle motor from the 1970-80's.<br /> What really bugs me is the power wheel uses 36V (rather than 12V) and you must use multiple 12V panels and batteries (adding excessive weight).<br /> Does anyone make lower voltage wheel motors or higher voltage solar panels?
<p>check out http://www.aliexpress.com/ or http://www.alibaba.com/ 4 the parts u need?</p>
the only problem is that to get the same amount of watts (energy) at a lower voltage, current (amps) increases, so you need 3 12v batteries in parallel instead of series. You also need wire that is 3 times thicker.
I have no knowledge on anything solar or batteries, therefore please forgive my question if it sounds really &quot;stoopid.&quot; <br> <br>Would it be possible to combine some sort of crank/wind up power (similar to those camping/emergency flashlights) via the pedals and chain in addition to the solar, for a little extra power on cloudy days or evenings?
Also meant to say: &quot;Really love your idea!&quot; I guess typing late at night doesn't benefit one very well.
This is a great project with the ability to be modified for rear wheel drive with spare parts. Tread mill motors and the like. Great imagination. I have often been called Gadget Man for all the tinkering I do and I love to see young people from all over the world with their instructables. I am 60 y/o Mechanical Engineer, have spinal stenosis, arthritis, neuropathy but I am never opposed to constructive criticism. The fun of this tinkering is the tinkering to me. Have fun you guys - keep on tinkering (Inventing).
add a generator(as in the diagram)to the wheels of the trike.let the no.of turns in the coil be &gt;300 so it can produce enough energy while driving the bike.
It's a cute concept but rather expensive for not much benefit. I figure your panels total about 30 watts of power, and you have 720 watt-hours of batteries. Assuming perfect efficiency in your charging circuit, that's 24 hours of direct sun. You can count on a sunny day providing about 5 direct-sun-hours (that is, in 8 hours of sunlight, you get only a little while at noon and a whole lot at lower and lower angles so about 5 hours.) Thus, dead batteries would take about 5 days to recharge completely. You'd be better off having about half the battery capacity and only using half of that — in other words, about 360 watt-hours of battery capacity and only use up to about 150 watt-hours a day (which is what your panels can charge) which keeps the batteries above 50% charge so they'll last much longer.
He stated that he only partly discharges the batteries.
no offense but why would you spend almost 1 grand on a project for school.
So I get get something usable from it, like a vehicle. I have done similar things without them even being projects for school, just personal projects. I will likely sell it down the road to fund another project.
yah but 1 grand. i mean do something practical like put it in ur savings or sumthing but a solar powered bike. i mean like why woul du really need solar power bike. when u aleady ride it with ur "legs"
I strongly recommend you take the financial advice of someone on the internet who has extremely poor spelling, inserts extraneous "likes" into his sentence, and puts the word "legs" in quotes for no apparent reason. What could go wrong?
He did it... Because he could. Instructables projects don't need a reason, the only requirement is a final product, and instructions on how to make it.
yah but would u spend 1 grand honestly!
It wasn't just for school. It was for a better planet. And science, of course!
Very cool, I like how you kept it simple but still got the job done. I have a 16 mile round trip to work and I am a active fat person 310. I can put any thing together but don't know jack about figuring out motor size or battery needs to do a project like this. If you don't mind could you post the ideal numbers for making this same project for us BIG PEOPLE, we like to make cool stuff to.
This motor would pull you just fine, but if you need more power 1000W hub motors are available. For more range, you need more batteries, but for 8 miles to work, just let it charge in the sun while you are there and it should make it 8 miles back easily.
You do not know it should make it 8 miles back easily. It might, or maybe the battery is not new anymore, or it's a cloudy day, or you have to park where there is not full sun exposure all day due to shadows, or there are a fair amount of hills, or for numerous other reasons someone could easily find themselves without enough power. The project is neat but let's not pretend it is a reliable form of transportation because it can't be used regularly except in a limited ideal environment.
... or you could just plug it in at work on a cloudy day. Even if you can't plug in outside, 3 12ah batteries weigh around 30 lbs. You can buy a charger for $20-25 that will top the batteries off in around 4 hours and plug in at your desk ... or you could pedal to help along ... my bike weighs around 60lbs w/all the add-ons, panniers, racks, and gear - I get at least 4 miles @12mph out of a crappy 12ah 36v battery pack that is well past 3 years of hard abusive use.<br/><br/>The point is - there are always options and I would disagree with your assessment that this couldn't be reliable. As long as you can pedal, you can make 8 miles in a pinch.<br/><br/>Personally, I wouldn't want to carry around expensive PV panels and risk breaking them. I'd rather install them at my house and slow down my meter (which I realize requires some pricey equipment) and just charge when I need to, or have 2 or more battery packs so one or two are always ready to swap out. The PVs will get used whenever sun is available (and the bike is in the garage) making the PVs payback time shorter.<br/><br/>With regard to many of the other Negative Nellies saying this isn't healthy, green, etc. I would love to see what you've come up with. I put together an electric bike 4 years ago and it has paid for itself many times over financially (costs around $.01 electricity per 4 miles without pedaling) and environmentally (for both carbon offsets or jusy energy inputs for the manufacturing energy used + electricity to charge) vs. a 34mpg car which is what this replaced.<br/><br/>I find that I like to pedal with it to baby the batteries and extend my range. I coast downhill and pedal at the same cadence and power whether I'm on a flat or uphill and adjust the electric use accordingly. I still get lots of exercise but not so much that I'm all sweaty when I get to my destination.<br/><br/>I would prefer to see some constructive ideas instead of &quot;that won't work&quot;. <br/><br/>&quot;<em>Those who say it cannot be done should not interrupt those who are doing it.&quot;</em><br/> --Chinese proverb <em></em><br/>
You must be kidding. You feel it's reasonable to take out a 30 lb pack, haul it into your workplace, AND that they won't mind this? You and others seem to be making a lot of attempts to find a way to do something but it all adds up to a large number of reasons not to do it. You wrote the Chinese proverb but all these people AREN'T doing it, they're just trying to ignore the problems as if theories about what might be possible are actually possible in every case of a problem. It is true that a very small number of people may not have any problems, but the vast majority will. You say it could be reliable and write about payback time but have you calculated out how long it would take for a payback considering how inexpensive electricity is? Have you considered that this time period is the one against which reliability is measured, and repair costs when, not if, you have to replace portions - and some are necessarily needing replaced on a schedule like the batteries since they will lose capacity. Regular use will make it necessary to replace them more often than once a year. You write that you'd love to see what I come up with. Ok, for those not healthy or physically able to ride a bicycle, they aren't healthy enough to pedal this or push it in case of breakdown, or in areas where it can't be ridden. It's not enough to say 9 streets you travel on the way to work can accomdate an oversized motorized bicycle, the 10th, 11th, etc streets also have to be traveled. That's why cars exist. For those who are capable of biking, that's why regular bicycles exist. Is it irony that the two better forms of transportation already exist? No. Bicycles, motors, and batteries aren't new inventions, nor is putting them together as a motorized bicycle (you can buy one already made!) and yet most people have enough common sense to see it is not a good option. I never stated "that won't work", you are trying to extend your argument past the reality of what was written. I mentioned factors that need to be considered by each person, the negatives as well as the positives. Not considering the negatives would be foolish, and biased since one had to consider the negatives about other forms of transportation to contrast things like carbon offsets or MPG, etc. You're really missing the point, that this or another motorized bike is not impossible for some to use but that all factors involved will need to be considered, that I and others are simply weighing all factors. That is adding more information to combat ignorance. Everyone should have as much information and discussion about all aspects to make the best choice per their subjective needs and environment in which it would be used if possible. "Ignorance is not bliss" --Origin Unknown

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