The abacus is a calculation tool that works by sliding beads along columns to represent numbers and to compute arithmetic. Almost any sliding tool used to record calculations can be called an abacus, and over the years there has been many iterations and adaptations of this classic calculator.

For centuries the abacus ruled as*the *calculator for traders and merchants the world over. Today, much of the world now embraces new technology and the once mighty abacus has been replaced with solar-powered calculators and excel spreadsheets. Yet in some places, the abacus is still used as a learning tool for elementary school students and as a method of calculation for traders.

Though many cultures have used the abacus throughout the years, the two most common types that exist today are the Japanese abacus (called soroban) and the Chinese abacus (called suanpan). The main difference between the two is the Japanese abacus has one row of beads on the top deck where the Chinese has two rows, allowing the suanpan to compute to hexadecimal.

This abacus is modeled after the**suanpan**.

If you're in the mood to nerd it up, check out some of the other types of abaci used over the years.

The simplicity of this 'computer' belies the complexity of computations achievable. Word on the street is there are techniques to solve for square and even cube root using the abacus!

_{(this instructable also covers elementary arithmetic, jump to step 7 to see.)}

enough talk, let's abacus!

For centuries the abacus ruled as

Though many cultures have used the abacus throughout the years, the two most common types that exist today are the Japanese abacus (called soroban) and the Chinese abacus (called suanpan). The main difference between the two is the Japanese abacus has one row of beads on the top deck where the Chinese has two rows, allowing the suanpan to compute to hexadecimal.

This abacus is modeled after the

If you're in the mood to nerd it up, check out some of the other types of abaci used over the years.

The simplicity of this 'computer' belies the complexity of computations achievable. Word on the street is there are techniques to solve for square and even cube root using the abacus!

This instructable is entered in the Dadcando Family Fun Contest^{Remember to vote for your favourites!}

enough talk, let's abacus!

The abacus is placed flat on a table with the columns of 5 beads towards you. The abacus is 'reset' when all beads are pushed away from the center bar.

The upper deck of 2 rows of beads are called*heavenly beads*

The lower deck of 5 rows of beads are call*ed **earthly beads*

The beads are counted by moving them up or down towards the centre bar, the abacus is read from__left to right__ and each column corresponds as a zero placeholder (each column can represent a factor of 10). The decimal location is defined by use, or can be marked on the frame (a low-tech option would be an elastic around the frame to indicate your decimal).

The earthly beads (lower deck) are counted up to reach 5, to continue counting one heavenly bead (upper deck) is pushed down to represent 5 and the remaining earthly beads are pushed back down and counted up once again to reach 10. The process is continued on to the next column.

_{(using the second row of beads in the upper deck is covered in step10).}

The upper deck of 2 rows of beads are called

The lower deck of 5 rows of beads are call

The beads are counted by moving them up or down towards the centre bar, the abacus is read from

The earthly beads (lower deck) are counted up to reach 5, to continue counting one heavenly bead (upper deck) is pushed down to represent 5 and the remaining earthly beads are pushed back down and counted up once again to reach 10. The process is continued on to the next column.

thank you vwry much it was very easy to learn........very helpful..... i was searching his kind of hepl for many days

What is the plural of abacus?

<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abacus#Etymology">The preferred plural of abacus is a subject of disagreement, with both <em><strong>abacuses</strong></em> and <u><strong>abaci</strong></u> in use.</a><br>

I prefer abaci. It has a certain je nais quois.

On dit "Je ne sais quoi" :P

X-mas gift for my Dad!!, don't tell him though.

Would it be possible to use heavy string/shoelace instead of wire; and string it through, tennis racket style?

Consider that continuous use will cause friction wear on fabric, but it should work. try it out and let me know!

I can imagine walking up to one of my nerdy friends and say, <br>"You've got a pocket calculator? WELL I HAVE A POCKET ABACUS!!! You just got served."

This is awesome. I have a brass pocket-sized abacus, but I never knew what to do with it. This is a great idea, though<br><br>Somehow, I'll figure out how to make this into a baby toy (maybe by altering those pop-chain beads)... since the two geekiest people I know are having a baby. I'm smart, I'll work it out.

Thank you!<br>For years I've wondered how this thing worked. Never got around to looking it up online. Never dawned on me that it was like counting in binary numbers. I do that all the time. Like the words....<br>Thank you!<br>In binary would look like this.<br>01010100 01101000 01100001 01101110<br>01101011 00100000 01111001 011 01111<br>01110101 00100001 00000000 00000000<br><br>:0)<br>

you might want to add the youtube videos of people setting records with these!

This is calculator of future :) .

Waaaaaaaaaaay cooler than carrying a calculator. Nice!!

In step 7, 218.25 is represented on the bottom and the sum, 248.37 is on the top. I think you meant for the images to be swapped so the addition looks right. I read a short book on abacus operation and you might want to mention that digit-wise operations are often learned through rote memorization. For instance, 3+4 is a matter of two quick flicks that yield the result 7. You can increment by 1's to accomplish the same thing, but you'll learn to memorize quick enough.

step 7 image fixed, thanks for the heads up! Like many things, memorization and repetition are the keys to success. Good tip!

might be a good idea to include a slider to keep track of the decimal point. Still an excellent 'ible.

agreed, already noted in Step 1 <em>"The decimal location is defined by use, or can be marked on the frame (a low-tech option would be an elastic around the frame to indicate your decimal)."</em>

The ancient version of the calculator watch :D

Cool idea! Great job!