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Ever wanted to unleash your inner rock god, but couldn't find the space to put a drum kit? Frustrated at trying to play GarageBand with fat fingers? Or just someone who can't stop eating crisps? Whichever it is, this is the project for you!

This Instructable will show how to make a set of mini drum pads using Pringles tins, an Arduino, and some piezo sensors, which will trigger any MIDI device or computer drum synth. The pads are velocity-sensitive and as easy to play as drumming your fingers. Let the fun begin...

Step 1: Ingredients!

First and foremost, you'll need 4 snack-sized Pringles cans in your favourite flavours. The other components are:

  • Arduino Micro, Sparkfun Pro Micro or compatible (5V, 16MHz variant)
  • 4 x Piezoelectric elements (see below)
  • 1 x PNP small-signal transistor (BC558, 2N3906, or similar)
  • 5-pin DIN socket
  • 5 x 10K resistors
  • 2 x 220 Ohm resistors
  • 470 Ohm resistor
  • 78L05 voltage regulator
  • 1 x 22uF and 1 x 1uF electrolytic capacitor (10V or greater voltage rating)
  • 100nF capacitor
  • Red LED
  • 1N4001 diode (or similar)
  • 9V (PP3) battery and battery clip
  • Prototyping board (7 x 4.5cm approx)
  • Assorted 0.1" pitch PCB headers and sockets
  • Double-sided adhesive tape
  • Hook-up wire, solder, etc.

About the piezo transducers

What you're looking for is just a piezo element - not in a plastic case, and not with any attached electronics to make it into a beeper or sounder. I've used a couple - LS03807 from CPC, and YU85G from Maplin, with good results. The latter is bigger in diameter which will make playing with two fingers easier. If you can, get ones with ready-soldered wire connections - the bare discs are tricky to solder neatly.

Step 2: Make the Drum Pads

Begin by eating all the Pringles. I found that getting a child to help made this much quicker.

Wipe clean the inside of the tin and give the lid a wash to remove all grease. When dry, attach the piezo to the centre of the lid using double-sided tape, ensuring the whole metal disc is attached firmly.

Drill a small (5mm) hole in the side of the tin, poke the wires through it to the outside, then attach the lid to the can. For building the prototype, I soldered a 2-way 0.1" socket to the leads, which plugs onto a matching header on the board.

Step 3: Assembling the Circuit Board

The circuit is simple enough to put together on a breadboard, but I've made a soldered version for robustness. The complete schematic is attached as file midi-trigger.pdf, but you may find it easier to construct in individual stages, as shown in the following three steps.

The pictures and circuit sketches show a 24-pin Pro Micro clone (see

https://www.sparkfun.com/products/12640). Note that an Arduino / Adafruit "Micro" board has a different pinout, although the signal names are the same.

Step 4: MIDI Output Circuit

This bit of the circuit uses a transistor connected to the TXD (serial output) from the Arduino to drive the MIDI output, as shown in the circuit. Make sure you get the C, B and E connections on the transistor the right way round - the BC558 and many other transistors are connected as shown in the sketch, but some other types can vary.

I found there's a lot of conflicting information on the Internet about how MIDI is wired to a 5-pin DIN socket, so follow the photo when wiring up: the red wire is the '+' connection (to R2 in the circuit) and black is the '-' (to R3).

Step 5: Pad Inputs Circuit

Each pad is connected directly to one of the Arduino's analog inputs (A0-A3), with a 10K resistor connected to ground as shown. You'll need a connector of some sort to allow the pads to be unplugged while assembling the rest of the board.

Step 6: Power Supply Circuit (optional)

You can power the Arduino over its USB connection, plugging it in to a computer or a power bank. For maximum portability, though, I added a simple voltage regulator to run it from a 9V (PP3) battery. Current drain is about 50mA, so if you're going to use it a lot a rechargeable PP3 is a good idea. I included a removable jumper (JP1) so the regulator circuit can be disconnected when the Arduino is being powered from USB during programming.

In the circuit D1 is an "idiot diode" and will prevent the circuit from being destroyed should the battery be connected the wrong way round by mistake - this is surprisingly easy.

Also shown in the circuit here is a status LED connected to the D2 pin on the Arduino. The firmware flashes this whenever a trigger is detected. This is also completely optional, but can be a really useful troubleshooting aid.

Step 7: Programming and Testing

If you're new to Arduino it's a good idea to get the Arduino IDE set up and working with a simple example program first. Here are some useful links:

If you included a status LED (see previous page), the attached file blink.ino will toggle it on and off every second. If this is working you can download drumtrigger.ino, which is the complete drum trigger program in one file.

The impatient among you can just upload it to the Arduino, plug everything together, and go!

If things aren't quite working right, try the following tips:

  • The status LED will blink any time a trigger input is sensed on the A0-A3 pins. If this isn't working, re-check the wiring to the piezo sensors. You can simulate a trigger input by temporarily linking one of A0-A3 to the +5V supply with a piece of wire; the status LED should flash quickly for as long as a high voltage level is detected on any input.
  • If the status LED is being triggered, but you're getting no MIDI action, check the polarity of the wiring to the DIN socket. The drum trigger transmits on MIDI channel 1, but it can be helpful to use a synth that can be set to MIDI "Omni" mode to avoid confusion.
  • You can also plug the circuit into the MIDI In on a computer and use a 'MIDI Monitor' program (often built into sequencer or DAW software) to show any received Note On and Note Off messages.

Step 8: In Use

With a bit of luck, you can plug it straight in to a MIDI drum synth and start playing. The four pads transmit kick drum, snare, closed hi-hat and open hi-hat note values according to the General Midi specification (see "General MIDI Level 1 Percussion Key Map" at https://www.midi.org/specifications/item/gm-level... ).

In the first picture I'm using Apple's GarageBand on an iPad via a Yamaha i-MX1 MIDI interface. For newer iOS devices with a Lightning port, a standard USB-to-MIDI cable plugged into Apple's Camera Connection Kit adapter works fine.

If the MIDI channel or note values aren't right for your intended use, you can edit drumtrigger.ino to suit. Change the value of MIDI_CHANNEL or the values in midiNotes, respectively. To convert from note names to numbers there are many handy charts on the 'net e.g. http://www.midimountain.com/midi/midi_note_numbers... .

Step 9: Update - Using MIDI Over USB

A number of comments have asked if the drum trigger can be connected directly to a computer, without a separate MIDI interface.

If you are using an Arduino based on the 32U4 chip (a Leonardo, a Micro, or the Sparkfun Pro Micro I used) this is easy with a few changes to the Arduino sketch.

  • Firstly, you'll need to install the MIDIUSB library: from the Arduino IDE menu select Sketch -> Include Library -> Manage Libraries ... to bring up the library manager. Search for "MIDI" - you should find one called MIDIUSB, and when you select it an 'Install' button will appear.
  • Next, download the drumtrigger_midi.ino file from this page, and open it up in the Arduino IDE. It should build and download onto your board without trouble.
  • The Arduino should be attached to the computer via the USB port (exactly as it is for programming). When the sketch is running your computer should detect a USB MIDI device, which will send MIDI notes when the drum pads are tapped.
    • If you're struggling to get this to work there's a tutorial on the Arduino site which has a simpler circuit.
  • You can also drive GarageBand on iOS devices by connecting the Arduino USB port via the Camera Connection Kit (which is in fact a general iOS USB adapter).
<p>Hi Ian, I'm from Argentina. I'm trying to make this, as I found it to be motivating for learning some things about Arduino, and electronics. I haven't found a store nearby that sells the DIN socket. Do you believe I can use the data bus from a USB cable to make the connection to my computer? And most important, that my computer will be able to make the sound? Thank you in advance, and I apologize if my english's bad, it's been a while since I've had to use it.</p>
<p>Hi,</p><p>I have just added a new &quot;Step 9&quot; to this Instructable which explains how to use a USB connection instead of the DIN socket version. You will need to download some software for the PC to make the drum sounds - if you're interested in recording your own music search for &quot;DAW&quot; (Digital Audio Workstation) software.</p><p>Thanks</p><p>Ian</p>
<p>Hi</p><p>I have downloaded a MIDI application for my pad.</p><p>So, how to connect the output of Pringle Can MIDI Drums to the pad ?</p><p>Probably via the USB port, but which wiring ?</p><p>Many thanks</p><p>Jean-Claude from France</p>
<p>For an iPad, if you have Apple's Camera Connection Kit you can connect the Arduino to it using the Kit's USB adapter and a USB lead. I have added a new Step 9 to the Instructable which explains how. You need to use the 'drumtrigger_midi.ino' file from Step 9, not the one from Step 7, when programming the Arduino.</p><p>Thanks</p><p>Ian</p>
<p>Hi,</p><p>I have finished the system, but it doesn't work.</p><p>The led flashes according pression on the sensor. So, it's not so bad...</p><p>In fact, I think I have found the reason.</p><p>I have connected the output directely in a audio amplifier input.</p><p>When I read the instructable you mention MIDI signal, which normaly is a logical signal and not analogic.</p><p>Could you confirm that ?</p><p>If I am right, could you give me a link to a simple and free MIDI player for a pad.</p><p>Many thanks for your help</p><p>Jean-Claude from France</p>
<p>I want to implement the project with an Arduino Uno. I replaced Serial1 with Serial but I have problems uploading. I also corrected the port.</p><p>What else besides the Serial and port do I have to modify?</p>
<p>ผมไม่สามารถลงโปรแกม drumtrigger.ได้ และไม่มีความรู้เรื่องโปรแกมและ midi เลย กรุณาช้วยฉันด้วย ผมต้องการทำให้สำเร็จ</p>
<p>Hello, I love this project. I'm attempting to make this but instead I'm using the Uno. I have no problem uploading the code to the board but after it's uploaded nothing is happening. I'm not getting any output from garage band. Any help?</p>
<p>can you tell more about MIDI?</p>
<p>Er, well, the Wikipedia article </p><p><a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MIDI">https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MIDI </a> would be a good place to start.</p><p>If you want technical details, the MIDI Association publishes specifications at </p><p><a href="https://www.midi.org/specifications/item/the-midi-1-0-specification/">https://www.midi.org/specifications/item/the-midi-...</a> , or for a very basic introduction the article at </p><p><a href="http://entertainment.howstuffworks.com/midi.htm">http://entertainment.howstuffworks.com/midi.htm </a> is quite readable.</p><p>Thanks</p><p>Ian</p>
<p>thanks for so much</p>
<p>error while compiling</p><p>7:24: error: 'void MIDI_setup()' was declared 'extern' and later 'static' [-fpermissive]</p><p>any hints?</p>
<p>Are you using a very new version of the Arduino IDE? (I'm using 1.6.7) Or do you have any 3rd-party MIDI libraries installed?</p><p>As a workaround, you could try changing &quot;MIDI_setup&quot; to something else (e.g. &quot;MIDI_setupX&quot;) everywhere in drumtrigger.ino</p><p>Thanks</p><p>Ian</p>
<p>Bingo! I was using 1.5.7<br>Just downloaded 1.8.0 and the error's gone<br>Thank you :)</p>
<p>Hola, buen proyecto, creativo y entretenido para el p&uacute;blico, &iquest;d&oacute;nde podr&iacute;a encontrar la programacion de esta bateria para arduino ? </p>
<p>pagina 7, archivo drumtrigger.ino</p>
<p>What would be a good alternative for Pringles cans?</p>
<p>I don't have the skills or the time to make these, but would LOVE to have it!!! If someone made this and would sell it to me I will buy it from you! Please set me up here, and I will give you my info! Thanks so much!!</p><p>Randy</p>
<p>Wow! Can it be extended with more pads?</p>
<p>Yes, you can add more pads. The Pro Micro I used has extra analog input pins A6, A7, A8, A9 and A10 - see </p><p><a href="https://learn.sparkfun.com/tutorials/pro-micro--fio-v3-hookup-guide/hardware-overview-pro-micro">https://learn.sparkfun.com/tutorials/pro-micro--fi...</a></p><p>To add extra channels in the drumtrigger.ino sketch:</p><p>- change NCHANNELS from 4 to the number of channels</p><p>- add items to the end of the inPins array (after A0, A1, A2, A3) with the pin numbers for the new pads</p><p>- add items to the end of midiNotes with the note values for the new pads</p><p>- add items to the end of the thresholdLevel and maxLevel arrays (these can be the same as the other values, or you can adjust them if required).</p><p>Have fun!</p><p>Ian</p>
<p>Ian, as promised, here is a picture of mine.</p><p>It is based on your idea and code. At the end, I was successful in using a Leonardo to avoid the USB cable.</p><p><a href="http://www.hoeser-medien.de/2016/11/arduino-leanordo-midi-drum-kit/" rel="nofollow">http://www.hoeser-medien.de/2016/11/arduino-leanor...</a></p><p>The code has to be updated for calling the standard MIDI functions of the new core:</p><p>usbMIDI.sendNoteOn(midiNotes[ch], vel, MIDI_CHANNEL);</p>
<p>Hi - thanks for posting pictures and code! Hope you have fun with it.</p><p>Cheers</p><p>Ian</p>
<p>Hi, what do I do for this project to work on arduino nano.</p>
<p>Hi - the nano is based on the 328 so you have to share the serial port with the host connection (for firmware upload). You'll need to change '#define MIDI_SERIAL Serial1' to '#define MIDI_SERIAL Serial' in the sketch.</p><p>Otherwise it should work the same as the Pro Micro version does. </p>
<p>Oi ! gostaria de fazer a simula&ccedil;&atilde;o deste projeto, no entanto estou com dificuldades em encontrar os componentes necess&aacute;rios no software! Estou usando o proteus</p>
<p>Very nice!</p><p>How about a PC or Android phones? Would an E-mu Midi 1x1 work or a cable? Any suggestions about apps or programs ? </p>
<p>Yes - it'll be fine on a PC with a USB-MIDI converter, the E-mu one looks fine. Best low-price music software I've used is Reaper (www.reaper.fm) which runs on pretty much anything and is very full-featured. </p><p>I've never used music software on an Android phone - you might need to ask around in Internet forums - but anything than can be controlled from a MIDI keyboard will work with this.</p><p>Have fun!</p><p>Ian</p>
<p>Hi,</p><p>I love the idea, and I'm on the verge of making it with 6 drums connected from A0 to A5 (using a Deek Robot with an ATMega328P, although I usually make my own Arduino compatible boards clocked at 20MHz). I'm going to power it through USB attached to the MacBook, so far so good. How would I do to send the TX back to the USB (and avoid the MIDI connection completely) so it's recognised as an autonomous USB device without the need of a MIDI adapter plugged in another USB port (I don't have so many ports...)?</p><p>I'm voting for you anyway :-)</p><p>Cheers</p>
<p>If you used a 32U8 based device (e.g. Leonardo or Micro) there's an Arduino MIDI USB library (see tutorial at </p><p><a>https://www.arduino.cc/en/Reference/MIDIUSB) </a> which will do the right thing. The example code has noteOn() and noteOff() functions which are almost drop-in replacements for MIDI_noteOn() and MIDI_noteOff() in the drumtrigger sketch. (You'll need to make up a 'note off' velocity when calling noteOff(); my code fixes this to be 1).</p><p>Sadly this won't work with a 328-based device like the Uno, because the USB connection doesn't go direct to the chip. You could look at this Instructable - </p><p><a href="https://www.instructables.com/id/Turn-your-Arduino-Uno-into-an-USB-HID-Mididevice/">https://www.instructables.com/id/Turn-your-Arduino-...</a> - but I don't know whether the same tricks would work on your board (it relies on being able to reprogram the Uno's 8U2 USB-to-serial chip).</p><p>Thanks</p><p>Ian</p>
<p>I don't have a USB on the Deek Robot, therefore I don't care at all about the ability to reprogram the USB-to-Serial chip ;-)</p><p>I'm going to use the V-USB library (<a href="https://www.obdev.at/products/vusb/index.html" rel="nofollow">https://www.obdev.at/products/vusb/index.html</a>) to get there, they already have MIDI Controllers with beautifully commented code, but they use D2 with PORTC commands so I'll have to move the LED somewhere else.</p><p>I'll let you know how it works :-)</p>
<p>its very hard man</p>
<p>Very nice and simple solution of a drum kit! :)<br>Will definitely build one. Also voted for you in the constest! </p>
<p>That's clever !</p><p>Concerning the code I get &quot;Serial1 was not detected in this scope&quot;</p><p>I use an arduino UNO card, unstead Pro Micro card. Could it be the reason of the error message ?</p><p>Many thanks for your help</p><p>Jean-Claude from France</p>
<p>Yes - the 32U4 based boards like the Micro and Leonardo have a &quot;Serial&quot;, which is the USB connection to the host, and a &quot;Serial1&quot; which is the separate Rx/Tx pins on the board.</p><p>For a Uno you can change Serial1 to Serial everywhere, and use the Uno's Tx pin for MIDI out, but note that this serial port is also used for programming the Uno. So you will need to disconnect anything connected to MIDI out when uploading the sketch, to stop it receiving rubbish.</p><p>Thanks</p><p>Ian </p>
Hi Ian,<br><br>Many thanks for your quick answer, which is very accurate<br><br>For me, the simplest solution is to order a Arduino micro card. So I placed an order a few minutes ago. I'll be back to you when It works<br>Have a good day<br>Jean Claude
<p>Nice job. Cool idea and your project description is really good.</p><p>This will be a nice christmas present for my son.</p>
<p>Thanks - if you build one, post a picture!</p><p>Cheers</p><p>Ian</p>
<p>Very cool. I think you need to branch out and try some more varieties of Pringles, though! Would be great to see it in action, too</p>
<p>Ta-daa! Quick video now posted. Disclaimer - I am *not* a drummer, as you can tell.</p>
Hello, I love this,I NEED this! Lol....awesome idea,but where is the video of you trying them out?
<p>It's just under the first picture, on the front page (for me at least). The video itself is at <a href="https://vimeo.com/189460103"> https://vimeo.com/189460103 </a> (called &quot;Pringles can drum kit&quot;) if that's easier.</p><p>Thanks</p><p>Ian</p>
<p>great stuff. Sounds crisp</p>
<p>Was that a pun? *crisp*</p>
<p>This is just so awesome!</p>
<p>perfect! That is so cool</p>
<p>That is epic </p>
<p>Awesome build. </p>
That's some creative recycling there....

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