This will tell you how to use some rudimentary joinery techniques:
Making basic cuts, mitres, and chopping out joints.

It's aimed at complete novices, so if you already have any knowledge of woodwork some or all of this will likely come across as patronising. Sorry about that.

Sawing a piece of wood is a really easy job, but without a little training most people screw it up. Going straight through quickly is a good way to end up with non-square joints, and when you're making furniture they're a very good way to make it look terrible.

My first ever job was as a joiner's apprentice, and because I didn't enjoy it I sucked. 11 years later I find myself making basic furniture. Remembering all the advice I was given, taking my time, and doing something I want to with it, I find I don't suck so badly: Doing passable joinery only takes a little knowledge coupled with care and attention.

One important technique that doesn't need much showing: Pilot holes
When you drive a screw or hammer a nail into a small piece of wood or too close to the edge of one, it will split. Sometimes putting a fixing into a place like this is unavoidable. Drilling a hole through the joint a little bit smaller than your fixing will prevent it from splitting.

Step 1: Tools

You don't need fancy tools to make good woodwork. You could buy a very expensive set of Japanese chisels for woodcarving, but it won't matter if you're an awful carver and don't know what you're doing.

I'll be keeping this to very basic, cheap tools:

Improvised bench
Pump cramps
Hardpoint tenon saw

You can be more precise when marking wood with a pencil than a pen, and even heavy pencil marks are easier to sand off than greasy biro. Use light pencil marks ;)

A hardpoint tenon saw, unlike a proper one, has to be thrown away once it becomes blunt because it can't be sharpened. However, if you only seldom make joints, it's all you'll need and very cheap. I think the expense and maintenance of a good tenon saw is only worthwhile if you're going to actually use it a lot.

The square you see in some of these photos is an old, cast iron Rabone one. I don't think you can get them like that any more, but there's plenty similar available.

Pump cramps are one of the best tools I've found: Inexpensive, very quick to apply and remove, and two are secure enough to hold most work pieces in place. Put cardboard between the cramps and your workpiece, because sanding or planing the marks out later is really annoying (see pics 3 and 4).

As you can see below, I've improvised a workbench from an old chest of drawers. Be careful not to hurt your back if you do this (or use a workmate type thing), a proper workbench is a good deal higher for this reason.
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<p>What are cramps?</p>
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<p>Thank you very much, this is so useful for someone who can't afford a mitre saw.. Simple, clear instructions, brilliant. I am a community artist and need to run some mixed media workshops on a very small budget, so this will help us strengthen hardboard panels to work on. You're a star! </p>
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I've been looking to building a couple tables for the kitchen, one for the dining room, and a proper workbench for months. Taking my lunch break, and I Google &quot;furniture carpentry basics&quot;... Your instructable wasn't the first hit, but I'm glad it was the first link I liked at. This is the start of something wonderful. Thank you.
<p>Hi, here is you're solution that not only fits to your budget but amazingly save much more....Here is the secret to make great woodwork without spending tons of money. Check out the link and be more creative on woodwork. It is a promising guide to a wood artist like you...http://e33dcpp2vhtveteoh4wjq11pcz.hop.clickbank.net/?tid=HTTP%3a%2f%2fE4EF5GO7MPRM1YFZH</p>
Great job! Thank you for posting this!
when I want to saw a square cut with a hand saw I mark a line across the top of the wood with a square and line up the reflection of the front edge of the board on my saw and it comes out a square cut.
A marking gauge is a cheap tool that will improve the accuracy of your joints. When you mark with a marking gauge, you get a small groove in which to rest your chisel, so you always cut it exactly where you want.<br><br>
thank You so much sir!
I really wish I had seen this before I made my bookcase:<br>http://www.instructables.com/id/Nomad-Bookcase-1/ <br><br>Now granted, I say that, even tho my bookcase turned out fabulous. But being a perfectionist, this would have helped so much.<br><br>Question: what would you say the approximate optimum height should be for a bench like this?
Bench like... ?<br><br>Bench height is always awkward. There's no perfect height. Roughly waist height for a workbench, as if it's too low using it for long periods will kill your back.
That's what I was looking for. Thank you!
and my grandpa told me that if i learn to love my job, i will never ever feel working a single day of my life.
my grandfather is a carpenter but he do not do carpentry when i am ready to learn, not anymore. everytime i put a line on the wood, i just cut it&gt;&gt; and the results are usable but not that accurate. now, i finally understand that&gt; there should be a place for the saw, either before or after the line, depends on the aim of measurement. THANK YOU for your instructable. INDEED those 3 SIMPLE steps can take me further. you really helped me.
Thanks Nach, you made it look and sound simpler than ever. Age does tend to mellow you out and make you take your time a lot more too. Mistakes cost money! KN
great instructable.. thanks
&nbsp;Just adding my thanks for a job well done, awesome explanations. My father, older brother and father in law are both quite competent at woodwork but I've never really had much flair for it, though good with my hands at other hobbies. I recently moved into a new house that has required a few touches here and there and your instructable has seen my wood work gain a passable quality that even drew admiration from my stoney faced father in law today!<br /> I need more practice but I am now inspired by my improvement, based on instruction from you.<br /> Gold!<br /> SD
Thank you for sharing this information.
I've been working with wood some years ago, not that much ok, but this instructables was great!!! thanks a lot..... <br />
I remember reading this Instructable before, but for some reason I didn't really understand it. I wish I'd followed this advice from the beginning. I'm a suburban dwelling computer repair man with zero wood-working experience since 7th or 8th grade Wood-Shop. That was many years ago. Last year I wanted to build my own computer desk because I don't like the junk they sell these days. I picked up some cheap hand tools and some decent lumber and got started working on the floor in my garage. I figured it would take about an hour. Six months later I had several piles of scrap wood and tetanus shot. I'd drilled holes in my hands, lost almost a whole finger-nail to a dull chisel and suffered numerous cuts, bruises and blood blisters. One day, my four year old told me to be more careful because she was tired of bringing me band-aids. That's when I finally realized I was doing something wrong. Now, it's been more than a year since I started. I've managed to build a decent little workshop in my garage. It includes a sturdy workbench I built from scratch and a small collection of mostly useful tools. I eventually managed to build a decent table that I now use as a desk. I used only the most basic wood construction techniques. I'd hesitate to even call it joinery. It's no masterpiece, but it is strong and it looks good. It must not be too bad because several people who've seen it have offered to pay me to build them dining room tables. Step 5 really resonates with me. I wish I'd followed your advice from the beginning. The most important thing in wood-working, or anything for that matter, is to have enough patience to take the time to do quality work. It may seem counter intuitive that going slower will get you there faster, but it really is true. I'd done nothing but waste time and money until I finally decided to slow down and concentrate on doing quality work. Since then, my skills have improved much faster than I'd expected. Now I have enough experience to recognize that I was an idiot. I'm lucky I didn't do any permanent damage. It's obvious to me how little I know compared to what there is to know. Yet I still managed to do a decent job once I slowed down. Haste makes waste. This is a great Instructable! It's well written and easy to understand. This is great advice for anyone not just beginners. I want my next piece to have more traditional joinery. That's actually why I wound up back here. Thanks for posting this. Great job! Keep up the good work.
i concur...i've been woodworking for years, but it's interesting and eye-opening to see this tutorial b/c of its level of care...something i didn't necessarily employ in my own work 100% of the time... knowing what i'm doing after a good amount of experience, i can STILL&nbsp;say that this one helped me &quot;smooth-out&quot; some of the rough edges on my cutting habits.&nbsp; :)&nbsp; thanks for the tutorial, man!!!<br />
good tip.&nbsp; I also like to add a couple guide lines about 1/8 or 1/16 of an inch on either side of my actual cut point....it just makes it easier for me to keep my eye on target when i have them there... :)<br />
Hey thanks for the tips, I'm just starting to get into woodworking so anything at all is helpful
This was great. I went out and bought some tools, found scrap wood, and went about making cuts and chopping joints. They were awful, awful! But damn I did it, thanks to your great instructions, and now I'm not afraid of trying the next thing.<br /> <br /> Thanks!<br />
great ible keep it up 5 stars<br />
Great job on the tutorial!! The first one I've come across that's an adequate introduction for a complete newbie. Thank you!!!
Plain and simple to understand. :) Thank you. You should do more. I would like to hear you teach, or read rather. Its hard to find someone who makes sense in plain English.
this is sweet. thanks for sharing your talent with us.
Just what I was looking for, thanks! I would love any other basic woodworking tips you have to offer.
You have demonstrated the basic wood working skills so well with excellent illustrations. Felt like starting wood working again to master the skills. Please provide more of these skills e.g mortise and tennon joint Sharad
i just thought one day i want to make a bow so i chopped a branch off a tree and chiseled a handle out of it then got an old door and chiseled arms for the bow out of it it all come together quite nicely il post a photo of the finished bow if you want
thnx for the advice : ), i've just noticed i've got those exact clamps in step 1 lol
Just think, a renewable resource that looks good. i'll tell thee what, it doesn't matter how much of a dogs breakfast the first few look like, you can always look at it with a sweet bit of well-earned pride and amazement that you have become a creator. Grand int it? (To be read with a North Country England accent - in case thee were wondering). Due to reduced dust , using hand tools is much better for your lungs and other peoples. So whilst you are making something grand you are also looking after your cardio-vascular heath and getting a bit of exercise. Though i have to admit that when looking down a long plank that needs to be cut lengthwise and you only have a 1/4" tooth ripsaw you suddenly think of other things to do. Grin. Oh. "The Collectors" are chasing old tools now and they can fetch a few bob and be stuck in a glass case. How much better for the old tools to be back at work in the hands of someone willing to give it a go, hey? "You've all done very well", said young Mr Grace.
After reading your Instructable I went out and brought a set of wood chisels and a rubber mallet.<br/>I then preceded into the garden with raw determination on my face and joined two peices of scrap wood together. I'd never worked with wood before, so was proud of what I managed to do (as simple as many consider it to be).<br/><br/>I now have an urge to use my new found wood 'skills' to try and make the <a rel="nofollow" href="http://www.instructables.com/id/E06HRCV2LOEPD7RBPD/">Wooden Desktop Trebuchet</a><br/><br/>And I owe it all to you. Thanks.<br/>
Awesome! :D You've made my day.
Thanks! This is just the level of instruction I need for the projects I'd like to do.
"These basic techniques can be combined to construct a lot of things out of wood. No matter how awful you think you are at joinery, as long as you're careful and patient you can produce passable woodwork." I suppose that's why I nearly flunked middle school wood shop. I always kept trying to tell the guy I needed more time if he wanted something that doesn't look like crap. *glances over at CD rack and notepad holder*

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Bio: I live in the UK. Half my working time is spent running indie games events, the rest is spent prototyping… things ¬¬ I used to take ... More »
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