Introduction: IOT Based Forest Fire Detection System

●Forest fires have been a pressing problem for decades in India and come
to limelight only when major incidents like that in Uttarakhand occur.

●According to the forest department of Uttarakhand, 3399 hectares forest cover has been gutted in 1451 forest fire incidents in the state this year and a loss of Rs 63.40 lakh had been calculated.

●As we can see that forest fires are increasing in number every year and this also indicates the failure of existing systems to detect and prevent such natural disasters

Step 1: Proposed System

●The proposed solution recommends SOLAR base stand-alone boxes which are to be deployed throughout a forest. Each box contains HUMIDITY,TEMPERATURE,CO sensors coupled with microcontroller and a xbee module for data communication. These units communicate wirelessly and send the data collected from all the sensors to a base station/Gateway that contains a central computer and an Internet connection. The fire detection is done on the basis of ARMSTRONG FIRE INDEX along with the values of gas sensors.

● In case of fire forest breaks out, a message to the concerned authority is sent first and then the data collected will be uploaded in a database from the base station computer to an online website. As such, the Forest Fire Unit would have access to statistics and can monitor a live feed from each forest. These sensors can be in active mode to sleep mode to save energy. They measure their corresponding parameters every 1 minute and transmit them in a string to the base station unit. As naturally expected, it is not practical to power up these wireless sensors using electricity or batteries. Hence, it is preferred for these devices to have renewable form of energy that charges the battery such as solar energy system.


Step 3: Block Diagram

Step 4: Components Used

Step 5: Transmitter Node

The environmental parameters like temperature , humidity & CO gas are monitored and collected using arduino are transmitted through xbee rf communication. The xbee are programmed in AT mode.


Step 6: Gateway

The gateway here is PC with internet-connection. The Co-ordinator xbee is connected to the pc via usb port using the break-out board. To read data from the serial bus we developed a python script that reads data from COM port , processes it , published to the cloud and is also resposible for detection of forest fire.

We are using thingsboard server for the IOT dashboard and IFTT for sending alert sms and Email.


Step 7: Results:

Step 8: