Introduction: Casting Iron Using Aluminothermic Reaction
******PLEASE DO NOT CONTINUE IF YOU ARE NOT SURE******
This project is both fun and gives some basic insight into metallergy & Basic Chemistry. This experiment should be carried out by Persons with some basic knowledge of chemistry and should not be attempted in anyway by inexperienced [Under Aged] Persons without adult supervision as in the wrong hands this is dangerous..............
Please be aware I am not responsible for the actions of the Irresponsible PROCEED WITH CAUTION !!!!!!!!!!!
This process is very well known and was discovered by a German Chemist Called Hans Goldschmidt ****[Please Google Him.......]****
It is basically an Exothermic reaction that involves >An Oxidised Metal & A Reducing Metal-----When Used in the right proportions the Oxidised Metal Is Reduced By the Reducing Metal Which In Turn Becomes Oxidised............The Oxygen swaps from one metal to the other >>>>>I will explain why this works later on in this Instructable....<<<<<<.
Step 1: Materials
Lets Begin:-If you view my, Previous Instructable MAKING IRON OXIDE A DIFFERENT WAY You can make one of the main materials for this project: There are also sources for making the aluminium which is possible but an expensive mill is necessary and more time. There are plenty of sites for buying both at Ebay & Amazon.
Using my (Fe2O3) you will need at least 80gms of finely powedered Iron Oxide. and 26gms of [Finely Powdered (Al) 250Micron].
You will need a metal container any EMPTY steel WD40 or Small MIG gas bottle [EMPTY] and clean//// I used wheel bearing cases of different sizes and made a stack. Steel Plate A4 Size [210x297] X 19mm - (1) tissue role or 2" thick cardboard tube.
Starter Mix: Magnesium Chunk /Powder ---Potassium Permangante & Glycerine
You will Need a Refractory Material Like [SIO2] Sand Clean [wash several times and DRY!] or AL2O3
Safety Gear : Goggles /Gloves /Apron /Boots /Foam Fire Hydrant / bucket Of Water VENTILATION or do [OUTSIDE]
Tongs & Hammer.
2 Breaze Blocks or bricks.
Step 2: Proceedure
Taking Your Steel Plate
Place on top of your breaze block or 2 bricks - if this is to be done inside a garage or a blacksmith type area - all fire regulations and safety precautions must be followed carefully - especially ventilation.....
If to be done outside make sure it is set away from combustibles and a walk way route is possible.
Iron Mix :Take a small Zip lock bag - Pour in The 80gms of Iron Oxide and 26gms of Al Powder and put inside bag. Now Seal and mix by rubbing between fingers lightly until you have a grey powder.
Take your steel vessel / can - line with about 15mm of Sand or Aluminium oxide . Using a cardboard tube like a tissue role place in the centre of the can. A ( 15mm) gap should be observed outside the cardboard tube. Now infill this gap with refractory material. Holding the tube Fill with Iron mixture and gently tamp down. Both Refractory and Iron mix should be level - it does not matter if the iron mix is lower.
Step 3: Procedure [Part 2]
***********Safety gear should be worn throughout and caution is paramount ***********
Fire mix : Now make a small dimple in the middle of your mix and place a pinch of magnesium fines, in a small pile.
Put a small dimple in the middle of this again - now place a pinch of KMn04 using a piece of paper with a crease pour into dimple.
Now this is the important part, depending on humidity/ temperature and purity of these materials - the reaction may proceed slowly or reasonable quick, after a small drop of glycerin has been added on top of the Permanganate. You now have 30 / 45 seconds to move a safe distance away.....
Sometimes there may be no reaction at all - if this happens then use a long hot wire and touch the mix to introduce the necessary activation energy. The auto-ignition of the [Fire Mix] then provides the heat necessary to ignite the main charge of ferro-aluminium mix and reduction will then take place.
*******Please retire to a safe distance!!!!!!! ******
Until reaction has finished .....If ignition fails attempt again after 5 mins...
Step 4: Beware!!! Bright Light & Heat
The chemistry <<<<< what is taking place>>>>>> Is and Exothermic reaction> A massive amount of energy in the form heat and light is given out. This occurs because the energy released by the Reactants is greater then the energy of the Products. Bonds are broken and re-formed=Electrons are given & taken.....
This kind of reaction is also known as a REDOX reaction/// what is happening is, when Oxygen bonds to Iron Fe- The iron becomes Oxidised Fe III +3 because O2 Oxygen is electronegative -2 and steals Fe's electrons.
When we react Al powder with our Oxidised Iron [Fe2O3] - Something Weird happens......Because Al is an electro-positive +3 potential, it gives back or Donates it's electrons. So Fe III + 3e can now become Fe . In the process Al becomes oxidised because it loses its electrons Al is now, Al III +3 or (Al2O3) in the complete sense.
It is this electron transference which causes the heat See: (Bond Enthalpy) / (Activation Energy ) Wiki Pedia........Google most of the key words it may help you understand basic terminology ....
Step 5: Let Cool for 30mins Then Remove Shell
Image (1) is 10mins after the reaction has ceased- you will need to walk away and leave to cool for 30mins more.
Image (2-3) remove casting cylinder and big chunk should be visible.
Image (4-5) using tongs turn chunk on it's side tap with a hammer with reasonable force to crack shell -(Think Walnut).
Now our shiny nugget of iron is revealed.....
Well done if yours is perfect - mine has a puddle beneath ;))
Conclusion: The product can make an excellent craft piece. I have made several larger pieces they can be used as an office paper weight /a pen base-stand or a collection piece for a collector of elements.....
Please Enjoy - Be careful - and feedback would be most appreciated Inspecter Gadget.............