Introduction: LED Voltage Range Indicator
In this instructable we will be making a simple voltage range indicator. i designed the circuit to show voltage levels from 3v to 30v in eight steps, you can increase the number of steps or the voltage or both depending on your need.
Step 1: Components Required
1. Zener diodes (of various values. i took zeners of values 1.2v, 3.3v, 5.1v, 7.2v, 10.2v, 13.2v, 22v and 27.3v)
2. LEDs of any colour
3. resistors ( 12Kohm )
Step 2: A Little Knowledge About Zener Diodes
A normal diode acts as a short circuit (very low resistance) in forward bias condition while in reverse bias condition, it acts as a open circuit ( very high resistance). a zener diode also acts as a short circuit in forward bias condition but in reverse bias condition when the voltage across the zener diode crosses its break down voltage then current starts flowing through the zener (i.e it acts as low resistance path in reverse bias).
Step 3: Single Led Voltage Indicator
consider the voltage level at which we need the led to light is v1 and the led on voltage is v2 then the zener diode to be selected for this voltage level is = v1-v2
*voltage level to be indicated is 5v
*led forward voltages for various leds are :
red led- 1.7v
green,yellow led -1.8v to 2v
white or blue led -2.8v to 3v
lets take red led so forward voltage is 1.7v
*zener diode to be considered is = 5v-1.7v = 3.3v
now connect the zener diode to led and a series resistor of 12Kohm to limit the current going to the led. now this led will light up when the voltage across this setup crosses 5v.
Step 4: Multiple Steps
Now add many such modules in parallel using various zener values such that each module will indicate a different voltage value starting from lowest to the highest voltage. i added 8 steps of 3v(1.2v zener), 5v(3.3v zener), 7v(5.1v zener), 9v(7.2v zener), 12v(10.2v zener) ,15v (13.2v zener), 24v (22v zener), 30v (24v+3.3v zener). you can also add a series resistor of 330ohm to this whole setup to drop the current more.
Step 5: Solder, Casing and Caliberation
The setup can be soldered on a pcb and this can be covered with paper tape or cardboard to provide protection to the circuit and also to diffuse the led light. the voltage levels can be calliberated using a multimeter and these voltage levels can be marked on the voltage indicator.
Step 6: Applications
This voltage indicator can be permanently fixed to a variable power supply(like i did in this picture) to monitor the voltage or it can be used as a portable voltmeter.
6 years ago
Hi sir, Does the first LED will be the brightest when all the LED light up?
Reply 3 years ago
Yes. this can be seen in the photos.
Question 4 years ago on Step 4
Since the LEDs are in parallel that means each branch will be getting the same voltage. Since the voltage drop of the zener diod and led dont change, then wouldent the led burn out as you increase the voltage. I dont understand why the increase in voltage does not burn out the led
Answer 3 years ago
With the 12K resistor in the circuit it would take 240V to exceed the (typically 20mA) safe current limit for the LED - the resistor would get smoking hot too. If you want something with better control of the LED current look into the LM7915 chip from TI.
6 years ago
The easiest way is this. So thank you dude
8 years ago
superb work. I learned what is a zener diode.