I need to use very basic materials to build a greenhouse.
I've found one way to make a cheapy-but-a-goody greenhouse. It will take a pallet (4'x4'), velcro, staple gun, and some kind of heavy plastic that you can find at walmart or hobby lobby in the fabric section. You take four boards of equal length and make a square. Repeat and you have your two ends. Place two boards at the base and two at the top to join and you have a nice cube. Wrap the plastic over the three sides leaving an open bottom. Cut two more for the ends. Staple the plastic to the frame on all sides except the front. Staple the top of the plastic to the top of the frame. Then place your velcro along the sides of the plastic and frame so it will close securely. You really don't need a vent for this style, plus it's portable, so as the seasons change, you can move it for the best sunlight. To turn it into a coldframe, use clear bubble wrap on the inside. It works well for insulation and lets light in.
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one thing - the greenhouse may get to quite high temperatures. make sure they are not too high for the plants and that there is no excessive mechanical strain on the cover plastic - it can warp and tear if too hot. there are some pots made of bad plastic that melts in the hot air of greenhouse too (i had few that warped to unusable shape in few days from just being in the sun)
If you don't need to be in there as well, just put poly bags over the plants. Dry-cleaner bags will work for anything up to small trees.
Easy. get some scrap wood , make a rectangular prism, cover it with something clear, put it in the sun ,and do whatever. You can try putting potted plants in with some thermal mass or somthing.
There are several on instructables. Just look in the "related" section to the right or search for greenhouse above and to the right.
The only basic requirement is a transparent material and a frame. I've seen farmers just spread a roll of cheap poly plastic over a row of (staked) plants. Good luck.