I've been looking forward to the arrival of electric car technology. Not just for the smooth quiet power, wide torque range, cheap running costs and minimal maintenance, but to design and build cars to take advantage of the simplicity and flexible packaging offered by electric technology. Some new knowledge and skills of battery and electric drive systems are required, but once you have an understanding of this, putting it all together is much simpler and quicker than using a petrol or diesel drivetrain. Why? The motors and controllers come ready to bolt on and plug together and all the sensors required are usually built into the motor.  Cooling systems, fuel storage and pump, gearbox, differential, exhaust system and complex wiring harness are not required. There are a few more components required to deal with high voltage electrical power, but other than this, it is really not much more complex than building a radio controlled electric car. With less complex mechanical systems to worry about, building your own car has become more achievable and more fun.
Electric car components have been available for a while now.  A friend converted his first electric car 10 years ago then changed it to lithium batteries 6 years ago. The technology is now becoming more readily available, costs are coming down and performance is increasing and this trend is set to continue.
Why build your own? Because you can and it is great fun to build a very light, simple car reasonably inexpensively.  It is a heap of fun to drive and has excellent performance because of the light weight.  Buggies, gokarts, grass roots racers and kit cars such as Lotus 7 clubman style car that is still going strong since the 60's have spurned their own industries.  Electric cars bring new opportunities for a fresh look at homegrown performance.
Concept and Design
This Instructable provides a summary of a basic layout for an EV platform that suits a wide range of applications and can be easily tuned with different size motors, batteries, gearing and size. It demonstrates a simple and compact system with a low centre of gravity that is strong, stiff and straightforward to build. The Instructable does not go into the design and fabrication of bodywork, I will leave this to others and your imagination. It is pretty easy to see that this rolling chassis is very flexible in the bodywork it could accommodate, but keeping the body light will maximise performance and range.
Key Design Parameters
When designing a new car platform from scratch, there are a lot of choices. A lot of thought and design effort has gone into keeping the design as simple, light weight and very easy to build - simpler than a Locost or clubman style car.
I will get straight to the point here and outline some of the key design features and why.
Drive - Rear wheel drive, one electric motor powers each rear wheel. Eliminates the need for a differential and CV joints.
Motors - AC Induction. Have good torque over wide speed range. Simple and robust with a motor controller for each motor. Mounted inboard.
Batteries - Large lithium cells. I used 45 Lithium cells for a total of 148V and 100Ah. This needs to be matched to the motors and controllers. This is a relatively small pack compared to production EV's vehicles but is ample for a car that is light and is not used for long range driving. Keeping the battery pack size down helps keep down the vehicle weight and cost. My large lithium cells are good for a peak current draw 3 to 5 times the rated hourly figure above (3C to 5C). Lithium polymer cells are available that have a higher energy density and will do much higher peak currents than this and they are commonly used in model cars and planes, but at present the large lithium cells are a lot more economical for larger packs and the 3C peak current is not a major limitation unless you need a high peak demand such as for drag racing.
Chassis - Folded aluminium box. The batteries are contained in the box which also handles all the vehicle loads. This is the key to a simple, light and very easy to construct car. It provides a high level of strength and stiffness from a very simple and light structure.
Suspension, Steering and Brakes - Double wishbones were used and they are the best choice for a number of reasons including lower height for maximum flexibility in body design, height adjustable again for flexibility in body styles and optimum handling performance. There are numerous vehicles that can be used to source suspension and steering components. I used parts from a Mazda MX5 (Miata) which has front and rear wishbone suspension and rear wheel drive so all the parts could be obtained one source. It also has 4 wheel disc brakes and a straightforward steering rack. Using mass produced parts helps streamline the project, keeps costs down and ensures that these important items are robust and reliable.
Gearbox - Nil. The electric motors have such a wide torque range that they will operate effectively with one fixed gear. I use a toothed drive belt at a ratio between 1:3 and 1:5 for smooth quiet and maintenance free transmission. A chain drive would also be ideal and would be lighter and cheaper but a little noisier.
Weight - The weight of the EV platform including motors and batteries is approx 500kg. Major components of the weight come from the batteries (150kg), wheels and suspension (140kg) and motors (118kg).
Vehicle Platform - A vehicle platform is basically rolling chassis with drivetrain installed. It is drivable and just needs some bodywork to complete the package. I avoid any body styling discussion in this Instructable and rather present a very flexible platform that will suit a range of body styles.
Driving the Car  -  With one gear and heaps of torque (300Nm from the twin motors) Driving is simple and effortless and the car rapidly gains speed and without a body the sensation of speed is greatly exaggerated.

Step 1: The Chassis

The chassis is one of the few items you need to fabricate. The majority of items are sourced and attached to the chassis. We use a pressed aluminium box from 3mm thick aluminium sheet that doubles as the main structural spine and the battery box. The approach keeps fabrication very simple, maximises rigidity, keeps the weight low down and concentrated in the centre of the car and keeps the battery pack away from damage in impacts.

One of the disadvantages of using a thin walled box section is that large concentrated loads cannot be applied directly to the aluminium walls. This is easily overcome by using tubular steel subframes or bulkheads to spread loads. The tubular steel subframes are relatively small and are not difficult to fabricate.

Aluminium Box
The chassis box requires a large press to bend up. Because it's a simple box, your local metal roofing supplier should be able to supply the material cut and pressed to size.. I sourced a 3m long box, 270mm high x 300mm wide made from a single 1.2m x 3m x 3mm sheet complete with lid for $300.
The width of the box is wide enough for 4 batteries across plus a thin ply lining. The ply lining helps to protect the batteries, stop any drumming noise being transmitted through the chassis, ensures rivet heads don't rub on the sides of batteries. Attach the lining to the aluminium chassis using sikaflex automotive or marine polyurethane flexible sealant/adhesive.
Note that the lip on the aluminium box serves not only as a place to fix the lid, but also strengthens the structure when the lid is not fixed in place.

Inside the chassis box, a series of bulkheads, either aluminium or ply plates are fitted. The bulkheads have a number of functions. They support the chassis box against buckling, support batteries from acceleration and deceleration loads (including an impact) and provide reinforced mounting points for heavy components such as motors and seat frames or floor.

The box also needs a lid that can be opened to access batteries, but it needs to be securely fastened as an integral structural part of the box. While riveting would give a quick and strong attachment, it is not suited to testing and development requirements of a custom vehicle. A suitable alternative to using rivets is using rivnuts and socket screws. 6mm to 8mm rivnuts and screws are suitable. They should be spaced reasonably close and stainless rivnuts and screws are not recommended as the threads tend to bind. I have used 6mm socket screws at a spacing of 50mm. I do not recommend using stainless socket screws and rivnuts, having learned the hard way when several of the socket screw threads binding and needed to be drilled out and replaced.

A drawing showing dimensions for a chassis box is shown above along with an Autodesk Inventor rendering showing the basic chassis layout. The chassis box design is optimised 45 CALB 100Ah lithium cells fitted four wide.

Suspension Subframes
External subframes that slide over the box section are used to mount the suspension. The subframes are welded up from 25mm x 1.6mm steel box section. They are attached to the aluminium box using structural rivets from inside the box. An angle attachment for your drill or a right angle drill is essential for drilling the rivet holes this and a pneumatic riveter is needed to apply sufficient pressure to set a structural rivet as you will not fit a large manual style riveter inside the box.

Structural rivets such as Megalock Rivets should be used for attaching subframes. In Australia they will probably need to be sourced from a specialist supplier such as Profast. At the time of writing there was limited availability of structural rivets on Ebay, but suppliers such as Profast will post out supplies. A pneumatic riveter is available online starting from under $100 and is needed for the higher pressures required to set structural rivets, particularly in confined spaces.

The front and rear subframes mounted to the chassis box are shown above. The suspension mounting points are visible in the photos. The angle of the outer members matches the suspension mounts.
<p>This is a great post indeed. You probably want to try this book which shows you how to make your car run forever without recharging the battery. It really works:</p><p> http://www.ivantic.net/Energija/fuelless_engine_50-350hp.pdf</p>
<p>If you are working against the principles of the Law of conservation of energe ,then you will definately end up wasting your time,energy and money.</p>
I believe there is a motor in existence that runs on hydrogen, and refuels from hydrogen present in the atmosphere. My dad and I debated whether or not that falls into the category of perpetual motion, but regardless, mechanical failure aside, it could 'run forever' without the user physically refueling. It does require fuel, but it auto-refuels- sort of like if your gas car could draw petrol from the ground while you drive!
<p>The amount of hydrogen in the atmosphere is about 0.00005% so you would need 2,000,000 litres (or gallons) of air to extract one litre (or gallon) of hydrogen. It you were using 10 litres per hour and and your extraction efficiency was 50%, you would need to process 40,000,000 litres of air per hour or 11,000 litres per second. </p>
Or... Use water electrolysis... But that would just defeat the whole purpose since it would probably take more energy to do water electrolysis than just use the energy directly.
<p>yup, an efficient way to separate water into H H O is still not likely to happen. if it took less energy to separate it than the energy you are getting, it would be in violation of thermodynamics. if there was simply a low loss method, then at some point hydrogen could be a viable fuel but from what i have seen, its still a ways from being a reality.</p>
<p>yup, an efficient way to separate water into H H O is still not likely to happen. if it took less energy to separate it than the energy you are getting, it would be in violation of thermodynamics. if there was simply a low loss method, then at some point hydrogen could be a viable fuel but from what i have seen, its still a ways from being a reality.</p>
<p>Make an R/C version first as proof of concept. I highly doubt it will work, but no harm trying.</p>
<p>I'm pretty sure that if this worked, it would be breaking one of the fundamental laws of nature, the Law of Conservation of Energy.</p><p>Suffice to say, I'm skeptical.</p>
<p>According to Stephen Hawking, all you need to beat conservation of energy is a Big Bang. Should be simple enough.</p>
<p>I am 100% positive that the Fueless Motor you describe is bogus. No it does not work because devices which power themselves would fall into the category of Perpetual Motion and as a previous poster said, it would contradict the Law of Conservation of Energy.</p>
<p>You would not be able to license it for road use in the US though, you'd have to make it a 3-wheeler</p>
<p>that is not entirely true, people scratch build cars all the time, its a matter of getting the proper rules for your state. in Idaho, you have to bring the major component receipts to the sheriffs dept to prove you didnt get them from stolen vehicles/parts. then they give you the papers to go to the DMV to finish the licensing and roadworthiness inspection.</p><p>things like crash ratings are only subjected to vehicle manufacturers, not home builders.</p>
From what I have seen i agree it would be easier to license as a three wheeler, but it doesn't make a lot of sense that it is easier to license a less stable, i.e. less safe vehicle.
<p>I see you are only using the rear wheels as powered wheels, why not use all 4 wheels as powered wheels? If you combine that with the use of an alternator connected by a belt to each rear wheel to help keep the batteries charged you would extend the distance you could drive. </p>
<p>powering all 4 wheels is ideal, but I haven't done so here to keep the drive train as simple as possible and to reduce cost. There is added weight, cost and complexity for powering the front wheels with CV joints and motors. The motors can also act as alternators so they do charge the batteries in regen which is more efficient than a separate alternator being driven constantly driven from the driveshaft.</p>
What I'm saying is that in the US (and more specifically in California), it is extremely difficult to license a home-built vehicle due to all the safety restrictions, no matter what kind of body you put on it. A 3-wheeler is registered as a motorcycle in many states. <br><br>As for the stability and safety issues, you simply have to look at other production 3-wheelers to know that a 1R2F vehicle like the T-Rex or the new Polaris Slingshot are just as stable as 4 wheel car. Now put the wheels the other way around and you're asking for trouble...
<p>Or use an existing platform as in DC Plasma Fiero and a Hybrid Fiero converted in 2009. But this project is a grounds up proof of concepts and do it yourself all the way fun project.</p>
This was not intended to be a completed car ready for licensing, rather it is the mechanical platform for a car complete with chassis, motors, batteries, steering and brakes ready for a body to be fitted. I have deliberately published without the body as I want the focus to be on the design of the chassis and drivetrain rather than how the body looks.
What if the engine took moisture from the atmosphere and then extracted the hydrogen from the water? And also how do you know how much hydrogen it needs to run... You say 'it would take x amount of air' but to calculate that you'd need to know the consumption rate of hydrogen. Ive seen what appear to be genuine examples of powerful engines running on pure h2o, assuming they're real, and the hydrogen is the fuel, one can imagine some super efficient condensermajiggy that can collect atmospheric moisture and keep you running. I gueeeeess if I had to top it off with a gallon of Poland Spring before I left the house, that'd be ok lol. Anything that runs on any kind of fuel has the potential to run out of that fuel so it can't be 'perpetual', but the idea of an engine equipped with a system to 'gather' it's own fuel is interesting. I think I read somewhere that one of the electric cars out there uses the friction created by braking to recharge the electric battery. If you could do that efficiently enough, you could have a self charging electric car that basically fueled itself. Probably gives oil stockholders nightmares!
That's so awesome! I've recently been looking into hydrogen fuel cells used in cars, and the best one so far is Toyota's Mirai. Although it's not a vehicle that can refuel itself with resources around it, once we have hydrogen refueling stations around the country, I think hydrogen fuel cell cars are the best they can come up with. That's probably why I like your idea... Have any thoughts about going in the industry? Hahaha
<p>I think you meant &quot;spurred&quot; not &quot;spurned&quot; when talking about the spinoff companies...?</p>
<p>Think he means &quot;spawned&quot; (created/caused to be created)</p>
<p>Would be cool to install a MultiSoundBomb on it :) </p><p><a href="http://www.multisoundbomb.com" rel="nofollow">www.multisoundbomb.com</a></p>
<p>How would you like unlimited battery? I have the solution and it is 18 years old. Car factories watch out, I got even tesla beat on this.</p>
<p><br><br>I'm still looking for some one to come up with a electric handycap van for my wife.</p>
<p>Wow...that is really cool. I've always wanted to have an electric car. There's nothing more satisfying than driving right past the petrol station...and the minimum maintenance is a super plus. I live in southern California...and don't have access to a place where I could build an electric vehicle. But I can dream...right? Nice car guys.</p>
<p>In the update on step 6, do you mean 0.74kWh/km?<br><br>Because if you mean 0.74Wh/km, your range is &gt;20,000km.<br><br>Also, have you noticed any handling issues arising from your lack of a differential?</p>
It probably handles great... or it may also act as if it was operating on a straight axle... if you had a seperate controller for each engine and added two potentiometers (one for left cut and one for right cut) into the stearing system feeding from the accelorator pedal split between each controller you could have turn controlled acceloration... like turn the wheel right and the right wheels motor cuts back to maintain traction while the left wheel maintains 100% corasponding to the accelorator and visa versa for a left turn. It would also help the action of cornering and could be applied to braking as well... you don't want the motors to drag the wheels too much into a corner especially on a wet surface.
Generally motor drag can be controlled in the form of proportional regenerative braking (Ganhaar, care to comment on regen?).<br><br>You also bring up the concept of traction control. Does this vehicle have any kind of traction control?
Also with regards to the diff query it is a good question and there was a debate about this issue on the Australian Electric Vehicle forum (AEVA) about this very issue before I built the car and a few people though it would create issues but in practice it works perfectly and the characteristics of the motors are such that the motor with less torque rotates faster, thus they self regulate perfectly and no issues. Even if the throttles are not set evenly they balance themselves fine.
I actually missed where you said you had 2 motors; as long as you are contrilling them separately (which you are), that does provide a differential effect. <br><br>That said, have you considered differentially controlling the motors to give you torque vectoring?
<p>Definitely, but I was going to try this first on the gokart where it is a bit safer if I get th e algorithms wrong. I'm currently using two throttles that are mechanically linked (potentiometer type, 0-5V output to motor controller) and I can't see why you couldn't put an Arduino in series with a single throttle to reproduce the throttle outputs. You wouldn't even need fancy sensors, just a speed sensor for each motor and if the differential speed went over a certain level you would cut back the voltage on the throttle for that motor. It should work just the same with four motors.</p><p> I had some discussions on this with AEVA Forum members but they recommended not to use an Arduino and much better to use the CAN BUS which most production cars use and is also built into the motor controller but that was where they lost me.</p>
Well spotted it should be 0.74Ah/km. <br><br>I did an update about a year ago and measured energy consumption over normal driving on gravel roads and am achieving 0.74Ah/km or 106Wh/km
<p>Hey mate, I have seen this before.<br></p><ul> <br><li>45 x CALB CA100FI cells with CM090 cell modules and BCU-PEV-45C<li>Dual GLE IM15 AC induction motors, 150V 300A 6000rpm each<li>Belt driven rear wheels<li>vehicle weight &lt; 500kg</ul>
<p>Where abouts? Do you have a name or a link or somehow I can follow this up, I would be interested to see other similar projects and what sort of performance they are achieving.</p>
<p>We should use these to conserve our fuel reserve. I will make one in the future.</p>
<p>Way back when... I built a car from the ground up, intended for production from what was a rolling chassis of a medium size family car altered to take advantage of a &quot;Tradesman's market'. It was based around a 6 cyl rear wheel drive vehicle.</p><p>It was originally supposed to have an Aluminum body... That's where I came into it but by the t5ime they engaged me, they already had wooden molds made to create the body in Fiberglass.</p><p>Quite apart from the lack of consideration for weight, the body - complete with luxury leather interior and hand made steel engine cover/radiator surround, the body was surprisingly light at just over 450 Kg. </p><p>I think with today's stretch forming technology (forming aluminum to complex shapes) it would be entirely possible to build an aluminum body for this vehicle amazing vehicle using vertical hinged doors that would weigh very little. Even in sedan configuration.</p><p>The future of transportation propulsion is most decidedly is either Steam or Electricity. Because of the reduced dangers of using electricity, recycled steam may remain locked away in the Australian Patent office.</p><p>Building a EV is only armchair dreaming for me now but I still have all the knowledge of how to build a lightweight, good looking body ready for production. Maybe I was born 50 years too soon!</p>
I saw an article on a steam car built in south australia maybe 20 years ago - a small sports car with a small piston engine directly driving the rear axel, no gear box. A small flash boiler reduced the safety problems of a steam vessel. <br>More recently I have been thinking about how modern computer controls could be used to simplify and increase performance and efficiency, but I think getting away from burning a fuel which will improve air quality and less noise and complexity makes EV's the best power source to pursue.
<p>Total price?</p>
about $15k. Major costs are batteries $150 x 45 100Ah cells = $6750 and motors (with controllers) are about $3000 each.<br><br>Wheels, hubs, brakes, steering was only $500 because I bought a damaged car for $1500 and sold off engine, gearbox and computer for $1000.<br><br>Chassis was about $400 in materials including pressing the aluminium box.
<p>very cool Itd be cool to make one of these someday. would it be possible to have energy recovery where like, you have a motor on the front wheels but not being driven, so when you accelerate and the axle spins the motor produces electricity and puts it back into the battery? or a wind turbine-esque turbo?</p>
A generator creates drag when generating power. Try shorting out the three thick wires on a brushless motor and you will see how much drag that can be created. The extra drag created will be slightly more than the power generated as these things are not 100% efficient. Similar result with a wind turbine although it will generate energy from the wind. Sorry no free energy. Better idea is to connect your car to solar panels or a wind turbine when it is parked in the garage to recharge the batteries.<br>regards<br>Wayne
<p>Use solar panels or a wind turbine on the front of it. That way, it doesnt add drag to the wheels.</p>
<p>Wish it was that easy. Solar panel on the roof may generate 150 Watts max. Trunk and hood, maybe 300 - 400 watts? Running the motors will be much higher. There are solar car races out there. Those cars look nothing like a typical car and would never make it in regular traffic.<br><br>Wind turbine would cause a lot of drag, something the motors would need to overcome. Perhaps a huge tail wind?</p>
<p>Solar panels on the car - not enough surface area to make much difference. Wind turbine on the front - adds wind drag. Although there are races with cars that only run on their own solar panels, these are amazingly small and light vehicles that don't go very fast. Best thing to do is charge it in the garage - trying to make a perpetual motion machine that generates its own power isn't going to get you anywhere. If you want cheap power, put the solar panels on your garage. </p>
<p>I think there's some electric cars that have a solar roof, so it gains as much energy from the sun as possible, since the whole car is basically one big solar panel.</p><p>Not that you'd be able to implement that on an electric car you made in your garage for fun for less than a million dollars.</p>
I was thinking more along the lines of range boosting.
<p>Make it happen! I would first start with RC cars. You make an RC car run 'forever' you will have a hit on your hands with just that toy!</p>
<p>Great information!</p>

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