Picture of Step-by-Step Earthbag Building
This Instructable explains each main step of construction for building vertical earthbag walls. Videos on my Earthbag Natural Building YouTube channel demonstrate the process.

For those who don’t know, earthbag building uses polypropylene rice bags or feed bags filled with soil or insulation that are stacked like masonry and tamped flat. Barbed wire between courses keeps bags from slipping and adds tensile strength. The final plastered walls look just like adobe structures. Thousands of people are now building with bags to create their dream homes, home offices, shops, resorts, rootcellars, storm cellars and survival shelters. Non-profit organizations are building schools, orphanages, emergency shelters and other structures.

I got involved with earthbag building when the Indian Ocean tsunami hit Southeast Asia in December, 2004. As the director of Builders Without Borders at that time, I searched all available affordable, sustainable building methods and decided building with bags was the most practical. They’re flood resistant (used for flood control), earthquake resistant (passed an ICBO shake table test), bullet and blast resistant (used for military bunkers), and now engineer and code approved plans are available. Just search for earthbag house plans on the Internet.

Our websites at and Earthbag Building Blog explain just about everything you need to know for free. And if you’re looking for house plans, my Earthbag House Plans site features over 110 sustainable plans that can be purchased through Dream Green Homes. My new Earthbag Building Guide and Earthbag Building DVD are now available.

The following instructions assume you have cleared and leveled the site, removed topsoil, positioned fill soil around the building site to minimize work, dug a trench to stable subsoil, put about 12” of gravel in the trench, and added corner guides and stringlines.

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oper8or12 days ago

where do you get the bags, and how much do they cost? I live in the Arizona desert, and would LOVE to give this a try.

Owen Geiger (author)  oper8or10 days ago

Search online for poly bag companies near you. We have a list of major bag suppliers at in our Resources section. (scroll down the page) Order 18" wide sand bags or poly tubing. It's a little confusing because there are so many types of plastic products. Not all are strong enough for earthbag building. Get products specifically labeled sand bag, earthbag, etc. Order one bag and test it for strength before buying in bulk.

Owen Geiger (author) 1 month ago

Watch my free videos on YouTube for more details. It's the first link at the beginning of this article.

Filling the bags: Most people use ordinary subsoil with clay and sand. No special mix is required. You want enough clay to bind the sand together so the earthbags are solid. I like road base because it's easy to get and uniform with the ideal mix of clay/sand.

No need to fire the earthbags! That would be a huge waste. Earthbag building is very similar to rammed earth that in some cases has lasted thousands of years. Search Ancient Rammed Earth Structures.

Window and doors, etc.: consult a standard carpentry book from a library. Get one with lots of easy to understand drawings.

PerryT11 month ago

You don't discuss what material to use for filling the bags, how to make door and window frames nor firing the home once it is built. What are you putting in these bags and do you intend to fire it as a ceramic or leave it stand as is?

artmonger5 months ago

This seems to be more expensive than it needs to be.... used tires and a sledge hammer... better insulation and you can get a ton of tires for free.... fill the tires with earth... and sledge it in...

these seem more diverse, but nuggit... depends on the project, i guess.

good instructable anyways!

Owen Geiger (author)  artmonger5 months ago

Many people are not strong enough to ram earth in tires. What I tell people is try both as an experiment and time yourself. Ram one tire, then do one earthbag. Earthbags are several times faster per unit of wall area. Plus, you can get recycled bags to cut the cost. Check feed stores, brewers, etc.

etadesse6 months ago

This post on the left is what I am talking about. What is the space between the two posts? Would you put instruction How to do it and most of all the material.

Owen Geiger (author)  etadesse5 months ago

Sorry, I don't know what you mean.

wheeldeals3 years ago
Hi Owen,

I have been researching using earthbags here in N. Florida and have decided to use some plans found online. As far as building the walls how long does the process normally take two average guys for 450 sq ft? I am going to start with a small and straightforward plan at first. I have priced the bags and tools to do the job and can spend less than $500 to fully enclose the structure.Any tips or suggestions?

How is your earth bag project coming along? I live in SW Florida and would love to build this way. My husband is concerned about cooling for the summer and damp. Curious as to how you solved these challenges.

Owen Geiger (author)  CoachNickyRoberts5 months ago

Earthbags are popular in tropical climates. No problems with moisture if you follow the recommendations given here and in my earthbag ebook. It boils down to 1. building a good roof, 2. providing adequate roof overhang, 3. raising the earthbags above the splash line to avoid moisture problems. I use gravel bags as a foundation because they're unaffected by waer.

The inside of the house will stay cool year-round if you follow my advice in two blog posts at Natural Building Blog called Passive Cooling Strategies. Lots of low cost, low tech cooling methods are described. No AC needed.

Owen Geiger (author)  wheeldeals3 years ago
Check out our blog for answers to virtually every question (over 1,100 blog posts on every topic imaginable).

Here's the specific blog post about rate of earthbag wall building:

The speed depends on all sorts of details. Again, search our blog for keywords such as 'production', 'efficient', etc. I usually address this using the term production building or production earthbag building. Really think through every step because you can save lots of hard work. Buy good soil such as road base that can be shoveled directly into bags without mixing. Stack piles around the job site to reduce labor. Fill the bags on the wall so you don't have to lift heavy bags. Consider setting up a big tarp so you can work in the shade. Build a simple shape such as a rectangle or circle.

My YouTube videos show every step.
etadesse6 months ago

Hi Mr own,

I was wondering how the post that is set between sandbags are made ? Is that a plastic zigzag between the two post woods. What is the material nailed in between the two wooden post. Is that one string that is folded and nailed to the two posts?

Best Regards,


pnom7 months ago


I would like to know if this building method is approved in South Africa.

I believe it is provided you meet building codes.

jnewport222 years ago

In the state of California is it hard to obtain an actual passed permit and codes for the house. I just purchased my first piece of land and desire to make one of these homes and hope that it would pass permit.
Owen Geiger (author)  jnewport227 months ago

Contact They can get it code approved.


I would love to hear how your project goes as I live in California as well, and the only place I've ever heard of allowing EarthBags is San Bernardino County, but from what I understand, you may need to get an engineer to approve your earthbag plans before "pitching" it to your city. Hopefully Owen will give you a much more educated response..

I have been looking at Compressed Earth Blocks (CEB). I read that they are even cheaper to make, and faster to build with. However, the compression equipment is not so affordable. Under California building code, I heard they are classed as adobe bricks, which I believe is permitted to build walls with as long as they meet the strength requirements.

Here are some links related to CEB:

Owen Geiger

Owen Geiger - lever compression

Hydraulic compression
Owen Geiger (author)  vspin2 years ago
CEBs are great. Code issue are basically the same as anything else. They're especially good if you live in a rural area with few or no building codes. Then you can build dirt cheap. I know a guy who built a real nice CEB roundhouse about 700 sq. ft. for under $1,000. This is only possible if you do everything yourself with local materials (soil, poles, etc.). He used wood poles that radiate out from a center CEB column. He sloshed on lime wash to protect the CEBs. The only mistake I know of was his roof method. He used rough sawn lumber covered with plastic sheeting and dirt. The dirt had ants and termites that eventually messed up the roof. It's better to use metal roofing. That also makes it easy to collect roofwater, which would have been helpful since he built in the desert. One interesting part of the story is the building process seemed to have healed him of a life threatening disease. The hard work out in the fresh air, change of diet, lower stress, etc. probably saved his life. I think he's still alive and still building alternative structures. He shuns publicity though and so many haven't heard his story.
Owen Geiger (author)  jnewport222 years ago
It's difficult to gain code approval in populated urban areas due to all the code requirements. We always recommend less populated areas. Remote rural areas with few or no building codes are ideal, so you can build whatever you want without harassment. This also saves you a ton of money. Restrictive codes do have some benefits, but they come at a huge cost. Codes can drive up the cost of construction 10-fold. California is one of the worst places unless you're off in the desert or some other remote place. Talk to your local building officials and see what they require. You'll probably need an engineer to sign off on the project. That can cost $2,500 minimum. And, they'll likely make you add thousands of dollars of extra things, force you to build to a minimum size with minimum room sizes, etc. etc.
dudedude12310 months ago
Where I can get polypropylene bags
Owen Geiger (author)  dudedude1237 months ago

Every major city in the world. They're super common since they're used for all sorts of things. Buy from the nearest city because shipping is a large expense.

Could this be done with shredded tires as the fill? In order to enhance better pro-environmental-ness?
Yeah, probably. You can also use stacked tires in lieu of bags, kinda like how some of the earthships work.
Macki2 years ago
Macki Macki2 years ago
I have acreage in Greer, SC that I am wanting to build an alternative home for me and my daughter -- any words of wisdom?
Owen Geiger (author)  Macki2 years ago
We now have thousands of pages of free information on our websites. Use the built-in search engines at Natural Building Blog and to research every topic. Most topics now have several blog posts and/or articles that cover every detail. You can save lots of time by buying my $20 ebook since all the best ideas are distilled in one book.
skaar2 years ago
building a wooden form, latched on the side, sliding the bag in, filling and scraping the excess off the top would get a pretty near perfectly sized bag, it would also be easy to sew it closed... even better, a plywood funnel could be built, so filling would be easier.
Owen Geiger (author)  skaar2 years ago
Try it out, compare to other methods if possible and report back.
Owen Geiger (author)  skaar2 years ago
But that means: 1. moving the bag filling device around on the walls. It gets a little tricky walking on walls covered in barbed wire, especially high in the air. And, you'd have to move the form hundreds of times (for each bag). Or, 2. fill the bags on the ground and move the bags up on the wall. That's very strenuous. Try lifting heavy earthbags over your head all day. Or, 3. fill the bags on the ground and lift them with a tractor or some other lifting device. But you'd still have to move them into position by hand.

The standard earthbag techniques eliminate these problems. The final shape is fine. No need for perfect squared bags like this.
it'd be slid to the next one, exactly like the cookie sheet you use... you have 'to move the' sheet 'hundreds of times (for each bag)'.

your point about walking on barbed wire makes sense, if that's how you'd do it... i don't think it's necessary to do that... regardless, how does someone get full bags into place? they walk on the barbed wire? when you get to the top, you don't use step ladders?

you fill the bags and lift them up to the wall, over your head, by hand, you must be incredibly strong... and positioning them by hand, how else is it done? step6.

my suggestion is just to lay them flat in the first place, so there's no 'fiddling' around needed. they must be heavy, and hard on the back to tilt down like that. adding a handle of some sort to make pulling the sheet easier would be too much?

when you lay them down, they have to be moved into place, there's no way around it, if they're filled laying down, they're already aligned. the current method is good, but it's not ideal. the optimum bag sizes, for less wasted plastic, is a side benefit, that's all.
cgherrera2 years ago
Owen, I have seen your plans for the Beachcomber house and would like to build it. This will be a DIY project. We own 5.5 acres in SC (upstate) and would like to build an Earthbag home. We've gotten quotes on well and septic already. What do you estimate the remainder of the work for this home costing?
Owen Geiger (author)  cgherrera2 years ago
I never give cost estimates. You have to make your own cost estimate based on local prices, choice of materials, cost of permits, how much you'll spend on contractors, etc.
Chloie2 years ago
Thanks so much for sharing this great info. Can you tell me what I need to do when erecting the house to allow for electrical wiring for solar/wind power?
Thanks, again!
Owen Geiger (author)  Chloie2 years ago
Everything is on our websites for free. Use the built-in search engines and search for electrical. 99% of plumbing, electrical, roof, etc. are same as any other building.
Thank you! I had tried several searches but I guess I was just putting in the wron word combos. Appreciate the tip!
mikelz4 years ago
The only thing I can imagine this is good for is providing cover during a fire fight.
Owen Geiger (author)  mikelz2 years ago
Lots of people would disagree. Thousands of people all over the world are building earthbag homes. Just google Earthbag Houses and you can easily spend a whole day looking at images on google and reading earthbag blogs.
mlipsham mikelz3 years ago
Really? You lack imagination.
Ward_Nox2 years ago
I've been thinking of making somthing like this for a while now, this DIY is helpful
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