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A clear bowl isn't going to absorb much heat, a darker solid colored bowl would be better. The more heat absorbed, the more evaporation, the more distilled water.The same basic principle can also be done in wilderness conditions with a hole and a trashbag.
This is not correct. Salt water has a lower freezing point, but will require less energy to warm up, thus adding salt would do the opposite of what you are recommending.
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Authentic BBQ Ribs - Low and Slow