Introduction: Chaise Lounge


Instructors: Kyle Steinfeld, Simon Schleicher, Jonathan Bachrach, Luis Jaggy

Team: Cindy Hartono, Fei Du, Eleanna Panagoulia, Shima Sahebnassagh

Main goal of this project is to explore the design potentials of bending techniques and to test the ways that these can be materialized in implemented in the design of an office chaise lounge for one person. The proposal studies the phenomenon of bending, as a method to examine structures that deviate from conventional methodologies.

Step 1: Pinching


This project investigates the techniques of pinching and riveting and aims to implement them in the creation of an office chaise lounge. Pinching can be described as the process of removing a part of a planar surface, and connecting the edges of the cut out shape, allowing the surface to bend accordingly in three dimensions. This process appears to have two main benefits: firts, it produces intricate shapes out ofa single planar surface, second, it creates three dimensional elements that perform structurally at the bended state.

Step 2: Riveting


Riveting and particularly blind riveting, is used as a method to permanently join the open edges of the surface or join multiple surfaces together. Rivets can support tension loads, as well as shear loads. In this project we explored the limitations of this technique in terms of dimension contraints as well as material thickness.

Step 3: Parameterization

Individual modules that vary in curvature and bending radius, according to the cut out pattern.

Step 4: Angle Study of Bent Elements

Adaptation to human body

The realization of the project involved a number of both digital and physical experimentation. These experiments aimed to optimize the shape structurally, as well as functionally. Given an approximation of the overall shape, the modifications concentrated on adjusting the angles of the chaise, so that it is comfortable and adapted to the human body, and on strengthening the weak areas of the shape.

Step 5: Adaptation to Human Body

Selection of certain modules that achieve the desired angles when bent.

Step 6: Comparison With Existing Chairs

Adaptation to the human body.

Comparison and matching with existing manufactured chairs that fit the body in different angles.

Step 7: Optimization of the Top Surface

Optimization of the top surface of the chaise.

Step 8: Optimization of the Bottom Part

Optimization of the bottom part of the chaise.

Step 9: Human Proportions

Depiction of human proportions and how these are achieved from the final design of the chaise.

Diagram refers to the top surface, because it is the one that needs to function as a seating area.

Step 10: Plan and Section

Step 11: Materialization

The material system chosen in this project is 4ft. x 8ft. high density polyethylene (HDPE) sheets of 1/16’’ thickness. The process that we followed involves material properties investigation (minimum bending radii, Young’s modulus etc.) and bending simulation in the FEA software Sofistik, in order to explore and finalize the bended shape. The fabrication method that is the most suitable for this material in terms of speed and accuracy, is cutting in the Zund blade cutter.

Step 12: Cut File

Layout of the 2D cut file.

Step 13: Fabrication

Zund blade cutter, University of California Berkeley.

Cutting tool: Z10 blade

Step 14: Cut Pieces

Flat surfaces after cutting.

Step 15: Bending

Bending process in order to connect the edges of the cut out pattern by overlapping the tabs and aligning the holes for the rivets.

Step 16: Riveting

Riveting process through 2 layers of plastic sheets.

Step 17: Drilling

Drilling holes in order to connect the tabs with rivets.

Step 18: Calibrating

Aligning and clamping the surfaces together in order to match and attach the second surface accurately.

Step 19: Connect 2 Surfaces

Rivet the surfaces to each other.

Step 20: Adding Supporting Elements

Measure and align in order to place the supporting elements after attaching the surfaces with each other.

Step 21: Riveting Through 4 Layers

Attach and connect the last bottom surface at the end of the assembly process.

Riveting through 4 layers of plastic sheets.

Step 22: Full Scale Model

Final assembled model, front view

Step 23: Full Scale Model

Final assembled model, side view

Step 24: Full Scale Model

Final assembled model, perspective view

Step 25: Full Scale Model

Final assembled model, perspective view

Step 26: Envision, Function

View of the full scale model.

Step 27: Previous Studies

The following images will be associated with previous studies.

Step 28: Cone Structural Grid

Cone structural grid based on the Kagome pattern.

Step 29: Form Finding

Single pinching units.

Step 30: Form Finding With Combined Units

Initial envision of the chaise lounge.

Step 31: Second Iteration of the Unit

Second iteration of the pinched unit, examining ways it can achieve a desired shape.

Step 32: Structural Pattern No.2

Structural pattern based on a regular hexagonal grid.

Material: Paper - based (Bristol)

Step 33: Combination of the Revised Unit

Combination of 2 units in an investigation of sitting positions.

Step 34: Structural Pattern No.1

Structural pattern based on a star shape regular grid.

Material: Paper - based (Bristol)

Step 35: Structural Pattern No.3

Structural pattern based on a parametric star shape grid.

Material: Paper - based (Bristol)

Step 36: Structural Pattern No.4

Structural grid based on a parametric hexagonal grid.

Material: Polyethylene 1/32'' thickness

Step 37: Structural Pattern No.5

Structural pattern based on a parametric hexagonal grid.

Material: Polycarbonate 1/64'' thickness.

Step 38: Structure Strategy No.1

Lamination technique in order to strengthen the general shape.

Step 39: Structure Strategy No.2

Strengthening the general shape by adding supporting metal rods to the critical positions.

Step 40: Structure Strategy No.3

Combining the general form with a three dimensional structural pattern based on a hexagonal grid.