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First, the voltage into the buffer opamp is limited by the calmping diode to between 0V and 5V (actually, maximum one diode drop below/above thos values). The output of the buffer opamp can conly swing rail to rail, i.e. will never go beyond 0V and 5V, so the following device input (of the PGA) will never see values outside that range. The 10x gain is only true if the input to the 10x stage is small enough, larger values get clipped.
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