Instructables
Picture of Custom records for a 70's toy record player
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I recently stumbled across and old toy record player made by Fisher Price in the 1970s. I'm sure many of you will recognise this iconic toy and some of the older Instructables visitors may well have had one. As with many 40-year old toys, it was in a bit of a sad state and a couple of the records had been lost. Technology has moved on since it was manufactured and making some new records for it seemed like a nice way to merge old technology and new.

3D printing a record might seem like the obvious choice these days, but I decided to go with CNC milling.

Why a mill you ask? Not a laser cutter or a 3D printer? Well we can't use a laser cutter as the record needs slots in the surface but these don't go all the way through. Laser cutters are great if you don't need any partial depth cuts, but we do. 3D printing the record would seem to be a sensible choice and would definitely do the job. However, we will end up creating plastic pins around 1mm in size that trigger the music box hidden in the record player's arm. I was worried about whether the extruded plastic technique used by most printers would give it the required strength. That, and I don't have a 3D printer.

Also the CNC mill means I'm not limited to plastic. I can just as easily create the records from wood (a hardwood should be strong enough) or even metal, but let's start with plastic.

If you want to 3D print a record then my code will have to be adapted but it's all open and should be easy enough to convert. If I get a 3D printer then I'll definitely adapt the gcode generation part so that it can create the appropriate files for a printer. I'll be entering this in the "Make it Real" challenge, so you never know... In fact, if I win a 3D printer, I promise I'll update it so it can print records too. Anyway, what could sum up "Make it Real" more than taking something intangible like music and turning it into something physical.

UPDATE: I've now finished a 3D printed version of this project. As all but one of the steps are different, I've created a separate Instructable for it here. So if you don't have a CNC mill (that's everyone apart from rdarlington) then you can now create your own discs.

Continuing the spirit of Instructables, if you create the music and share it, I'll make it real for you. Download the music editor (see step 3) and send me the fpr file it creates. I'll pick the best, mill them and a send out some discs. I'm not very musical, so sure that it won't be hard do do better than my attempt. I have to limit it to 5 just because each one will take me a couple of hours to do.
 
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Step 1: What you'll need

Picture of What you'll need
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f you want to produce your own record you'll need a few things.

Firstly, you'll need a CNC controlled mill or router with a 1mm end mill. I understand that this is not exactly the sort of thing most people have lying around - but it should be! I bought a mill and converted for about £525 (€650 or $825) and it's been so useful for milling PCBs and creating random stuff like this.

If you're interested I've detailed my conversion in another Instructable here. Plenty of other people have documented their builds of this and similar mills too.

Secondly, you'll need a suitable sheet of plastic to mill. I used acrylic sheet in either 3mm (for single-sided record) or 5mm for a double-sided one. This easily available in A4 sheets that is enough to create 2 records. Another advantage of the mill is that we could make our records out of wood or even metal. Let's stick to acrylic for now though.

Step 2: Creating the blank

Picture of Creating the blank
Once you've got the necessary tools and materials, you'll need to download the attached gcode files. These files were created with CamBam CAD/CAM software and have the designs for creating the "blank" record that will fit on the player ready for your custom music to be added to it. I've also included the design files themselves. CamBam has a limited use demo version so feel free to view and play around with the design if you'd like.

The machining is defined with a 2mm endmill and 5mm acrylic sheet in mind. If you have these then the gcode files will be fine. If you want to use a different tool or different material thickness, you'll need to open up the CamBam files, set the tool size and/or stock dimensions. Then select Maching / Regenerate Toolpaths and Machining / Produce Gcode. CamBam will make any adjustments to compensate for the tool width. It's an excellent piece of software and I thoroughly recommend it.

Step 3: Editing your record

Picture of Editing your record
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You'll also need to download the attached music editing software. I've provided an executable but if you don't feel like running random software from the web you can also download the source code - compile it yourself or take a look how it works. It's all in C# so Visual C# 2010 Express is what you'll need.  This software will let you edit your tune and generate the custom gcode to engrave it on the blank acrylic sheet.

The software is admittedly pretty basic. It's not exactly sophisticated music editing software but the player is not exactly hifi equipment. It does the job and I hope you'll find it easy to use.

Click where you want to add a note and click again to remove it. Click on the blue + if you want to add a gap. Click on the red X if you want to delete some notes and shuffle everything up. Click the Play button to preview your tune.

The left hand side of the musical stave shows all the note that the player can play. You'll find they are most of the notes from a C major scale and cover about 2 octaves. There are no sharps of flats and a few notes are missing. I guess that's because the original 10 nursery rhymes it can play just didn't need them.

Once you've finished your masterpiece (or more likely transposed someone else's tune) it's time to create the physical product. Click "Build / Create GCode" in the editing software. Three gcode file will be churned out. The will engrave the musical track and cut out the disc. The gcode is just a text file with instructions for your CNC machine, but you can view the toolpath in CamBam if you've installed it.

Step 4: Milling your record

Picture of Milling your record
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If you're lucky enough to have a mill that can create the whole disc in one go use the file ending "...(Full).nc". This mills the whole disc in one go. Unfortunely my mill can only do about 8cm x 16cm, so I also split the gcode in two. The file "...(Part 1 of 2).nc" and "...(Part 2 of 2).nc" are for those of us will smaller mills! You need to mill the first, rotate the workpiece 180 degrees and mill the second.

An hour or two later, you will end up with a finished physical disc that you can pop on your record player and see how it sounds. Here's how mine turned out:


and I've also managed the Star Wars theme

and if you want to see the process in action, here's a thankfully short clip of it being milled

Step 5: How it all happened

Picture of How it all happened
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Well, that's the end of the Instructable, but I'm sure many of you are the naturally inquisitive type and don't just want to churn out a product using someone else's code. You want to know the how it was done!

The toy is simple enough. A quick inspection reveals that the "head" of the record player's arm is a tiny musical box with 22 metal gears. The record has 11 groves and pins on either side that operate one of the 22 notes. Each groove forms a circle so the tune repeats once per revolution - there's no spiral track like we used to have on real vinyl records. It did take quite a while with some digital calipers to accurately measure the position of all the grooves and the holes that locate the disc on the turntable. All these measurements you'll find either in the 3D models I used to create the record blanks or the code that generates the music information.

The modelling software I used is CamBam. This is ideally suited to creating a model of something you're going to mill. The gcode this outputs is used to create the holes for the locating pegs and the groove required (along with the outer edge of the record) to locate the player head. You can get a fully-featured but time limited version of CamBam from http://www.cambam.info/ if you want to view or edit this file.

Next, a very basic text file to gcode conversion gave me an initial test record with a "scale" that played each note in turn. This let me test out a proof of concept and see whether it was possible to create a playable record. It also showed that the music box "head" wasn't quite in line with the centre of the record - I had to shift everything a couple of millimetres. I won't bore you with the maths, but there were lots of radians, sines and cosines involved. Check out the source code for details.

It also made it easier to work out what notes were available and what each pin represented. The box is not exactly hifi standard and with some help from a more musical friend we managed to work out that the 22 tracks are as follows working from the inside. The first 7 pins are D#, G#, A#, C#, D#, F, G. Then the follow 12 pins actually have each note repeated twice. Whether this is for durability (as these are used often) or a way for notes to be repeated in quick succession without jamming, I'm not sure. These are G#, A#, C, C#, D#, F. Finally we have G, G# and A#. This gives us most of 2 octaves from a G# major scale with a couple of extras at either end.

Finding music to put on the record in G# Major was going to be tricky so if this is transposed to a far more common C Major scale we can consider these to be: G, C, D, E, G, A, B, C x 2, D x 2, E x 2, F x 2, G x 2, A x 2, B, C, D. That's what I used in the music editor (no flats or sharps - very handy) and the preview.

So now we can try to get something a little less painful on the ears onto our shiny plastic disc. If you're at all musical you may find my music editor offensively basic. However it seems to do the job. You wouldn't believe the smile on my face when I finally heard a recognisable intro to "Stairway to Heaven" (as banned in all good guitar shops) coming from my little toy...

If you create your own record, please let me know. It would be great to hear that someone else found this useful. I'm also more likely to tweak the software if I know it's being used.
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i remember these when i was younger, great idea to do your own disks.

yodle123 months ago

Wow, you are my hero!

This is a ton of fun! The only problem I'm having is that I need to export the cambam file as a dxf and then import it into VCarve to geneate a .tap file for my CNC router. I find when I do that it doesn't recognize the shapes as vectors. It works fine when I draw the shapes in cambam myself, but when I import the gcode (.nc) file produced by the little executable file , the .dxf file doesn't get read as vectors by vcarve. Any ideas? Thanks, and thanks so much for putting all of this out there for us.

Gord

J-Five1 year ago
One question what the heck is a record???
my self esteam went up to 99 out of 100
fred27 (author)  J-Five1 year ago
If you had one of these back in the 70s then you'd know!

Actually, considering the music is digitally encoded in pits engraved on a small disc you could probably say that this is a very early CD.
J-Five fred271 year ago
I know that i was just joking around.
clcok5111 year ago
someone get the 3d instructions for the toy too!!! that would be cool thanks!
jalba1 year ago
*MIND BLOWN* :)
make a dubstep one and film it and share it :)
mgrunwel1 year ago
OMG! I remember haivng one of these as a kid. This is an epic ible.
Sleez1 year ago
you could also possibly make these with photoeching techniques???
fred27 (author) 2 years ago
OK - so there were a few people who'd prefer 3D printing to CNC milling and I can announce that this is now on!

I can't add links in comments, but you'll find a link to a new Instructable on the first page - or copy and paste this.
http://www.instructables.com/id/3D-printing-records-for-a-Fisher-Price-toy-record-/
rdarlington2 years ago
Don't try this at home! At least not before giving the gcode a good edit. Rapids in the middle of very slow cuts with a tiny 1mm cutter means you're buying more till you fix the code. Also, the "full" code will cut your record in half if you can get that far. Last several lines in the file need to be removed. Attached is the progress I made before giving up. I switched to the next smallest cutter I had and it was way too big for the project but at least didn't snap. My machine is not small and rapids on this thing are easily 120 inches per minute. Beware!
fred27 (author)  rdarlington2 years ago
Sorry to hear that you broke a cutter. I took a look and found the problem. Whilst the code that generates the files is OK, I'd left an old gcode file in there that had the problems you describe.

I've now updated this and there shouldn't be any issues but if anyone is using this please check before you mill! I tried my best and it worked for me but I'm fairly new to this.

CamBam is what I used to view and it helped a lot. I had some bugs where notes were packed so close that the second one started before the first finished and the "backwards" arcs my code created gave some large circles.
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I need to get a record player to finish it off. Don't know the hole spacing and sizes in the middle.
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In addition to the above fixes (M3, M5, M6, etc) I did a global search and replace for "G0 X" to "G1 X". This leaves the Z axis still at G0 but fixes all X/Y moves so they run at a more manageable speed. If I had to do it again, I'd probably change all the G0's to G1's, then go back and put back the G0 (rapid) command for any Z axis going above the material. Probably not a good idea to do a rapid down into the plastic but so far it hasn't snapped my larger cutter. When I do this again with a 1MM cutter, you can be sure I'm going to only do rapids on a Z axis retraction and anything above the material being cut.
elmorse2 years ago
This is absolutely fantastic. Do you take orders? :)
timmmmyboy2 years ago
I would love to figure out how to modify this code to generate a full 3D file of the disk rather than the Gcode for a CNC mill. Mostly because I'd like to test printing one of these with a 3D printer. Would that be difficult to do?
fred27 (author)  timmmmyboy2 years ago
I was lucky enough to win a Up 3D printer in the Make it Real contest. Once it arrives I'll look into creating STL files for 3D printing the records. If you want to have a go in the meantime, then that's great. My C# code is all open and shouldn't be too hard to follow.

The code first works out the polar coordinates of the pins. The gcode files are just text so that wasn't too hard to generate from this. I would expect that the next step for 3D printing would be to start with a "blank disc" STL file and to add the appropriate pins by adding shapes to the drawing as required. I've no experience of creating STL files in code (yet) but will update this Instructable with my progress.
Awesome that you won the 3D printer! I'll dig into the code a bit but I won't pretend to be an experienced programmer by any means. I'm on a Mac so I'll have to find a Windows computer to play with it. A lot of programs I see that generate STL files do it using a combination of custom code working alongside OpenSCAD (best recent example is OmNomNom Creator http://www.thingiverse.com/thing:24639 which generates STL files from bitmap images. Might be a decent starting point. I'll play around a bit more, I think it's definitely something people could get real use out of, and I already bought a vintage Fisher Price record player to play with it.
noahw2 years ago
This project really inspires me. I'm so glad you made this and decided to post it on our site. Let me know if there's anything I can ever do to help support you.
fred27 (author)  noahw2 years ago
Thanks. It's been great creating this and even better getting it out there and seeing people's reactions to it.

I've been checking out Instructables for a while If I'd known it was this much fun I'd have got round to posting something before. There are a few other things I hope to get written up soon.
fred27 (author) 2 years ago
I can confirm that these custom records also play on the "Merry go round" version of this record player. The records are played from underneath so have to be placed the other way up.

For double sided discs this means that the engraved description is for the other side! This is obviously the same if you play the original discs on the "wrong" player too,
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timarnold2 years ago
That is awesome! I had one of these as a kid and loved it. The custom discs are amazing!
Tomdf2 years ago
Very clever idea and great execution! I think you should modify it to play disks that can fit a whole song. I'm sure they wouldn't be much bigger than meter across :p
fred27 (author) 2 years ago
Just thought I'd let you know how things stood with "send it to me and I'll mill you a disc" giveaway...

I've had "You are my Sunshine" by peakfrean that'll be heading his way soon.

MantisFang and FaceInTheBooty have created original compositions and asked for me email address to send them to me, but I've not received anything yet.

kelprecords would like to get something from one of the artists on his record label out on the latest and greatest audio format. (Who needs MP3s and iPods? This is the future.) He's working with the editing software now and I'll be very interested to see what he comes up with.
fred27 (author)  fred272 years ago
Could HILOTRONS be the first band ever to release a single in the Fisher Price format? I've got the file from kelprecords and the finished disc should be on its was to Canada soon!

http://kelprecords.com/hilotrons/
Nadine232 years ago
These are awesome.
samuraijack2 years ago
you sir are awesome.
fred27 (author) 2 years ago
I've now also managed to get it playing the Star Wars theme



This definitely shows up the limits of the player. You can see where it's trying to play some repeated notes quickly and they're not one of the "doubled-up" ones. The music box trips up and skips a little.
Make a Star Wars music disk!!!!
fred27 (author)  captain Jack2 years ago
Thanks for the suggestion! I've now managed to get this playing.

Have you got one of these record players? If so, drop me a message with your address and I'll mail you a copy.
fred27 (author)  captain Jack2 years ago
Great idea. I just had a quick go, but there are some notes it can't manage and it sounded a bit off.

And you know how particular Star Wars fans are - I'm afraid if I create a version with a few bum notes I'll have legions of them after me.
My parents still have this player with all of the original discs!! Now they don't have to worry about breaking the old discs if I can convince them to get me a small mill and let me put it in their garage...
This is crazy...in a good way. Absolutely love it!
I agree, wonderful!
zwells2 years ago
This is a 70's toy????? i had one when i was 3 know I almost can drive
Ayce zwells2 years ago
It was most likely your parents toy then. I had one of these when I was younger as well but I was born in 1978. I think it must have been one of my brothers toys originally.
chabias2 years ago
Most excellent!! 5*
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