How to Make Line Follower Robot Using Arduino

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Introduction: How to Make Line Follower Robot Using Arduino

About: I am a student...

In this instructable, I will teach you how to make a line follower robot using Arduino, which is a very common microcontroller board. The robot will use two infrared proximity sensors to detect the line and on the basis of input received from the sensors, the Arduino will direct the motors to move with the help of a motor shield.

Step 1: The Working

So there will be infrared proximity sensors placed on either side at the front of the robot. There are four possible sensor outcomes:-

Case 1:-

In this case, both the sensors don't detect the line. Both the motors rotate forward. As a result, the car moves forward.

Case 2:-

In this case, only the left sensor detects the line which means that the car requires to turn in the left direction. The left motor rotates backward and the right motor rotates forward. As a result, the car turns left.

Case 3:-

In this case, only the right sensor detects the line which means that the car requires to turn in the right direction. The left motor rotates forward and the right motor rotates backward. As a result, the car turns right.

Case 4:-

In this case, both the sensors detect the line. This means that the end has come. Both the motors stop rotating. As a result, the car stops.

That is the working structure of our robot...

Step 2: Parts Required

The parts required to build the robot are as follows:

  • Chassis (including motors and wheels )
  • Arduino Uno r3
  • L293D Motor Shield
  • IR Proximity Sensors (pair)
  • Jumper Wires
  • Switch
  • 4AA Battery Holder

Tools required:-

  • Soldering Iron
  • Hot Glue Gun
  • Screw Driver

Gather these parts and be ready for the next step ...

Step 3: Assemble the Chassis

Now, assemble your robot body. Everyone may have a different chassis. So assemble your chassis accordingly. Most of the chassis come with an instruction manual and even mine came with it so have a look at it and build your chassis accordingly. Then, attach the components to the chassis. Arduino, with the motor shield attached to it and also the battery holder must be fixed on the chassis.

Also, attach the proximity sensors at the front on either side, facing down. Make sure that they are attached at the corners...

Attach the switch too...

Solder wires to the motors and also switch and keep ready...

Step 4: Main Connections

Now do the connections as per the diagram above...

Left Sensor>>Arduino:-

  • Vcc>>5v
  • Gnd>>Gnd
  • Out>>A4

Right Sensor>>Arduino:-

  • Vcc>>5v
  • Gnd>>Gnd
  • Out>>A5

Connect the motors to the motor shield and plug the motor shield onto the Arduino board. Connect the battery holder to the shield through a switch. That's it for the connections, let's move on to the next step...

Step 5: Arduino Code

Now its time for the main thing- coding our robot...

Download my Arduino code file or write up your own code to get done...

Microcontroller Contest

Participated in the
Microcontroller Contest

3 People Made This Project!

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40 Discussions

0
Lê1998
Lê1998

1 year ago

I have a library error "<AFMotor.h>" how to fix it?
0
Aarav G
Aarav G

Reply 1 year ago

For that, you have to first download the afmotor library from the internet. Just type in "afmotor library download" in the google search bar and the first link will take you to the GitHub repository from where you can download the library which will be in a zip form. Then you just have to add the library in the Arduino ide by clicking on the "add .zip library" option. Then just include the library in your sketch. Its simple!!!

0
Parwesh
Parwesh

Reply 7 months ago

Download adafruit-Adafruit-Motor-Shield-library

4
wahyukurniansyah88
wahyukurniansyah88

10 months ago

I have succeeded. My sensor light is on, but the sensor cannot detect the line. Are there errors in the program? Please help me please... fast respon
0
Aarav G
Aarav G

Reply 9 months ago

It depends.... The error might be hardware related too... You might have burnt your sensor hardware or they might be an error in the code.... Because you need to do minor changes to successfully run the provided code in your bot.... Kindly provide more details so that I can help you....

0
Kakdeka
Kakdeka

11 months ago on Step 5

How to code it with mblock?

0
Aarav G
Aarav G

Reply 9 months ago

I'm sorry but I have no idea regarding what mblock is.... You can use the Arduino IDE to code it.....

0
aniokesam
aniokesam

1 year ago

why was black insulation tape used?, could anything be used to make the line?

0
Aarav G
Aarav G

Best Answer 1 year ago

Ya u can use any kind of black paper or something that's black. I used a black PVC insulation tape because it reflects very less light so it avoids interference with the infrared sensors.

0
aniokesam
aniokesam

1 year ago

please what is the black line made of?

0
Aarav G
Aarav G

Answer 1 year ago

It is made of a black insulation tape :D

0
hamdef3000
hamdef3000

1 year ago

my robot doesn't perform well on 1 inch line width, it never complete a turning, its like the robot sensor already past the line before it successfully turning. i tweaked a lot of things, seems like i need to make my own algorithm

0
Aarav G
Aarav G

Reply 1 year ago

No, in your case the problem is not at all with the programming or the algorithm. It is just because of the nature and size of ur line. Also the placing of your sensors. Place them at the far front ends. Also ensure no sunlight is present at the place where you are testing the model because it intervenes with the functioning of the infrared proximity sensor. Ensure all these...

0
Aarav G
Aarav G

Reply 1 year ago

Thank you!!

0
sounddrill31
sounddrill31

1 year ago

i want to do this project for a science exhibition.This is a well done and well explained project.Can i please get a circuit .fzz from fritzing to connect the motor shield to the motors?

0
Aarav G
Aarav G

Reply 1 year ago

Thanks for the compliment. I can surely provide you with the needed schematic of the motors to the motor shield. In the fritzing sketch, I have labeled the motor shield connectors and connected motor pins to the labels. In the motor shield, you have four motor connectors out of which you will be using only two connectors. So in the code, you can change whichever connectors you are going to use accordingly...

0
Lê1998
Lê1998

1 year ago

Looking forward to hearing from you! please

0
Aarav G
Aarav G

Reply 1 year ago

Hi! Thanks for reading...