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Picture of Waste-Oil Forge and Foundry
This demonstrates how I made a basic setup for casting, and can also to some extent be used for blacksmithing.

Let me state a disclamer that I know almost nothing about blacksmithing and most of my knowledge thus far is from research and not experience. The processes and materials presented and resulting from the information I am sharing are potentialy lethal. Please consider this as a primer to get you interested and demonstrate how simple it is to make the necessairy items for forging and casting. Do, however, search elsewhere for more information before undertaking any projects.

some good places to start:

http://64.176.180.203/tutorials.htm
http://www.anvilfire.com/iForge/
http://www.navaching.com/forge/forgeindex.html
http://www.backyardmetalcasting.com/index.html

other instructables:

http://www.instructables.com/id/Waste-Oil-Furnace-For-Melting-Metal/
http://www.instructables.com/id/How-to-make-a-forge/
http://www.instructables.com/id/Make-a-Small-Blacksmith_s-Forge/
http://www.instructables.com/id/Make-a-small%2c-practical-forge/
http://www.instructables.com/id/Coffe-Can-Aluminum-Foundry/
http://www.instructables.com/id/Pizza-Sauce-Can-Furnace/
 
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Step 1: Waste Oil Burner

Picture of Waste Oil Burner
oil drip.JPG
the set up.JPG
vaccuum blower.JPG
For the burner you need 1 and 1/4 inch pipe fittings: two T's, two full-thread nipples, one 3" long nipple, two caps, a reducer that goes down to 3/4" and a 3 inch long 3/4" nipple.
Fit everything together as shown with a couple pipe wrenches except the top cap. Drill a hole for the oil line. Test it to make sure it's working the way you want it to. Then encase it in fire clay. (see next step)

For the oil line I've just used some 1/4 brass tubing I had but steel brake line would be better. I fitted this to a valve and the valve to a tube going to my oil container. So far my container is just a can with a copper coupling for a hose in the bottom.
For the forced air I took a small vaccuum and duct-taped a tube to the air exhaust, the tube is about 20" long. Then I use a pipe clamp to secure it to the burner. Eventually this will be replaced by a small squirrel-cage type blower.

To run the burner I first start a wood or sometimes charcoal fire in it. Just get some small chunks of wood and fill up the main section of the burner. Once it's burning well put the cap on and connect the blower, turn it on as low as you can. Turn the oil on to a very slow drip, it'll probablly get really smokey for a bit. If the flames go out back down the air input or throw in a couple more peices of wood. As the burner heats up try turning the blower on higher, work gradually until there is a steady bright yellow flame comming out of the blower. As the air is turned up you'll have to open the oil valve more. On a full blow oil will have to be streamed in steadily and excess will fill the bottom and leak out the air input. Just catch this with a cup and pour it back into the oil container.

Step 2: Furnace

Picture of Furnace
furnace 2.JPG
The Furnace is really simple.

The bulk of this is fire clay. Other than that you just need something to contain it in and another can to leave space for the heating chamber.
I started out small with a coffee can and then went to a larger one made in a big popcorn tin.

Next you need fire clay. I don't live anywhere near a foundry or within an easy distance to get fire clay so I made my own. for this you need four things; portland cement, perlite, silica sand, and bentonite.
Just about any lumberyard or hardware store carys portland cement. Don't confuse this with ready-mix or even masonry, get the stuff that says PORTLAND CEMENT really big on the outside of the package.
Perlite is the white stuff in potting soil. It comes in a bag by itself, it can usually be found at walmart but can also be found at nurserys, lawn&garden places and hardware stores.
Pure silica sand is best but any fine sand will do. probablly the easiest to get is the bags of "play sand" you can find at walmart or building centers like home depot or lowes. A lot of tractor supply stores in the midwest carry it during the summer. If you can't find it or just don't want to pay for sand you could just get some from a dry riverbed and sift it (don't take sand from beaches).
Bentonite is what most cheap cat litter is made of. Just look at the label, it should say ingredients: bentonite, make sure it's not mixed with other things like fragrance. If you get cat litter you'll probablly have to find a way to grind and sift it. This takes a lot of time and effort. If you don't want to go through all the trouble just find somewhere online to buy it.

To make the masonry I go with a 1:1:1:1 ratio.

mix one part sand, bentonite, and perlite together, add a little water and mix throughly.
let it sit for 30 minutes.
add a little more water and mix again, let sit for 45 minutes.
add one part portland cement and enough water so everything is moist and sticks together, but not too much so it's runny. You want it just wet enough to cake easily in your hand and not crumble when you squeeze it.

First fill the bottom to the thinkness you want and pack it down. Then put the center can in and ram fire clay down around it. Once the clay dries a hole is drilled through the wall just above the bottom of the heating chamber and to one side so the heat from the burner tends to spin in the chamber. Then a lid will need to be made. Just use another tin about the same size in diameter, though it only needs to be about 3 inches thick and leave a 2 or 3 inch hole in the center. Once it is set remove the lid from the tin.

Step 3: Flask and Casting Bench

Picture of Flask and Casting Bench
2 boards.JPG
flask.JPG
The casting bench is really just a box with legs that brings it up to a convient working height. On the inside of the box 2 or 3 inches from the top make horizontal cleats on the front and back. Cut two peices of wood to fit across these. The next thing needed is two boards big enough to cover the flask.
The flask itself is simpler than people make it out to be. Just make a box without a top or bottom and cut it in half. Then use some thin material to make an alighment peice on two sides of the flask. If you consistantly have problems with the sand falling out, attach a small strip of wood around the edges of the cope and drag where they meet.
Most home setups use greensand to cast in. This can be ordered or easily made without much expense by mixing sand and bentonite. An 11 to 1 mix of sand and benotnite, respectfully, (or approximately 8% bentonite) is suggested.

Step 4: Blacksmithing

Picture of Blacksmithing
scrap steel.JPG
scrap steel (1).JPG
rectangle furnace.JPG
tongs.JPG
I don't have a proper anvil, they're expensive. But I do have a peice of railroad that works pretty ok with small projects and a couple large chunks of steel. One is bolted to my workbench and the other I attach to a stump when working outside.

For work other than casting I made a rectangular furnace, using sheetmetal to form it and then filling it with fire clay. Both ends are open, which makes heating specific parts of long peices easier.

I made some really ugly, but simple, tongs by riveting two peices of flat bar together then heating the end and twisting it.

I got a small sledge hammer because somebody threw it out when the handle broke. I just made a new one, free tools.

There were some big timbers on public land I found while out for a hike. They had been through a fire (conviently annealed) and I salvaged some of the steel fittings off of them.

When you're creative about materials things get cheaper.

Step 5: Casting

Picture of Casting
blob of steel.JPG
I'm still working on this. When I get a process down that works I'll post it.

here are the fundamentals..

How to set up the flask:
The sand should be moist enough to squeeze in your hand and retain it's shape, bounce it in your hand and it shouldn't crumble.
place the bottom (or drag) upside-down on one of the boards, put the item to be cast in the middle of the drag and fill it up with sand. Sift sand that will go immediatly around the pattern and don't worry so much about the rest. Use a rammer, or I've found that a small rubber mallet will work in a pinch, and pack sand tightly around the pattern. It takes a while to get a feel for how much pressure to use, but eventually you'll get the hang of it. Once the drag's compacted scrape off any sand that sicks up over the top edge. Place the other board on top of the drag and with both hands holding it securly flip it over. remove the top board and dust on parting powder. I've read that coal dust works great but it's a lot easier for me to get talcum powder (baby powder, talcum or corn starch can be used) Then put the cope (or top) in place. Pack sand onto the pattern just as you did for the drag. Then cut vent holes above the pattern by pushing a wire, anything from a coat hanger to a knitting needle will do, down through the sand until it touches the pattern. Next cut the sprue, or pouring hole, with a peice of thin brass or steel tubing about 3/4 of an inch in diameter. Now lift the cope off of the drag and set it on it's side, you'll know right here if you've done a good enough job ramming the sand. Once the two are seperated cut the gate, or runner, from the sprue to the patter. A simple tool to use is a spoon, making the channel about 3/4 of an inch wide and about 1/4 of an inch deep. Carefully lift the pattern out of the drag and then place the cope back into position. Pour the metal in a small stream and to one side of the sprue to let air escape and so it doesn't hit the bottom hard enough to loosen the sand. Give your casting time to cool off, then seperate the flask and take out your new part. Cut off the excess from the vent holes and sprue and stick them in a bucket for future use. Sand down your casting and you're good to go.
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sharlston5 years ago
what oil did yoy use?
notjustsomeone (author)  sharlston5 years ago
the first couple runs were with oil I'd changed out of my truck, after that I just got some from a local recycling center. I'd suggest going to an auto shop though, the recycling center dumped all sorts of stuff into their waste oil tank.
is unused oil better ?
notjustsomeone (author)  sharlston5 years ago
infinitely better, it burns hotter and cleaner. The idea of a waste-oil burner is that it uses something that otherwise would be waste and costs virtually nothing to operate. If you don't mind paying for all of your fuel though, I'd suggest propane.
its best to use vegetable oil over motor oil because motor oil burns to give off toxic chemicals and this can be absorbed by your metal and change its composition and properties and not to mention the health risks
 Anybody who would inhale the fumes from burning oil should not be allowed to handle sharp tools or have matches or a lighter.

Does the term "well ventilated area" ever come to mind?

lol you have to remember that inhaling some of the fumes is unavoidable

Hint: get an old "Mr. Coffee" and use that to filter the used oil. It takes a while but worth what you save on fuel.

heathbar642 years ago
I'm not quite clear on how the oil burner works. seems like the oil just drips into the tee's. Does it burn there, or is it blown into the furnace and ignited there? or what?
notjustsomeone (author)  heathbar642 years ago
yes, it burns there, that's why you have pre-heat that chamber.
Cool-fool3 years ago
I'm interested in making this but have an important safety question:

How can you unsure the fire doesn't ever run backwards up the oil line to the oil can?

Ex, what if the line gets clogged? Would the flame move backwards?

Or, what if you use up the last of your fuel, leaving the oil line coated in oil and filled with air? Why wouldn't combustion continue up the oil line into the tank, causing a potential disaster?

Thanks for your help.
notjustsomeone (author)  Cool-fool3 years ago
The short answer it that it requires so much energy to effectively burn waste oil that you're never going to get an instance of blowback, the line outside the combustion chamber simply should never get hot enough to ignite the oil within it. That said, of course it is within the realm of possibilities as it is gravity fed which allows the passage of air if the oil container should run dry. There are measures you can take to prevent potential disaster however. The most obvious is simply never set up your operation within 20 feet of anything you wouldn't mind catching on fire. secondly use a small container to feed your burner so that, should this unlikely even occur, you need only to cover the container and stop your air supply to extinguish any flames. Thirdly, regulate the flow of oil with a valve. should you be so absent minded that your line runs dry you need only to close the valve closest to the combustion chamber to prevent any hot gasses traveling up the line.

If you do not have the attention span to prevent your oil reservoir from running completely empty, you're probably not qualified to to attempt anything for which a furnace is required in the first place. Do the world a favor and find another hobby.
skimmo4 years ago
"forge masters" in nsw uses a forge that runs of used oil
Chainfire5 years ago
I'm making a furnace of a different design but with the same mixture for the refactory. So, I sat around with some friends and pounded out a gallon of cat litter, that was fun. But the perlite I have comes in small pellets, should i grind those up as well, or will they dissolve in the water?
notjustsomeone (author)  Chainfire5 years ago
just use the perlite as it is.
Awesome, i wasn't looking forward to doing that again
steppapajon5 years ago
Are you using parts by weight or parts by volume?
notjustsomeone (author)  steppapajon5 years ago
volume
zascecs6 years ago
You'll give away Will Smith for food???
 you wish
djr6789 zascecs5 years ago

omg i loled so hard when i saw this comment! your the don of instructables man !

zascecs djr67895 years ago
lol
mmmmm!
tlivin5 years ago
I have used an harbor-freight anvil for several years. It's not the best anvil you can buy but if you don't have the resources to buy a better it works. I have also have a section of rail road track that I used to start blacksmithing and it works great just does not have a horn to work on.
dsman1952767 years ago
that picture made me think of "will smith" the actor lol.
I think that's the pun inside the pun!
Artekus6 years ago
Wow props for doing this instead of just researching it like me :)

Take a look at http://www.backyardmetalcasting.com. The guy there did several iterations of burner and ended up with a single horizontal tube for efficiency. It's also just a great site :D

I was wondering, do you find that the heat is too high to forge with? I'd have thought you would start to burn out the carbon, yet you seem to be doing fine.
spudster6 years ago
nice,its simple and looks effective
Mig Welder6 years ago
Harbor Freight: 55 lb. anvil $50
Harbor Freight ones are cast. Cast anvils= CRAP! Railroad track and/or an I-beam section are MUCHO better.
Stay away from the harbor freight anvil, the railroad track piece is better
You have to watch the quality at Harbor Freight-some are so soft that the slightest strike will dent them. Some are cast iron instead of cast steel, which makes them too brittle to do any heavy work on (chipping and other cracks).
panstar16 years ago
oh I forgot to say is waste oil furnace's are now against the law to use or around were I live ( I am a hvac tech )
why?
Mig Welder6 years ago
what iron did you melt?
notjustsomeone (author)  Mig Welder6 years ago
The first time can be seen in the last step of the instructable and was a plumbing end-cap. The second time another make-shift crucible was purported to be steel, it wasn't. The second event was a bit more destructive, but was stopped in time to avoid "casting" a new bottom to the furnace.
panstar16 years ago
you could use a oil burner from an old furnace ,they are some what easy to find and they have an automatic starter built in plus some have a electronic control to take care of starting just wire a simple switch across the r terminal & w terminal and just wire a power cord I would like to add some burners use a weird controller and drive the blower motor at 55 volt with a pmw , they are just built complicated for nothing the standard just use a 120 volt motor and a 120 VAC ignition transformer and a simple control box for starting the only problem would be making sure the cad cell can see the flame or else it will never start .
2k4u6 years ago
AWESOME. Instructables has been needing a good, in-depth WVO/WMO tutorial. There's one other one, but it's kinda vague. Nice job, and thanks a bunch for giving a link to mine. I'm making propane reil type burner + new furnace, then I'll be on to waste oil eventually. Keep up the good work.
Ferrite6 years ago
Nice!
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