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Making Light from Magnetism: Electromagnetic Induction & the Bedini Machine

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Great discoveries are sometimes made by more than one person at the same time. Michael Faraday and Joseph Henry discovered the principles of electromagnetic induction at much the same time. Faraday published the results of his work in 1831, before Henry, and so gets the credit. Strange to say, many scientists of Faraday's time did not accept his findings, chiefly because he had no mathematics to back it up (Faraday's laboratory work was empirical and intuitive, and belonged to an older school of scientific research usually called Natural Philosophy). Alessandro Volta had invented the electric pile, or battery, in 1800. By 1820, Hans Christian Oersted discovered the first half of the link between electricity and magnetism when he found charged wires affected a compass needle. It remained for Faraday to close the loop when he showed how magnetism could be used to generate electricity. This was called electromagnetic induction, and it was another step on a long road of scientific and technological achievement that led to all of us sitting in front of computers, reading Instructables.com on the Internet.

Electromagnetic induction is the creation of potential difference (voltage) through a conductor when it is exposed to a varying or moving magnetic field. Faraday discovered this in the course of several famous experiments I will not detail here. This effect can be demonstrated with a simple coil of fine copper wire and a magnet, but that's not nearly as interesting as building a device that will generate electricity, charge almost any type of battery, light up a bright LED, and look cool while doing it. So for this project of Making Light from Magnetism, let me next introduce the Bedini SSG device.
 
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The rocker 1 month ago

Hi Paul,

Got some bigger magnet and took the tyre off, I am now getting more sounds out of the coil but, it still stops.

there is a humming every time a magnet passes the coil, it changes in intensity when I move the potentiometer.

I am wondering if my coil is not the problem, I put about 100m of wire around a 40mm PVC pipe and glued some plastic disks on the sides to make my spindle (could not find anything else), and I could only source 20 and 29 gage enamel coated coper wire. Do you think the 29 is too thin maybe.

Everything seems to be working I get about 17/18 volts when I connect my multimeter to the charging terminals, when disconnected from the charging battery, but the wheel always stops.

I am going on a mission to find the correct wire and a better spindle and make a new coil.

Thanks for your previous response, and very clear instructions, I will get there eventually.

Mr. Apol (author)  The rocker 29 days ago

Yes, it seems to be best practice to have wires about 3-4 gauges apart, rather than 9. Also, what is your gap between the magnets and the coil? It needs to be close, but not so close you hit the coil. About 1/8 inch to 1/16 inch is good (2-4 mm). Too large a gap and the magnets can't "catch" on the coil. I would recommend rewinding your coil with 20 and 24 gauge wire, check the gap, and try again. Good luck!

Mr. Apol (author) 1 month ago

The hum you hear at the higher pot settings is normal. It's feedback, Turn the potentiometer down as low as it will go until you get the wheel to sustain rotation. The flashing bulb is normal too if you disconnect the charging battery. It sounds like your circuitry is good. You just need to lighten your wheel and get some bigger magnets, I think.

Let me know how this turns out.

Paul

The rocker made it!1 month ago

hi

I have followed your plans but cannot get the motor to run, the wheel always stops

I get a humming sound or a flashing bulb when I disconnect the charging battery depending on which way I turn the potentiometer

I am using round ferrite magnet and a aluminum bicycle wheel

When connecting the multimeter to the charging connectors I get up to 19v but the motor always stops, the bearing are super loose and the wheel runs smoothly

Any advice to troubleshoot would be appreciated

image.jpg
Mr. Apol (author)  The rocker 1 month ago
Hmm, looking at your photo, I see a couple of problems. You should ditch the tire. It adds weight to the wheel you don't need. Next, the magnets are too small--physically too small. I can't see your coil, or what the diameter of the core is, but those are not very big magnets. They don't have the oomph to push that wheel. One of my early wheels had the same problem. I fixed it by installing bigger magnets.

Check all your electrical connections too. Low voltage DC connections can be finicky. Good luck and let us know how it works out.

Paul
Johnbedini2 months ago

An answer to some question about the Bedini SSG motor.

One must understand the theory of what the device attempts to perform.
The first thing we all must understand is the term Free Energy since everyone
building these device thinks it’s some kind of magical machine in a way it is
as it does some things that are not found in the common text. What you have
built here is an Energizer, Energizers perform two things, Motor functions and
generator functions all within the same machine. The Motor function is not
designed to be self-starting because it must set on the primary battery for use
without any input current until it starts. The motor section must be pulsed to
draw very little current you must think of this as someone on a swing where you
only give a little tap to keep them swinging and then they go over the top, so
it take very little energy. The second stage is a generator functions without
any Lenz effect or very little, meaning no counter EMF force. We are dealing
with two different types of energy the machine is outputting.The Motor section uses electrons or real
current from the battery and the second uses or generates no real current with
electrons.You can prove it by using a
.5 ohm resistor across the output in place of the secondary battery.Since your meter cannot measure this because
of the spikes you must convert it so that you can measure it the capacitor is
the answer because it can convert the spikes into real usable power that uses
electrons so normal circuits may be powered.

The most important part of the machine is the mechanical energy that
people do not use. That energy is around 23 to 40% so that must be added into
your figure when figuring the efficiency of the machine.If you notice by placing a load on the mechanical
output the current on the primary side will go down since we have no closed
flux path like a normal motor. Work performed under load without an increase in
input current means efficiency, conservation of energy.All energy changes form at some point and is
never lost you just must figure a way to use what it was converted to.Others have made the error of saying that the
COP of 10 to 1, not true as I only look for a COP of 1 or a 100% percent
conversion factor In the chemical reaction (The Battery}.

Radiant energy can be anything
it just does not apply to heat as the universe is filled with it in many
forms.If you have one battery and can
charge it with that change in energy why not add more batteries to the output
that is where the 10 to 1 comes from, and yes it is possible to do that since
you’re not dealing with normal electron current or very little. So how do we
get real power from the machine?What
you have built here is a repulsive motor function meaning the magnet is being
kicked out, that takes power and you will lose some energy doing that so let’s
think along different lines like re-gauging the motor coil function.

Let me say something here now about magnets do not use Neo magnets as
it will change the function of the Energizer and you will lose power output you
must keep from saturating the core material which must not retain its
Magnetismthat is why the use of welding
rod.Bolts do not work well for this
machine or ferrite cores. The Coil must be done very carefully and with the
correct amount of turn’s number 21 wires along with a number 23 for the
trigger, wires wound together for your experiment.The next thing is the base resistor which
must be chosen for the least amount of current 470 ohms would be the starting
point with a 22 Ohm pot for fine adjustment.If you free up the base current the machine will speed up for the most
generated spiked currentless output.

The coil acts like a varying electromagnet
where the Bloch wall moves to act as an energy pump so energy is sucked in and
compressed to give the high voltage which is a gain function of the inverted
amplifier circuit since we use the collector circuit and not the emitter of the
device. Back EMF does not apply to this circuit as Back EMF is always lower
than the battery voltage. Keep the current out of the circuit and the Radiant
high voltage will gain in potential. If you apply a potential to batteries they
will try to move up in voltage and they do that as the Ions gain charge and
start to move to the next plate in the battery. You want to move them without
work and this machine does that by building charge on the Ions in the battery,
works like a sail boat but without the electrical wind of the machine nothing
moves. The high potential causes this to happen, plain physics; the idea is the
use of currentless energy, just potential charge.

Ok, back to how to get the power, first flip the coil so the machine
runs in attraction instead of repulsion, why? Because you do not want to do any
work or waste energy pushing the wheel you want the wheel to be sucked in for
free and have the coil re-gauge the energy for nothing.Next you need to apply a Beta multiplier
filter circuit to the output of the diode that is zener controlled to no more than
30 volts that is going to filter all the spikes before they go to the capacitor
of your choice, I would use between 4700 to 10000 uf at 75 volts for this. Next
choose some type of linear regulator like a LM7805, 5 volts is the output this
would give the proper current for charging your cell phone battery and will
limit at 5 volts, the battery will do the rest.You cannot have any spikes on lithium batteries, lead acid does not care
be very careful with alkaline batteries. Now think all you do is multiply the
coils and the simple circuit for bigger batteries and your off and
running.No free energy here just
gathering all the normally wasted energy in a circuit and using a conversion
method to gain energy to power normal loads.Again the term free energy is an energy that cannot be measured with
normal meters so people think they discovered something. We must pay for
everything we do so why not just try to get as close to a COP of 1 as we can.
People love the term free energy so the unexplained is classified and this
calls out all the skeptics who believe the world is flat anyway so why argue
with any of them since they know everything.Just build the machine and discover science for yourself since there is
no absolutes’ in science anyway. We really know nothing only what we have been
taught but we really know nothing except what we can prove. Nature is full of
hidden secrets yet to be discovered.

You can find more advanced circuits by me and books and videos along
with Tom Bearden’s work on the internet if you search you may even find a
linear circuit people have made. The knowledge is out there you just need to
look. And do not believe everything you read.

THE
MACHINE IS LIMITED

I’m not allowed
to say anymore then this except some of the SSG machines have been taken away
from people. I’m not going to go into the reasons but if you discover anything
over the figures I have stated here then it is considered a national security
risk, and we all know what that means. My patent is very limited and only has the claims the big boys would
allow. Right now you have a few people discouraging your work on this project
you can tell by the comments. This is why you do not want to argue with the
skeptics as they will try and tell you to just use normal things and do not
look outside of the box for any answers.Again your free to experiment with any of the circuits that were posted
on

John B

Johnbedini2 months ago

An answer to some question about the Bedini SSG motor.
One must understand the theory of what the device attempts to perform. The first thing we all must understand is the term Free Energy since everyone building these device thinks it’s some kind of magical machine in a way it is as it does some things that are not found in the common text. What you have built here is an Energizer, Energizers perform two things, Motor functions and generator functions all within the same machine. The Motor function is not designed to be self-starting because it must set on the primary battery for use without any input current until it starts. The motor section mused be pulsed to draw very little current you must think of this as someone on a swing where you only give a little tap to keep them swinging and then they go over the top, so it take very little energy. The second stage is a generator functions without any Lenz effect or very little, meaning no counter EMF force. We are dealing with two different types of energy the machine is outputting. The Motor section uses electrons or real current from the battery and the second uses or generates no real current with electrons. You can prove it by using a .5 ohm resistor across the output in place of the secondary battery. Since your meter cannot measure this because of the spikes you must convert it so that you can measure it the capacitor is the answer because it can convert the spikes into real usable power that uses electrons so normal circuits may be powered.
The most important part of the machine is the mechanical energy that people do not use. That energy is around 23 to 40% so that must be added into your figure when figuring the efficiency of the machine. If you notice by placing a load on the mechanical output the current on the primary side will go down since we have no closed flux path like a normal motor. Work performed under load without an increase in input current means efficiency, conservation of energy. All energy changes form at some point and is never lost you just must figure a way to use what it was converted to. Others have made the error of saying that the COP of 10 to 1, not true as I only look for a COP of 1 or a 100% percent conversion factor In the chemical reaction (The Battery).
Radiant energy can be anything it just does not apply to heat as the universe is filled with it in many forms. If you have one battery and can charge it with that change in energy why not add more batteries to the output that is where the 10 to 1 comes from, and yes it is possible to do that since you’re not dealing with normal electron current or very little. So how do we get real power from the machine? What you have built here is a repulsive motor function meaning the magnet is being kicked out, that takes power and you will lose some energy doing that so let’s think along different lines like re-gauging the motor coil function.
Let me say something here now about magnets do not use Neo magnets as it will change the function of the Energizer and you will lose power output you must keep from saturating the core material which must not retain its Magnetism that is why the use of welding rod. Bolts do not work well for this machine or ferrite cores. The Coil must be done very carefully and with the correct amount of turn’s number 21 wires along with a number 23 for the trigger, wires wound together for your experiment. The next thing is the base resistor which must be chosen for the least amount of current 470 ohms would be the starting point with a 22 Ohm pot for fine adjustment. If you free up the base current the machine will speed up for the most generated spiked currentless output. The coil acts like a varying electromagnet where the Bloch wall moves to act as an energy pump so energy is sucked in and compressed to give the high voltage which is a gain function of the inverted amplifier circuit since we use the collector circuit and not the emitter of the device. Back EMF does not apply to this circuit as Back EMF is always lower than the battery voltage. Keep the current out of the circuit and the Radiant high voltage will gain in potential. If you apply a potential to batteries they will try to move up in voltage and they do that as the Ions gain charge and start to move to the next plate in the battery. You want to move them without work and this machine does that by building charge on the Ions in the battery, works like a sail boat but without the electrical wind of the machine nothing moves. The high potential causes this to happen, plain physics; the idea is the use of currentless energy, just potential charge.

Ok, back to how to get the power, first flip the coil so the machine runs in attraction instead of repulsion, why? Because you do not want to do any work or waste energy pushing the wheel you want the wheel to be sucked in for free and have the coil re-gauge the energy for nothing. Next you need to apply a Beta multiplier filter circuit to the output of the diode that is zener controlled to no more than 30 volts that is going to filter all the spikes before they go to the capacitor of your choice, I would use between 4700 to 10000 uf at 75 volts for this. Next choose some type of linear regulator like a LM7805, 5 volts is the output this would give the proper current for charging your cell phone battery and will limit at 5 volts, the battery will do the rest. You cannot have any spikes on lithium batteries, lead acid does not care be very careful with alkaline batteries. Now think all you do is multiply the coils and the simple circuit for bigger batteries and your off and running. No free energy here just gathering all the normally wasted energy in a circuit and using a conversion method to gain energy to power normal loads. Again the term free energy is an energy that cannot be measured with normal meters so people think they discovered something. We must pay for everything we do so why not just try to get as close to a COP of 1 as we can. People love the term free energy so the unexplained is classified and this calls out all the skeptics who believe the world is flat anyway so why argue with any of them since they know everything. Just build the machine and discover science for yourself since there is no absolutes’ in science anyway. We really know nothing only what we have been taught but we really know nothing except what we can prove. Nature is full of hidden secrets yet to be discovered.
You can find more advanced circuits by me and books and videos along with Tom Bearden’s work on the internet if you search you may even find a linear circuit people have made. The knowledge is out there you just need to look. And do not believe everything you read.


THE MACHINE IS LIMITED
I’m not allowed to say anymore then this except some of the SSG machines have been taken away from people. I’m not going to go into the reasons but if you discover anything over the figures I have stated here then it is considered a national security risk, and we all know what that means. My patent is very limited and only has the claims the big boys would allow. Right now you have a few people discouraging your work on this project you can tell by the comments. This is why you do not want to argue with the skeptics as they will try and tell you to just use normal things and do not look outside of the box for any answers. Again your free to experiment with any of the circuits that were posted on the internet.
Nature is very simple in the way she acts and is very tricky in her secrets.
John B

Mr AbAk4 months ago
Good Ible...
Majestic101104 months ago

Nice effort, I built a rather different version some 4 years ago, with huge success, my central rotating disc was 10" perspex with neo' magnets on the edge and sides giving 3 magnetic fields to produce power. My circuit had No Resistors (resistors are an inefficient design floor since energy is reduced and lost as heat.) I am building a scaled down version now and have some plans for greater efficiency ; I plan to use the back of the coil to drive a second rotor (the force is there why not use it to make more power?Thats another 3 more groups of coils with a 3 field rotor!) And also I have 4 Thermoelectric pads to pick up heat off of the coil and turn it into electricity. "Share your ideas for a better world, don't patent it, publish it"

entillmail6 months ago

thank you so much for this nice explanation. This is so important but so rare to actually get every detail specified and not just a blurry shaky view of some sketches on youtube from a dark shed somewhere. Thank you!

Mr. Apol (author)  entillmail6 months ago

You're welcome. It is frustrating to open a cool sounding project only to find scanty descriptions and inadequate pictures. I try to make mine as clear as I can.

PBT

baudeagle11 months ago

I think I spoke to you at the NC Maker Faire. Thanks for demonstrating these.

Mr. Apol (author)  baudeagle11 months ago
Thanks for coming by! I enjoyed the Faire a lot.

Paul
Eyvindr1 year ago

I was wondering... would it be possible to use a stepper motor to charge a capacitor to serve as the power supply, if you were able to create a generation of 12 V?

Mr. Apol (author)  Eyvindr1 year ago

The device will easily run on any DC power source up to 50 volts or so (which is the maximum rating of the transistor, as I recall). Best practice is to match the input with the output, though.

Awesome, thanks! I think I'm now onto my next project.

Charly_ZA1 year ago

Hi, what were the measurements of our magnets?

Mr. Apol (author)  Charly_ZA1 year ago

I'm not sure what you mean, but the strontium-ferrite ceramic magnets listed are rated "C8," which I believe is the strongest rating in their category.

Thanks. I'd really like to do this for a high school science fair that I have in about 5 months. I live in a small country and the variety/choice of available tools isn't great. If I can't find a spindle it looks like I'm going to need to 3D print it.

Would these N35 magnets work? They are circular (I know you said that the shape isn't important) and a bit smaller and thinner. I asked the seller of these magnets and he said that they are N35 but doesn't the N mean that it's Neodymium. It says that they are ceramic ferrite magnets.

Would this Neon light be fine? I'd have to make some modifications to the circuit board because they're not quite the same.

All help is really appreciated

Mr. Apol (author)  Charly_ZA1 year ago
Hello,

Those magnets ought to work. Make sure they they pass directly over the core of your bifilar coil. N35 is a strength rating for neodymium magnets, but the page clearly states they are ferrite.

The neon bulb is rather too fancy for your needs, though it will work. Try to find a bare Ne-2 bulb; they are about 10 cents (American) apiece.

Good luck with your project. Send me photos when you're done!

Paul

I will be sure to share some photos when I'm done. Thanks for all the help so far. I hope I don't bother you with all these questions. I'm going to use 21SWG and 25SWG cable. I hope that's fine.

Mr. Apol (author)  Charly_ZA1 year ago
No bother at all. If you have any problems, ask.

Paul
Mr. Apol (author)  Charly_ZA1 year ago

Or, if you mean how big are the magnets, they measure 1 7/8 (48) x 7/8 (22.5) x 3/8 (10) inches (mm).

Topteddy491 year ago
Go on! if I had four multi-meters there I would be measuring current voltage in and current voltage out. you're not telling me you're not giving it a try?
Mr. Apol (author)  Topteddy491 year ago

I've measured voltage in and voltage out, but it's not relevant to this build. The SSG's high voltage spikes, like most induction coils, trade amps for volts.

tealy1 year ago
Very good thanks for sharing that bud
So cool! I completely appreciate the history lesson associated with this Instructable, and am very inspired to make other cool stuff that incorporates aspects of this build! Thank you so much for the share.
Mr. Apol (author)  audreyobscura1 year ago
Thanks for the kind words. I'd like to hear about what variations, etc., you come up with!

Paul
cr8smthng1 year ago
Love your instructables, great way to teach my kids some scientific concepts. Got my vote!
Mr. Apol (author)  cr8smthng1 year ago
Thanks, I'm glad to hear that.

Paul
Kiteman1 year ago
So... you've built an electric motor to run a generator to power an LED?

You do realise you could have run banks of LEDs if you'd powered them directly from the batteries?
Mr. Apol (author)  Kiteman1 year ago
That's not the point. The point is to demonstrate electromagnetic induction. Also, the SSG recharges all sort of batteries usually considered un-rechargeable.
Hmmm, I'll withhold comment there.
Mr. Apol (author)  Kiteman1 year ago
Why? I've made it clear I do not endorse the claims made about the device. But in this form it powers the LED and charges batteries. That's all it's meant to do.
Which is why I withheld comment - now is not the time to argue about it.