## Introduction: Making Light From Magnetism: Electromagnetic Induction & the Bedini Machine

Great discoveries are sometimes made by more than one person at the same time. Michael Faraday and Joseph Henry discovered the principles of electromagnetic induction at much the same time. Faraday published the results of his work in 1831, before Henry, and so gets the credit. Strange to say, many scientists of Faraday's time did not accept his findings, chiefly because he had no mathematics to back it up (Faraday's laboratory work was empirical and intuitive, and belonged to an older school of scientific research usually called Natural Philosophy). Alessandro Volta had invented the electric pile, or battery, in 1800. By 1820, Hans Christian Oersted discovered the first half of the link between electricity and magnetism when he found charged wires affected a compass needle. It remained for Faraday to close the loop when he showed how magnetism could be used to generate electricity. This was called electromagnetic induction, and it was another step on a long road of scientific and technological achievement that led to all of us sitting in front of computers, reading Instructables.com on the Internet.

Electromagnetic induction is the creation of potential difference (voltage) through a conductor when it is exposed to a varying or moving magnetic field. Faraday discovered this in the course of several famous experiments I will not detail here. This effect can be demonstrated with a simple coil of fine copper wire and a magnet, but that's not nearly as interesting as building a device that will generate electricity, charge almost any type of battery, light up a bright LED, and look cool while doing it. So for this project of Making Light from Magnetism, let me next introduce the Bedini SSG device.

## Step 1: The Bedini Machine

Here's a short video of a Bedini SSG machine in operation. The early part is dark, as I left the lights off to better see the flashing LED. Some of the video is shaky, due to the use of a very small handheld digital camera.

John Bedini has had a long career in electronics and audio engineering. As the story goes, he designed a simple motor-generator for a friend's daughter to make as a school science fair project. This became know as his "School Girl" motor, later adapted as the "Simplified School Girl" (SSG) motor. Bedini has his own theories about energy which are not widely supported by scientists, but it is not my purpose to present his theories or criticize them. What the SSG device does is pretty clear, and that's what we're going to build. Though the SSG is under patent, anyone is allowed to build one for their own use. My version here is not endorsed by John Bedini, his company, or anyone but myself. I learned to build it after studying videos of working versions on the Internet, drawing on my own past experiments in building electrical projects at home.

MATERIALS LIST TO BUILD A 16 INCH BEDINI SSG MOTOR/GENERATOR

*1 16 x 1 inch aluminum bicycle wheel (no tire!). The rim can be plastic, spoked or spokeless, but it can't be steel. The rim must be non-magnetic.

*12 ceramic-ferrite magnets, preferably rated C8. (This is a rating of magnetic intensity.) I used rectangular magnets bought from a dealer on eBay, but you can get the same magnets from Radio Shack, Catalog #: 64-1895 or online. The magnets do not have to be any certain shape, but they ought to be large enough to affix to the inch-wide bicycle rim. Contrary to what you often hear and read, you do not have to use expensive neodymium magnets; in fact, in some applications they can be too strong for successful operation.

*1 1/2 inch wide, 14 or 15 inch diameter rubber bike wheel liner. These are sold to protect inner tubes from rubbing against the heads of the spokes.

*1 transistor. The common and cheap 2N3055 works fine. Other types will work as well, just make sure they can handle the voltage..

*1 potentiometer, with resistance varying between 1 Ohm to 5,000 Ohms. This will allow you to tune the device and regulate the speed of the wheel.

*2 diodes, 1 1N4001 and 1 1N4007.

*1 470 Ohm resistor.

*1 Ne-2 high voltage miniature neon bulb.

*a 3 x 6 inch piece of perforated circuit board, like this stuff. The exact dimensions are flexible, so long as you have room for all the components.

*about 300 feet each of two gauges of enamel coated magnet wire. The wire should be about 4 gauges different. I used 20 gauge and 24 gauge. Don't use too fine a gauge or the higher resistance may interfere with the proper function of the bifilar coil.

*1 coil form. I used an old plastic spindle formerly wound with speaker wire. It measures 3 inches in diameter and stands 3 inches high. The hollow center, which you will pack with iron to make an electromagnet, is 1 inch in diameter. Don't use a metal spool, or any spool with metal in it.

*Iron or steel wire, or thin rods to fill the core of the coil form. Many people building SSGs use welding rods. I used wire surveyor's flags, those whip-like orange flags you find in big box hardware stores. They're used to mark out land for surveying. They're 16 gauge, stiff, but flexible. Pull off the plastic pennant and you've got a good 1.75 feet of steel wire per flag. To fill up a 3 x 1 inch cylinder, you'll need maybe a dozen flags.

*Connecting wire. I used 22 gauge plastic coated bell wire (also called annunciator wire or hookup wire). You'll need 10-12 feet.

*9 ring connectors, sized to fit 22 gauge wire and able to slip over 8/32 bolts.

*4 brass 8/32 bolts, 2 inches long, with 1 washer and 2 nuts apiece.

*3 alligator clips, 2 inches long each.

*2 nylon zip ties, 12 inches long

*Basswood or pine sticks, squared, 1/2 inch x 1/2 inch, at least 16 inches' worth. Also 1 piece of 3/8 x 3/8 inch basswood, 6 inches long.

*Poplar rods, square, 1.5 x 1.5 inches, at least 38 inches' worth. This is for the upright wheel supports and braces, if desired.

*1 pine plank. 16 x 15 x 1 inches. This is your base. The exact measurements of this are flexible, but it ought not be much smaller than this.

*Optional: 6 2 x 2 inch L brackets, with 4 screws per bracket. Use these to brace the upright if you don't want to make wooden braces.

*4 rubber or plastic appliance 'feet' with screws.

*Super glue, and plenty of it.

*6 2 inch wood screws. I used short deck screws, but any flat-headed wood screw will do.

*2 batteries of matching output. This particular wheel works fine with 6 or 12 volt batteries, or with smaller batteries linked in series to total 6-12 volts. Alkaline or lead-acid batteries work equally well, and what's more surprising, you can charge both kinds with the SSG's output.

*For the induction coil and light I used a ready-made set made by Reelight, made in the United Kingdom but available from various retailers in the USA. All Reelight sets work much the same way, with a factory-made induction coil, connecting wire. and LED light. You can make your own coil, but the Reelight set is handy and attractive.

TOOLS: power drill, miter saw, screwdriver, wire cutters, crimp tool, soldering iron and solder, medium and fine sanding block or paper, varnish or other clear wood finish, a brush to apply it. A carpenter's square, rule, and pencil would be useful too.

## Step 2: Making the Wheel

Let's make the only moving part of the Bedini machine first. Take your non-magnetic bicycle rim and make sure it is thoroughly clean and straight. I got my rim from a bike salvage yard, though I later bought a simple 26 inch rim new from an online bike parts dealer. Aside from being clean and true, the most important thing about your wheel is that it turn as freely as possible. New or used, you'll have to clean the bearings. Bike grease is too thick for our purpose, so disassemble the wheel hub and get all the heavy lube out. Spray the clean bearings and hub with a light silicone or WD40 lube. Reassemble the hub, but don't tighten the axle nuts too tight. Keep the hub from wobbling, but let it spin as freely as it can.

Next, prepare your magnets. STUDY THE PHOTOS. We're going to fit the rectangular magnets at right angles to the bike rim; that way any variation in the track of the rotating rim will not reduce the coverage of the magnet on the driving coil's core. It's vital that all the magnets face outward with the same pole--in this case, NORTH--so that the driving coil can push them along. C8 ferrite magnets are seldom marked as to polarity, so you'll have to figure this out yourself. One way to do this is to use a pocket compass. The flat faces of the magnets are the poles. Test one by pushing one face toward the North end of the compass needle. Because opposite poles attract and like poles repel, the North point of a compass is actually the South pole of the magnetized pointer. To identify the North pole of your C8 magnets, they should attract the North point of the compass needle. This is important, so take care with this process. Mark the magnets in some temporary way (a bit of tape, or post-it note). ID the North poles of all the magnets. (Alternately, if you have a bar or horseshoe magnet with poles labeled, it's easy to find the North poles of your ferrite magnets.)

Get your 1/2 inch basswood stick and cut 12 short pieces exactly as wide as the C8 magnets. Remove any burrs with sandpaper. Glue the basswood blocks in the center of the South side of each magnet. Use super glue. Let dry completely.

Depending on the shape of the bike rim, you may have to trim the basswood blocks to fit inside the wheel channel. Refer the photos to understand what I mean. You want the wood to fit snugly into the rim while the magnet sits tight across the rim. I designed the 16 inch wheel to work with 12 C8 magnets. To space them evenly, glue the first magnet in place over the hole in the rim (the hole meant for the inner tube stem). This rim has 18 spokes per side, 36 in all. That means you should have 3 spoke heads between each magnet. If you're careful, you can do this by eye. Use liberal amounts of super glue on the wood blocks and press them into place every 3 spoke heads. Let dry thoroughly. When all 12 magnets are in place, take the rubber rim protector and stretch it over the magnets. This will help keep the magnets in place and protect them as they spin.

## Step 3: A Solid Base

Building a solid base for the Bedini wheel is simple carpentry, but you want things to be as square and accurate as possible. Your wheel will run much more smoothly if the base is well made.

Take your base plank (in my case, a piece of pine planking 16 x 15 x 1 inches) and affix a rubber "foot" to each underside corner. These will help dampen vibrations when running and make it easier to pick up the machine and move it.

On the top side of the plank, mark the exact center with a carpenter's square and pencil. The bifilar coil that drives the machine will be here. Mark your square poplar rods to length for the upright supports. Allowing for the driver coil, its mount, and the radius of the 16 inch bike wheel, the uprights on my machine measure 11 5/8 inches tall. Measure them out but don't cut them yet! At what will be the top end of one support, find the center of the rod. Mine measure 1 1/2 inches wide, so the center would be at 3/4 inch. Here you need to drill a 3/8 inch hole all the way through the wood. Use a drill press if you have one, to insure the hole is 90 degrees to the wood. Once drilled, cut the support in two right through the center of the hole. You're making a trough or track for the bike wheel's axle to lie in. If you've done your work carefully, you should be able to use the other piece of poplar already bored and cut as the other upright. Be very, very sure the uprights are of the same length so that the wheel axle will lie square and straight.

Using a drawing compass, draw a circle on the center of the base plank 3 inches in diameter. This is where the driver coil will go. Mark an intersecting line through the center point, dividing the base into two equal halves. Now, the axle of the bicycle rim I used to make the magnet wheel is 5 1/2 inches long. You want to site your uprights along that intersecting line you drew (with the top grooves aligned with each other) no more than 7 inches apart, measured from the outside edge of one poplar upright to the other. Center the posts on the line at the necessary width and temporarily glue them down with super glue.

The upright will need braces. The simplest thing to do is to use three L shaped steel brackets, 2 x 2 inches, centered on the three outside faces of the upright. Mark the screw hole positions in pencil, drill pilot holes, and use the screws supplied with the brackets to anchor the uprights.

Alternately, you can make braces out of the same 1 1/2 inch square poplar stock used to make the uprights. Cut two equal 6 inch pieces with 45 degree miters on each end (both cuts sloping in) Stick these in place against the base and uprights with super glue, then drill pilot holes at either end and insert 2 inch wood screws. You'll notice in the photos of my device I used both methods, brackets and braces. I was experimenting with both methods, but only one is necessary to secure the uprights.

When the upright are installed and properly braced, sand them lightly and apply a coat of varnish or polyurethane coating. Let dry and move on to the next step.

## Step 4: The Bifilar Coil

"Bifilar" means made of two threads or windings over a common core. An essential feature of the Bedini machine is the use of two gauges of wire on a single coil. This allows a single coil to perform two functions at the same time; in this case, one winding pulses DC voltage to the core, creating a pulsing electromagnet, while the other winding acts as an induction coil, generating electricity that is routed to the battery being charged. The usual design specs of this kind of coil require two gauges of copper magnet wire about 4 diameters apart--in this case 20 and 24 gauge. To reproduce the coil shown, you'll need about 300 feet of both gauges and a coil form to wrap them around. I used an old speaker wire spindle, 3 inches in diameter, three inches high, with a center opening 1 inch in diameter.

Take the ends of the two wires and start them from separate points on the bottom inside of the coil form. Many spools have openings here, but you may have to drill holes of your own. Make sure the wires start 180 degrees apart. Leave a generous length of free wire to start with-- 8 inches or so. Next, tape the wires to the inside of the spindle just inside the holes. Carefully wrap them in the same direction, letting them come together like a single strand. Keeping moderate tension on the wires, wrap them smoothly along the core to the opposite end, then reverse direction. Keep repeating this until you fill the coil form or run out of wire. When you get near the last of the wire, make sure you finish winding at the same end of the coil you started. Drill a pair of holes in the spindle 180 degrees apart, aligned just like the ones you started with. Divide the two gauges of wire and route them through the holes so that you end up with a pattern like this:

[outside] > 20 gauge -- 24 gauge -- 20 gauge -- 24 gauge < [outside]

This is from one side to the other, from outside to inside back to outside again. Mark the ends of the tape with temporary tags made of masking tape, ID'ing the gauge and position (i.e., "20 outside, 24 inside," etc.)

Wrap the exterior of the coil with electrical tape. Secure the end of the tape by putting a nylon zip tie around the coil. (See photos for details).

Now it's time to make the core. The core will be magnetized and re-magnetized over and over again, so it must be made of ferrous metal. Preferably the core should be made of many small diameter pieces rather than a single solid rod. This will ease the rise and collapse of the magnetic field. Iron is best, but real iron might be hard to find. For my machine I bought a bundle of surveyor's flags and cut the steel shafts into 3 inch lengths. One by one I put these in the hollow core of the coil. When it got full, I tapped the shafts in with a hammer. Hold the core up to the light to spot gaps. When the core is as full as it can be, put a few drops of super glue on it to hold it together.

The coil should be mounted in the center of the base, squarely between uprights. Cut two short length of 3/8 inch basswood 3 inches long. Glue these to the bottom of the coil on either side of the core. Keep the ends of the wires free of the glue, then use more super glue to stick the coil to the base. Get the four wire leads running out of the same side. Let everything dry.

Using a ruler or square, draw a light pencil line about 6 inches long parallel to the uprights and 2 inches out from them. This should be on the same side where the coil wires come out. Mark the line with 4 equally spaced points Drill these all the way through the base with a 8/32 bit. Insert a 2 inch 8/32 brass bolt from underneath into each hole. Add a washer to each bolt, a nut, and snug them down.

Cut the wire leads from the coil long enough to comfortably reach the brass bolts, one wire per bolt. With sandpaper or a knife blade, clean the enamel insulation from the end of each wire. About 1/4 inch cleared is good. Put an aluminum ring post on the end of each wire and crimp in place. Slip a ring post over each brass bolt. Don't secure them yet. Let's move on to the circuit board.

## Step 5: The Circuit Board

I'm not an electrician or engineer, just a hobbyist. In describing how to make the Bedini circuit board, I may use inexact or improper terminology, but I shall try to make everything clear.

Start with a 3 x 6 inch rectangle of perf board. The holes may not be large enough for the transistor's pins, so keep a drill on hand with a small bit (5/64) to enlarge any holes as necessary. Have a look at your 2N3055 transistor. There are three possible connections to a TO-3 type transistor: the Base, the Emitter, and the Case, or Collector. The case is of course the metal shell of the component. The emitter and base are the two pins protruding from the flat underside. But which is which? Looking at the pin side of the transistor, you'll notice the pins are not centered. They're sited a little more to one end than the other. Orient the 2N3055 so that the pins are closer to the bottom than the top. Then notice the pins are not evenly aligned. The left pin should be a little higher than the one on the right. The higher pin on the left is the Emitter. The lower pin on the right is the Base.

Insert the pins through holes in the perf board, centered and sited about a quarter of the way from the top of the perf board. You can tack the transistor in place with a drop of super glue. Take the 1N4001 diode and connect it between the Emitter and Base. The silver bar on the diode indicates the direction electricity will flow (toward the silver band), so the silver band must point toward the Base pin. Wind the leads closely around the Emitter and Base pins. Attach one lead from the 470 Ohm resistor to the Base pin and solder in place. Have a light touch with the solder and don't overheat the transistor. Push the free end of the resistor through any convenient hole in the perf board.

Drill a 1/4 inch hole in the perf board, a quarter of the length up from the bottom of the board. Potentiometers often have an anchor tab on one side; enlarge a hole for it and insert the pot through both holes in the board. Secure with the nut included with the pot. Refer to the photos for a clearer idea how things go together.

Solder or crimp the free end of the resistor lead (now on the rear side of the perf board) to about 2 inches of 22 gauge single strand, plastic insulated, copper wire. Strip the other end of this wire and solder it to leftmost terminal of the 1-5K potentiometer (leftmost as you are looking straight on at it). While you're there, solder on about 8 inches of the same type 22 gauge wire to the center terminal of the pot. The far right terminal of the pot will not be used.

Since we're on the back side of the circuit board, solder or crimp the lead of the 1N4007 diode to the lower end of the transistor case. THE DIODE BAND SHOULD FACE AWAY FROM THE TRANSISTOR. Solder or crimp 30 inches of 22 ga wire to the silver band end of the 1N4007 diode.

Solder or crimp on 12 inches of 22 ga wire to the upper end of the transistor case. Route this wire through the perf board and back out again to the back to take up any strain on the wire when pulled. Attach a 12 inch length of 22 ga wire to the Emitter pin. This can also be routed in and out of the board to protect it from pull strain.

The neon Ne-2 bulb acts as a safety device, protecting the transistor from high voltage spikes. The Ne-2 bulb should be attached to Emitter pin and to the Collector base. The bulb's leads are stiff enough to support the bulb by themselves.

Next mount the circuit board to the wooden base. Use two short round head wood screws or machine screws. Drill out appropriate pilot holes in the perf board and attach it to the corner of the base on the same side as the four wires emerging from the driver coil (See photos). There should be four wire leads coming off the circuit board.

The lead from the potentiometer's center terminal goes to the 24 gauge outside wire. Crimp a ring connector onto the 22 ga lead. Put a 8/32 nut over the bolt and tighten by hand.

The lead from the upper end of the Collector base goes to the 20 gauge inside wire. Crimp a ring connector onto the 22 ga lead. Put a 8/32 nut over the bolt and tighten by hand.

The lead from Emitter pin goes to the 24 gauge inside wire. Crimp a ring connector onto the 22 ga lead. Put it on the 8/32 bolt connected to the 24 gauge inside wire.

The fourth lead, from the 1N4007 diode, will be used as part of the charging system.

Measure a length of 22 gauge wire about 30 inches long. Crimp a ring connector to one end, and put it on the same bolt as the 24 gauge inside wire. Put a 8/32 nut over the bolt and tighten by hand. Crimp a ring connector to a 30 inch length of hookup wire and put it on the 20 gauge outside post. When the circuit board is complete and all the connections made, there should be three long wires coming off the machine. Attach a 2 inch alligator clip to each wire. With strips of masking tape, make a label for each of the long wires, just behind the alligator clip.

The wire from the 20 gauge outside post should be labeled "C --" meaning " Charging Battery, Negative Pole."

The wire from the 24 gauge inside post should be labeled "PS --" meaning "Power Supply, Negative Pole."

The wire from the 1N4007 diode should be labeled "C+" meaning "Charging Battery, Positive Pole."

## Step 6: Power In, Power Out

The Bedini machine runs on direct current and outputs direct current. The simplest way to operate it is with two batteries of matching voltage/amperage. In the photos you see two six volt alkaline dry cells set up with the SSG. One battery provides power to the driver coil, while the other receives the high voltage impulses of the driver coil, recharging it. This machine also works well with 12 volt batteries, up to and including lead-acid car batteries. In fact, the SSG mechanism is best suited to lead-acid batteries, and is known to revitalize worn out, heavily sulphated batteries. I mostly have used it to recharge AA batteries. I have two battery clips from Radio Shack, one holding 4 AAs (6 volts) and another holding 8 AAs (12 volts). I have recharged many AA alkaline batteries, and even a high energy lithium AA. I've also ruined a few AAs too. Overcharged, the dry cells leak electrolyte and must be discarded.

To hook up batteries to the SSG, you'll need a short jumper wire with alligator clips on both ends. The power battery has its + Positive lead connected to the -- Negative lead of the battery being charged via the jumper wire. Then connect the three leads from the Bedini machine as follows: The PS-- wire connects to the --Negative pole of the Power battery; the C+ connects to the +Positive pole of the Charging battery; and the C-- wire clips to the jumper wire, preferably near the --Negative post of the Charging battery. When everything is connected, turn the Potentiometer control to the lowest setting. Give the magnet wheel a modest push. As the pulses resonate in the driver coil, the wheel should "catch" and start spinning faster on its own. If it slows and stops, recheck all your connections and settings. Low voltage contacts can be finicky sometimes. Makes sure all the contacts are clean and firmly joined and try again. If you hear a slight hum or squeal coming from the driver coil, don't be alarmed. That's feedback, electrical resonance. Adjust the potentiometer until the sound goes away, and spin the wheel again.

For steadier operation (and if you don't want to buy expensive batteries) you can use a DC power source in place of the Power battery. I've tried several kinds, from expensive DC lab supplies to rectified transformers. One of the best power sources turned out to be an old model train transformer, made by the Louis Marx Company. These variable transformers step down 110 volt AC wall current to 7 to 15 volts AC. These are not precision devices, though. Sometimes the voltage goes as low as 4 and as high as 20 V AC. You can rectify the train transformer output with a simple full-wave rectifier component. With a multimeter, check output voltages at various settings and mark the transformer case to show where 6 and 12 volt output occurs. Hookup the transformer just as you would the power battery, by connecting +Positive lead of the transformer by jumper wire to the --Negative post of the Charging battery, and PS-- clip from the SSG to the --Negative lead of the transformer.

Update 2/4/2014: I've been experimenting with other power sources for the SSG, and one of the simplest and best is an old "wall wart" plug-in adapter. I scrounged a number of these from thrift shops, all in the 4.5 -12 volts range, with power ratings from 300 mA to 2.1 amps. They all work, but they require some alteration and testing.

First, the nominal voltage rating is not accurate. A so-called 6 volt transformer actually put out 7.5 volts; a 4.5 volt one put out 6. I guess this has to do with how the wall wart works under load, but be aware the SSG doesn't impose much strain on it, so you're likely to be getting more than the indicated voltage.

Altering a wall wart is easy if the cord is the two wire kind. Cut off the plug and pull apart the insulated wires 3-4 inches. Strip the ends of the wires. You need to ID the positive and negative lines; if the wires aren't marked, test them with a digital multi-meter. (On most meters, connect the probes to the wires and plug the adapter in. If the readout on the meter shows negative, swap the leads. Mark the positive line in some way and crimp on connectors). Now use the wall wart as you would a battery, and connect it to the SSG in the same way--negative lead to the PS-- wire from the machine, and connect the positive lead to the negative post of the battery you are charging.

If the adapter line is co-axial--that is, if one polarity of wire runs inside the other--you can still use the adapter. It takes more work. Solder length of bell wire to the inner and outer wires and proceed as described above.

Interestingly, the wall warts don't seem to get hot powering the SSG. I've run them for hours and the adapter is barely warm. The charging batteries stay cool (sometimes even feel cold!) too.

## Step 7: Let There Be Light! by Induction!

The accessory induction coil and light are factory-made items I purchased online. They're made by a British firm, Reelight, for use on bicycles. Traditional bike lights use batteries or friction-powered generators for power, both of which have obvious drawbacks. The Reelight system does not impose any drag on the cyclist, and has no batteries to wear out. Stick some magnets on your bike rim, mount the coil, and as long as you pedal, you have a blinking safety light.

To work efficiently, the induction coil should be mounted squarely close to the moving magnets. I made a simple mount of poplar wedge and a bit of lath at the proper angle to the wheel and mounted the Reelight coil with two nylon zip ties. Clearance between the coil and moving magnets is 1/8 inch.

The red LED light has a mounting hole on the back. I put a short piece of bamboo skewer on top of one of the wheel supports and slipped the LED onto it. Now every time a magnet passes the coil, a pulse of electricity lights the LED. The Reelight coil could be modified to do other work--charge capacitors, charge batteries, etc.

## Step 8: How It Works, I Think, and Troubleshooting

As I said in the beginning, there are some unusual theories about the SSG. I'm a self-taught hobbyist, so I'll tell you how I think the SSG works. The bifilar driver coil does several jobs at once; it triggers the transistor on and off, sends pulses of DC to the steel core electromagnet (pushing the the wheel along, North Pole vs. the C8 magnets' North Pole). It also acts as an induction coil when the magnets sweep past, triggering relatively high voltage pulses that are routed to the battery being charged. Most battery charging is done by trickle-charging modest, steady voltage into the battery. The Bedini SSG hammers the battery with short duration, high voltage spikes. This, as I understand it, is what allows the SSG to recharge "unrechargeable" batteries like alkaline dry cells or sulphated lead-acid cells.

If you start your SSG going and the Ne-2 bulb flashes, something's wrong. The Ne-2 bulb is there to protect the transistor by absorbing high voltage spikes that should be going into the battery being charged. Check your connections again, particularly to the charging battery. It is possible to run the SSG without a Charging battery in place. The Ne-2 will flash the whole time. You're taking a chance of blowing the transistor, but it can be done. The wheel will probably run its fastest with the 5k pot turned all the way down to the lowest resistance, but the most efficient charging may occur at a slower RPM. You'll need to monitor input and output with multimeters to find the sweet spot best for charging. I tend to run mine flat out--it's more impressive that way. Whining coming from the SSG driver coil is feedback. You can diminish it by tuning with the pot.

My wheel design has a free floating axle. I made it this way to facilitate changing the wheel for other experiments. Only once have I had a wheel come loose while turning. If you're concerned about the wheel flying off, you can anchor it by screwing an L bracket to the side of the poplar uprights, clamping the axle in place.

Here's an SSG with a pendulum instead of a wheel. Notice it's the same frame as the one described here:

Here's another video showing the SSG operating with a single permanent magnet instead of the elaborate wheel:

That's how you turn magnetism into light. Good luck, and keep building!

## Comments

Johnbedini (author)2015-03-26

An answer to some question about the Bedini SSG motor.
One must understand the theory of what the device attempts to perform. The first thing we all must understand is the term Free Energy since everyone building these device thinks it’s some kind of magical machine in a way it is as it does some things that are not found in the common text. What you have built here is an Energizer, Energizers perform two things, Motor functions and generator functions all within the same machine. The Motor function is not designed to be self-starting because it must set on the primary battery for use without any input current until it starts. The motor section mused be pulsed to draw very little current you must think of this as someone on a swing where you only give a little tap to keep them swinging and then they go over the top, so it take very little energy. The second stage is a generator functions without any Lenz effect or very little, meaning no counter EMF force. We are dealing with two different types of energy the machine is outputting. The Motor section uses electrons or real current from the battery and the second uses or generates no real current with electrons. You can prove it by using a .5 ohm resistor across the output in place of the secondary battery. Since your meter cannot measure this because of the spikes you must convert it so that you can measure it the capacitor is the answer because it can convert the spikes into real usable power that uses electrons so normal circuits may be powered.
The most important part of the machine is the mechanical energy that people do not use. That energy is around 23 to 40% so that must be added into your figure when figuring the efficiency of the machine. If you notice by placing a load on the mechanical output the current on the primary side will go down since we have no closed flux path like a normal motor. Work performed under load without an increase in input current means efficiency, conservation of energy. All energy changes form at some point and is never lost you just must figure a way to use what it was converted to. Others have made the error of saying that the COP of 10 to 1, not true as I only look for a COP of 1 or a 100% percent conversion factor In the chemical reaction (The Battery).
Radiant energy can be anything it just does not apply to heat as the universe is filled with it in many forms. If you have one battery and can charge it with that change in energy why not add more batteries to the output that is where the 10 to 1 comes from, and yes it is possible to do that since you’re not dealing with normal electron current or very little. So how do we get real power from the machine? What you have built here is a repulsive motor function meaning the magnet is being kicked out, that takes power and you will lose some energy doing that so let’s think along different lines like re-gauging the motor coil function.
Let me say something here now about magnets do not use Neo magnets as it will change the function of the Energizer and you will lose power output you must keep from saturating the core material which must not retain its Magnetism that is why the use of welding rod. Bolts do not work well for this machine or ferrite cores. The Coil must be done very carefully and with the correct amount of turn’s number 21 wires along with a number 23 for the trigger, wires wound together for your experiment. The next thing is the base resistor which must be chosen for the least amount of current 470 ohms would be the starting point with a 22 Ohm pot for fine adjustment. If you free up the base current the machine will speed up for the most generated spiked currentless output. The coil acts like a varying electromagnet where the Bloch wall moves to act as an energy pump so energy is sucked in and compressed to give the high voltage which is a gain function of the inverted amplifier circuit since we use the collector circuit and not the emitter of the device. Back EMF does not apply to this circuit as Back EMF is always lower than the battery voltage. Keep the current out of the circuit and the Radiant high voltage will gain in potential. If you apply a potential to batteries they will try to move up in voltage and they do that as the Ions gain charge and start to move to the next plate in the battery. You want to move them without work and this machine does that by building charge on the Ions in the battery, works like a sail boat but without the electrical wind of the machine nothing moves. The high potential causes this to happen, plain physics; the idea is the use of currentless energy, just potential charge.

Ok, back to how to get the power, first flip the coil so the machine runs in attraction instead of repulsion, why? Because you do not want to do any work or waste energy pushing the wheel you want the wheel to be sucked in for free and have the coil re-gauge the energy for nothing. Next you need to apply a Beta multiplier filter circuit to the output of the diode that is zener controlled to no more than 30 volts that is going to filter all the spikes before they go to the capacitor of your choice, I would use between 4700 to 10000 uf at 75 volts for this. Next choose some type of linear regulator like a LM7805, 5 volts is the output this would give the proper current for charging your cell phone battery and will limit at 5 volts, the battery will do the rest. You cannot have any spikes on lithium batteries, lead acid does not care be very careful with alkaline batteries. Now think all you do is multiply the coils and the simple circuit for bigger batteries and your off and running. No free energy here just gathering all the normally wasted energy in a circuit and using a conversion method to gain energy to power normal loads. Again the term free energy is an energy that cannot be measured with normal meters so people think they discovered something. We must pay for everything we do so why not just try to get as close to a COP of 1 as we can. People love the term free energy so the unexplained is classified and this calls out all the skeptics who believe the world is flat anyway so why argue with any of them since they know everything. Just build the machine and discover science for yourself since there is no absolutes’ in science anyway. We really know nothing only what we have been taught but we really know nothing except what we can prove. Nature is full of hidden secrets yet to be discovered.
You can find more advanced circuits by me and books and videos along with Tom Bearden’s work on the internet if you search you may even find a linear circuit people have made. The knowledge is out there you just need to look. And do not believe everything you read.

THE MACHINE IS LIMITED
I’m not allowed to say anymore then this except some of the SSG machines have been taken away from people. I’m not going to go into the reasons but if you discover anything over the figures I have stated here then it is considered a national security risk, and we all know what that means. My patent is very limited and only has the claims the big boys would allow. Right now you have a few people discouraging your work on this project you can tell by the comments. This is why you do not want to argue with the skeptics as they will try and tell you to just use normal things and do not look outside of the box for any answers. Again your free to experiment with any of the circuits that were posted on the internet.
Nature is very simple in the way she acts and is very tricky in her secrets.
John B

westjessie (author)2017-08-29

Please use more paragraph breaks and proofread for typos, Sir. You will be taken more seriously, as you should be, if your writing is less run-on and more polished. It is very hard to read as-is.

darediamond (author)2015-10-25

Hello Sir John Bedini.

I built a working on a different prototype. Mine uses:

1 High Voitage Air Core Electromagnet (from 1000VDC above),

2. Neodymium Magnets (Works wonderfully with High Voltage not low voltage),

3.) 0.30mm (AWG #31 or 30 or 27 thinner gauge is the best but have high impedance which needs extremly high voltage) ) thick Copper Wire

4.) . High Voltage Power Supply made with capacitor and diode or Step-up transformer, Copper Commutator instead of Mosfet(The Best though!),

5.) HV Capacitor to Absorb Spike (Nomarly, 400VAC 475J connected in series works too. I discovered this myself thinking out of the box. The 475J cap are usually red in colour and can be purchased cheaply from Chineese on www.aliexpress.com)

6. 200W Modified Sine Wave Inverter (bought cheaply from China based Seller too)

My Coil is 3.5kg in weight and have 1140ohms resistance

So upward of 500V is needed to make it a useful Pulsed E.Mag.

I made my test Motor attract but in my next version, I want to make it Repel and use Both Sides of the E.Mag. To achieve that, I will hang the Coil on two Large opposing Wooden or Plastic Disc and timed it pulse with Copper Commutator which I am going to make myself.

One face of the Electromagnet will be South and the other face will be North thus the fitting opposing Neodymium magnets will be aligned in like manner.

I intend using 8 H.V.E.Mags of 2kg each. and they will all be switch all at ones. All will be connected in series to allow for Extremely Though Horse Power as I do not intend to collect any back emf but instead make the Motor to Run on High Voltage/low amp which must be in the Miliamp.

The first one I set-up use two 30mm x 20mm n52 Neodymium Magnets 1 for North and the other for south. And it driving Voltage was 540vdc and it consume 26W at most. So to get the best out of this amplified set-up, a generator or alternator attachment to the motor is the best in my own Opinion and that is what I am going for using the new self-designed second version that allows for using both face of the Electromagnet.

ItsRoni (author)2017-04-07

Hey,

I was wondering if you know where i can buy the ring connectors for 8/32 bolts seeing as though i cant find it, i would appreciate your help.

Thanks

Mr. Apol (author)2017-04-08

I got mine from Radio Shack, a chain now sadly in disarray. Most auto parts stores and "big box" hardware stores should carry such connectors--Lowe's, Home Depot, et. al. Or try online.

Paul

ande varun (author)2017-03-27

sir can i know about the principal of this experiment

Mr. Apol (author)2017-03-27

Please read the text accompanying the Instructable. This device works on the principle of electromagnetic induction--the passage of moving magnets passing by a coil of wire induces electrical current.

The rocker made it! (author)2015-04-14

hi

I have followed your plans but cannot get the motor to run, the wheel always stops

I get a humming sound or a flashing bulb when I disconnect the charging battery depending on which way I turn the potentiometer

I am using round ferrite magnet and a aluminum bicycle wheel

When connecting the multimeter to the charging connectors I get up to 19v but the motor always stops, the bearing are super loose and the wheel runs smoothly

Any advice to troubleshoot would be appreciated

ande varun (author)2017-03-27

hey can please explain me about the principal of this experiment

darediamond (author)2015-10-25

You must do away with alluminium-made bycycle Rim.

Mr. Apol (author)2015-11-19

There's nothing wrong with an aluminum rim. Can't be steel, but plastic or aluminum is fine--see example above.

Mr. Apol (author)2015-04-14

Hmm, looking at your photo, I see a couple of problems. You should ditch the tire. It adds weight to the wheel you don't need. Next, the magnets are too small--physically too small. I can't see your coil, or what the diameter of the core is, but those are not very big magnets. They don't have the oomph to push that wheel. One of my early wheels had the same problem. I fixed it by installing bigger magnets.

Check all your electrical connections too. Low voltage DC connections can be finicky. Good luck and let us know how it works out.

Paul

ande varun (author)2017-03-27

sir please can you seend me the detail principal inolved in it

FranceG1 (author)2015-08-25

merci

Mr. Apol (author)2015-08-25

De rien.

The rocker (author)2015-04-22

Hi Paul,

Got some bigger magnet and took the tyre off, I am now getting more sounds out of the coil but, it still stops.

there is a humming every time a magnet passes the coil, it changes in intensity when I move the potentiometer.

I am wondering if my coil is not the problem, I put about 100m of wire around a 40mm PVC pipe and glued some plastic disks on the sides to make my spindle (could not find anything else), and I could only source 20 and 29 gage enamel coated coper wire. Do you think the 29 is too thin maybe.

Everything seems to be working I get about 17/18 volts when I connect my multimeter to the charging terminals, when disconnected from the charging battery, but the wheel always stops.

I am going on a mission to find the correct wire and a better spindle and make a new coil.

Thanks for your previous response, and very clear instructions, I will get there eventually.

Mr. Apol (author)2015-04-26

Yes, it seems to be best practice to have wires about 3-4 gauges apart, rather than 9. Also, what is your gap between the magnets and the coil? It needs to be close, but not so close you hit the coil. About 1/8 inch to 1/16 inch is good (2-4 mm). Too large a gap and the magnets can't "catch" on the coil. I would recommend rewinding your coil with 20 and 24 gauge wire, check the gap, and try again. Good luck!

Mr. Apol (author)2015-04-15

The hum you hear at the higher pot settings is normal. It's feedback, Turn the potentiometer down as low as it will go until you get the wheel to sustain rotation. The flashing bulb is normal too if you disconnect the charging battery. It sounds like your circuitry is good. You just need to lighten your wheel and get some bigger magnets, I think.

Let me know how this turns out.

Paul

Johnbedini (author)2015-03-26

An answer to some question about the Bedini SSG motor.

One must understand the theory of what the device attempts to perform.
The first thing we all must understand is the term Free Energy since everyone
building these device thinks it’s some kind of magical machine in a way it is
as it does some things that are not found in the common text. What you have
built here is an Energizer, Energizers perform two things, Motor functions and
generator functions all within the same machine. The Motor function is not
designed to be self-starting because it must set on the primary battery for use
without any input current until it starts. The motor section must be pulsed to
draw very little current you must think of this as someone on a swing where you
only give a little tap to keep them swinging and then they go over the top, so
it take very little energy. The second stage is a generator functions without
any Lenz effect or very little, meaning no counter EMF force. We are dealing
with two different types of energy the machine is outputting.The Motor section uses electrons or real
current from the battery and the second uses or generates no real current with
electrons.You can prove it by using a
.5 ohm resistor across the output in place of the secondary battery.Since your meter cannot measure this because
of the spikes you must convert it so that you can measure it the capacitor is
the answer because it can convert the spikes into real usable power that uses
electrons so normal circuits may be powered.

The most important part of the machine is the mechanical energy that
people do not use. That energy is around 23 to 40% so that must be added into
your figure when figuring the efficiency of the machine.If you notice by placing a load on the mechanical
output the current on the primary side will go down since we have no closed
flux path like a normal motor. Work performed under load without an increase in
input current means efficiency, conservation of energy.All energy changes form at some point and is
never lost you just must figure a way to use what it was converted to.Others have made the error of saying that the
COP of 10 to 1, not true as I only look for a COP of 1 or a 100% percent
conversion factor In the chemical reaction (The Battery}.

Radiant energy can be anything
it just does not apply to heat as the universe is filled with it in many
forms.If you have one battery and can
charge it with that change in energy why not add more batteries to the output
that is where the 10 to 1 comes from, and yes it is possible to do that since
you’re not dealing with normal electron current or very little. So how do we
get real power from the machine?What
you have built here is a repulsive motor function meaning the magnet is being
kicked out, that takes power and you will lose some energy doing that so let’s
think along different lines like re-gauging the motor coil function.

Let me say something here now about magnets do not use Neo magnets as
it will change the function of the Energizer and you will lose power output you
must keep from saturating the core material which must not retain its
Magnetismthat is why the use of welding
rod.Bolts do not work well for this
machine or ferrite cores. The Coil must be done very carefully and with the
correct amount of turn’s number 21 wires along with a number 23 for the
trigger, wires wound together for your experiment.The next thing is the base resistor which
must be chosen for the least amount of current 470 ohms would be the starting
point with a 22 Ohm pot for fine adjustment.If you free up the base current the machine will speed up for the most
generated spiked currentless output.

The coil acts like a varying electromagnet
where the Bloch wall moves to act as an energy pump so energy is sucked in and
compressed to give the high voltage which is a gain function of the inverted
amplifier circuit since we use the collector circuit and not the emitter of the
device. Back EMF does not apply to this circuit as Back EMF is always lower
than the battery voltage. Keep the current out of the circuit and the Radiant
high voltage will gain in potential. If you apply a potential to batteries they
will try to move up in voltage and they do that as the Ions gain charge and
start to move to the next plate in the battery. You want to move them without
work and this machine does that by building charge on the Ions in the battery,
works like a sail boat but without the electrical wind of the machine nothing
moves. The high potential causes this to happen, plain physics; the idea is the
use of currentless energy, just potential charge.

Ok, back to how to get the power, first flip the coil so the machine
runs in attraction instead of repulsion, why? Because you do not want to do any
work or waste energy pushing the wheel you want the wheel to be sucked in for
free and have the coil re-gauge the energy for nothing.Next you need to apply a Beta multiplier
filter circuit to the output of the diode that is zener controlled to no more than
30 volts that is going to filter all the spikes before they go to the capacitor
of your choice, I would use between 4700 to 10000 uf at 75 volts for this. Next
choose some type of linear regulator like a LM7805, 5 volts is the output this
would give the proper current for charging your cell phone battery and will
limit at 5 volts, the battery will do the rest.You cannot have any spikes on lithium batteries, lead acid does not care
be very careful with alkaline batteries. Now think all you do is multiply the
coils and the simple circuit for bigger batteries and your off and
running.No free energy here just
gathering all the normally wasted energy in a circuit and using a conversion
method to gain energy to power normal loads.Again the term free energy is an energy that cannot be measured with
normal meters so people think they discovered something. We must pay for
everything we do so why not just try to get as close to a COP of 1 as we can.
People love the term free energy so the unexplained is classified and this
calls out all the skeptics who believe the world is flat anyway so why argue
with any of them since they know everything.Just build the machine and discover science for yourself since there is
no absolutes’ in science anyway. We really know nothing only what we have been
taught but we really know nothing except what we can prove. Nature is full of
hidden secrets yet to be discovered.

You can find more advanced circuits by me and books and videos along
with Tom Bearden’s work on the internet if you search you may even find a
linear circuit people have made. The knowledge is out there you just need to
look. And do not believe everything you read.

THE
MACHINE IS LIMITED

I’m not allowed
to say anymore then this except some of the SSG machines have been taken away
from people. I’m not going to go into the reasons but if you discover anything
over the figures I have stated here then it is considered a national security
risk, and we all know what that means. My patent is very limited and only has the claims the big boys would
allow. Right now you have a few people discouraging your work on this project
you can tell by the comments. This is why you do not want to argue with the
skeptics as they will try and tell you to just use normal things and do not
look outside of the box for any answers.Again your free to experiment with any of the circuits that were posted
on

John B

Mr AbAk (author)2015-01-08

Good Ible...

Majestic10110 (author)2015-01-03

Nice effort, I built a rather different version some 4 years ago, with huge success, my central rotating disc was 10" perspex with neo' magnets on the edge and sides giving 3 magnetic fields to produce power. My circuit had No Resistors (resistors are an inefficient design floor since energy is reduced and lost as heat.) I am building a scaled down version now and have some plans for greater efficiency ; I plan to use the back of the coil to drive a second rotor (the force is there why not use it to make more power?Thats another 3 more groups of coils with a 3 field rotor!) And also I have 4 Thermoelectric pads to pick up heat off of the coil and turn it into electricity. "Share your ideas for a better world, don't patent it, publish it"

entillmail (author)2014-11-18

thank you so much for this nice explanation. This is so important but so rare to actually get every detail specified and not just a blurry shaky view of some sketches on youtube from a dark shed somewhere. Thank you!

Mr. Apol (author)2014-11-19

You're welcome. It is frustrating to open a cool sounding project only to find scanty descriptions and inadequate pictures. I try to make mine as clear as I can.

PBT

baudeagle (author)2014-06-08

I think I spoke to you at the NC Maker Faire. Thanks for demonstrating these.

Mr. Apol (author)2014-06-08

Thanks for coming by! I enjoyed the Faire a lot.

Paul

Eyvindr (author)2014-05-02

I was wondering... would it be possible to use a stepper motor to charge a capacitor to serve as the power supply, if you were able to create a generation of 12 V?

Mr. Apol (author)2014-05-03

The device will easily run on any DC power source up to 50 volts or so (which is the maximum rating of the transistor, as I recall). Best practice is to match the input with the output, though.

Eyvindr (author)2014-05-03

Awesome, thanks! I think I'm now onto my next project.

Charly_ZA (author)2014-01-23

Hi, what were the measurements of our magnets?

Mr. Apol (author)2014-01-23

I'm not sure what you mean, but the strontium-ferrite ceramic magnets listed are rated "C8," which I believe is the strongest rating in their category.

Charly_ZA (author)2014-01-24

Thanks. I'd really like to do this for a high school science fair that I have in about 5 months. I live in a small country and the variety/choice of available tools isn't great. If I can't find a spindle it looks like I'm going to need to 3D print it.

Would these N35 magnets work? They are circular (I know you said that the shape isn't important) and a bit smaller and thinner. I asked the seller of these magnets and he said that they are N35 but doesn't the N mean that it's Neodymium. It says that they are ceramic ferrite magnets.

Would this Neon light be fine? I'd have to make some modifications to the circuit board because they're not quite the same.

All help is really appreciated

Mr. Apol (author)2014-01-24

Hello,

Those magnets ought to work. Make sure they they pass directly over the core of your bifilar coil. N35 is a strength rating for neodymium magnets, but the page clearly states they are ferrite.

The neon bulb is rather too fancy for your needs, though it will work. Try to find a bare Ne-2 bulb; they are about 10 cents (American) apiece.

Good luck with your project. Send me photos when you're done!

Paul

Charly_ZA (author)2014-01-25

I will be sure to share some photos when I'm done. Thanks for all the help so far. I hope I don't bother you with all these questions. I'm going to use 21SWG and 25SWG cable. I hope that's fine.

Mr. Apol (author)2014-01-25

No bother at all. If you have any problems, ask.

Paul

Mr. Apol (author)2014-01-23

Or, if you mean how big are the magnets, they measure 1 7/8 (48) x 7/8 (22.5) x 3/8 (10) inches (mm).

Topteddy49 (author)2014-01-14

Go on! if I had four multi-meters there I would be measuring current voltage in and current voltage out. you're not telling me you're not giving it a try?

Mr. Apol (author)2014-01-16

I've measured voltage in and voltage out, but it's not relevant to this build. The SSG's high voltage spikes, like most induction coils, trade amps for volts.

tealy (author)2013-12-17

Very good thanks for sharing that bud

audreyobscura (author)2013-12-09

So cool! I completely appreciate the history lesson associated with this Instructable, and am very inspired to make other cool stuff that incorporates aspects of this build! Thank you so much for the share.

Mr. Apol (author)2013-12-17

Thanks for the kind words. I'd like to hear about what variations, etc., you come up with!

Paul

cr8smthng (author)2013-12-09

Love your instructables, great way to teach my kids some scientific concepts. Got my vote!

Mr. Apol (author)2013-12-17

Thanks, I'm glad to hear that.

Paul

Kiteman (author)2013-12-09

So... you've built an electric motor to run a generator to power an LED?

You do realise you could have run banks of LEDs if you'd powered them directly from the batteries?

Mr. Apol (author)2013-12-09

That's not the point. The point is to demonstrate electromagnetic induction. Also, the SSG recharges all sort of batteries usually considered un-rechargeable.

Kiteman (author)2013-12-09

Hmmm, I'll withhold comment there.

Mr. Apol (author)2013-12-09

Why? I've made it clear I do not endorse the claims made about the device. But in this form it powers the LED and charges batteries. That's all it's meant to do.

Kiteman (author)2013-12-10

Which is why I withheld comment - now is not the time to argue about it.

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