Introduction: Logitech 3D Extreme Pro Hall Effect Sensor Conversion
The rudder control on my joystick was going out. I tried taking the pots apart and cleaning them, but it didn't really help. So I started searching for replacement pots, and stumbled across a few different websites from several years ago that referred to installing hall effect sensors instead of the pots. Sensing a great project idea, I decided I would do the conversion and publish the instructions here so others can do the same.
I designed this conversion to be 100% easily reversible - there are no wires to cut, and only 2 wires to solder on the main board for power (and a little plastic removal around the throttle that isn't needed). The rest of the cutting and soldering is on the new components themselves.
When disassembling the joystick, take note of what size screws go in which holes, as there are 2 different sizes used (on mine at least). Also make sure you take note of which pots in the joystick have the metal clips in them to help them stay installed. You'll need to install them with the new pots to hold them in place.
- Logitech 3D Extreme Pro Joystick (working with exception of pots)
- SS495 Hall effect Sensors x 4
- Diametrically magnetized rod magnets (0.1875" x 0.375") x 4
- #2 Round Head Sheet Metal Screw, 3/16" long x 5
- 3D printed components (see below)
- Assorted hookup wire
- Assorted heat shrink tubing
- Soldering iron
- Assorted electrical connectors
Step 1: Order and Print Materials for New "pot" Assembly
Depending on where you get the materials, some may have a longer lead time. I got the SS495's off eBay for about $6, but they shipped from China, so about 4 weeks to arrive. The magnets I used are D36DIA's from K&J Magnetics (about $0.65 ea, plus shipping). They are 3/16" dia x 3/8" long, grade N42. A similar magnet from any comparable supplier should yield similar results, though if it has a different strength, that may affect the overall response of the SS495's as a function of the distance from the magnet.
The rest of the pieces will need to be 3D-printed. At a minimum, you will need:
- 4 x Magnet Posts
- 3 x Straight Bases
- 1 x Angled Base (NOTE: Make at least 2 of these....see below)
- 4 x Sensor Slide Mounts
I strongly recommend printing extras of the magnet posts, and probably at least 1-2 spares for each piece, in case they break for some reason. Both the STEP file and the Autodesk Fusion 360 project file are available for download. Fusion 360 can be downloaded and licensed for free for 1 year if you create a hobbyist account. It's a very powerful piece of software. My boss at work has his own 3D printer production factory running out of his basement, so he graciously printed all of these pieces for me. He used Colorfabb nGen Copolyester filament with an 80% infill on a 0.10mm layer thicknesses.
Other note: The pot that goes to measure pitch near the board for the buttons on the left side of the joystick may work better as an angled base instead of a straight one. I built my joystick with a straight base, but final assembly was very tight, and I had to bend the wires for that pot more than I wanted to get everything back together....you may want to experiment on this one and at least have options.
Step 2: Polish and Fit Printed Pieces
The 3D printed pieces as designed and likely as printed will have some interference, and there will likely be burs and defects from printing. Specifically, the hole for the magnet to fit into on the post is printed undersized so there will be some interference to hold the magnet in place. In addition, the 7 mm hole in the bases is exactly the same size as the 7 mm outside diameter of the magnet post, so the hole in the bases will need to be carefully enlarged until it is the correct size.
For the magnet post, get a 3/16" drill bit, and CAREFULLY drill down into the hole where the magnet will go. Drill slowly, and stop once the tip of the drill bit hits the bottom of the tapered hole - continuing may remove the material that holds the top of the post onto the bottom. Do not drill for a long time, just long enough to get the hole cleaned up so that the magnet will press into it. You'll want a tight fit, so don't keep drilling and removing material from the post walls once the magnet goes in. I would also not recommend doing this if the plastic is too cold, as it may not flex properly and may go to large immediately - if the plastic flexes it will help the hole stay just under 3/16" nominal size. You'll need to experiment, which is why you printed extra pieces :-)
Once the magnet goes into the post, I used a countersink tool to clean up the chamfer at the top of the post to help guide the magnet in place. You may want to alternate the drill bit and this countersink tool to get the magnet in cleanly.
With the post and magnet fitting well, the base holes need to be cleaned up. With the smooth end of an appropriate size drill bit with sand paper (about 100 or 120 grit) wrapped around the SMOOTH end, clean up the inside of the 7 mm hole in the base. Continue until the post just slides in side of the hole and rotates reasonably freely. You'll want to take care here as well, as you don't want a lot of play between the base and the post.
With the post fitting into the base, double check that the 9 mm flange on the magnet post fits cleanly in the corresponding groove in the base, and if necessary, sand the outside of the flange of the post. I did this by pressing the post onto the smooth end of the 3/16" drill bit, and putting it in my drill (drilling end of the bit into the chuck) and running the flange it over sand paper, until the flange fits in the groove cleanly.
Finally, with the post and base fitting, lubricate them by putting graphite on the contacting surfaces with a pencil. Draw on all mating surfaces to leave a generous layer of graphite, and this will help it operate much more smoothly. Sand/cleanup surfaces as needed and reapply graphite to get smooth operation.
Step 3: Make the Sensor
The joystick connects to its exiting pots with female 3 pin connectors on a 0.100" pitch. This means we can use common header pins to make the connectors, with some modifications.
I wanted to make sure I wouldn't insert the pins backwards into the connector, so I cut a piece of plastic that I could glue onto the header pin base to make a key tab. The plastic came from a Walgreens children's medicine spoon, and I cut it to size with a tin snips and wire cutters to get it to the right size. I then used super glue to attach the plastic tabs to the header pin base to make the connector. The finished connector will only insert into the joystick connector one way. I'm sure you could print these too if you wanted to.
With the pin headers ready, now we need to begin soldering wires. I used 28AWG wire to keep it flexible and hopefully get everything to fit with the small pin spacing on the sensor. In my joystick, all 3 connectors followed the same pattern - you'll want to verify this configuration in yours, as there may be variations over the many versions of this joystick. With the plastic tab facing AWAY from you and pins down:
Left pin will be VCC (5 VDC - Red in the picture)
Middle will be the voltage signal back to the joystick (White with yellow shrink in the picture)
Right will be GND (Black in the pictures).
The wires soldered onto the header pins should be about 2" long - this will give you enough room to make the connection in the joystick but not so long that they become a nuisance on reassembly.
On the SS495 sensor side, you'll want to confirm the wiring sequence on your datasheet. Mine used the following with the FLAT side of the sensor facing you pins down:
Left: VCC (5 VDC)
See pictures for orientation. With the sensor made, I would recommend connecting it to a voltage source/breadboard and checking that the output changes with the change in magnetic field....when I made my first sensor, I had the signal and ground wires swapped on the sensor, and it got very warm very fast....By some miracle I didn't release the magic smoke from the sensor. Be sure to check that the sensor doesn't heat up and gives the expected voltage change with the magnetic field change.
Step 4: Assemble the "pots"
With the sensor wired to the connector and the magnet posts fitting in the bases, now the full pot can be assembled. See the 3D model from Step 1 for the full detail of assembly.
First - a word of warning - during final testing and setup of the joystick, I noticed that the throttle needs to have decreased sensitivity compared to the other axes, and as such the sensor needed to be farther away from the magnet than on the other posts. You may want to wait to assemble one final pot until you get the throttle setup in case you need to modify the slide or base to enable the sensor to be far enough away. I ended up making the adjustment by filing away plastic from the slide, but it took a while....it would have been easier to file the pocket that the sensor goes in and make it deeper.
Ok, continuing on.....
With each sensor and slide, use super glue to mount the sensor in the slide, as shown in the 3D model. The tapered portions of the sensor go into the pocket, with the flat of the sensor facing outward toward the magnet. The wires go up and out of the totally flat side of the slide. Make sure the sensor doesn't stick out past the bottom of the slide, or that will interfere with the flange on the magnet post when in operation.
Once the glue sets, the rest of the pot can be assembled. The magnets can be installed in the posts somewhat randomly at this point - you'll use a needle nose pliers to rotate them when installed in the joystick later during final adjustments. If you want to try to get it close, use a compass to find the sides of the magnet. Here's what you'll need to know:
North on the compass points to the side of the magnet that will give a 0V signal from the sensor
South points towards the 5V signal
Twisting the sensor in the pot towards CCW (counter clockwise, as viewed from the top of the pot) should decrease the voltage, so the sensor will move towards North, twisting CW should move the sensor towards the South pole, increasing the voltage.
With magnets installed in the posts, place the post in the base, and then put the slide on top of the base, and install the #2 screw to hold it all together. Check for free, but not sloppy operation, adjust as needed.
Step 5: Joystick Modifications
To remove the pots, firm steady force will get them out if they are held in with the small metal clips. The rudder pot is only held in with the handle assembly itself, and should come out with no issue.
The hall effect sensors require a full 5VDC to operate properly, but the joystick only supplies about 4.2 V to the pots, so we'll need to rewire things a bit. To get enough conneciton points for 5VDC and GND, we need jumpers off the incoming USB connector. Remove the board from the joystick so it can be modified.
For the power header/jumper, I used some old 4 pin connectors from a computer power supply I had laying around. Anything that will give you a minimum of 3 connections for a pin header will work. The wires from the connector were soldered together and to a common wire, one made for 5VDC (red) and GND (black), and heat shrink tubing applied where appropriate. These were soldered onto the bottom of the USB header on the board along with a small 3.3uF capacitor (just in case). I wasn't certain about the need for the cap, but figured it couldn't hurt. Obviously be very careful when soldering to make sure you don't make connections you don't intend.
With the power connection to the board made, this can be reinstalled in the joystick, running the connectors away from the board towards the side of the joystick where the main cable comes in.
Next you will need to remove the glue securing the 3 rudder sensor wires (blue, black, brown) coming out of the upper section. Carefully pull off the glue, and cut as needed to get it free.
From this connector, carefully remove the blue and brown wires from the connector. This can be done by gently prying up on the retaining clip for each pin in the connector. Later you will add extension wires to these pins to make the 5 VDC and GND connections for the sensor.
On the other 2 connectors for the main board, perform the same steps. For the connector going to the 2 pots near the base of the stick (stick tilt), remove the Red and Black wires from the connector. On the connector going to the throttle and side buttons, remove the Red and White wires (trace them back to the throttle to be sure).
Step 6: Make Jumper Wires and Make Power Connections
To connect the power headers to the connectors powering the sensors, I made 3 sets of jumpers. You can use existing breadboard wires if you have them....that's basically all these are.
Each wire was about 6" long - adjust as you see fit. 3 of each color are needed (red and black for 5 VDC and GND). Solder pins from your pin header supply on each end, and heat shrink tube as needed to help hold everything together. Insert the pins into the appropriate connector pins that you freed in the previous step:
Blue - 5 VDC (red jumper, red header)
Brown - GND (black jumper, black header)
Red - 5 VDC (red jumper, red header)
White - GND (black jumper, black header)
Pitch and Yaw (stick tilt):
Red - 5 VDC (red jumper, red header)
Black - GND (black jumper, black header)
Insert the other end of the jumper into the appropriate power header.
Edit May 7 2020 - Please see the Wiring Diagram PDF for additional info.
Step 7: Modify Throttle Housing
One permanent joystick modification - there's a useless piece of plastic sticking off the throttle housing that will get in the way of our new sensors. You'll need to cut it off flush with the rest of the housing.
Before removing the throttle housing, try to mark the relative position of the gear in the housing to the throttle handle on the outside. As you move the throttle, you will see at some point there is a mark on the gear indicating a starting or reference position. When you find that, mark the position of the throttle handle with a marker so that you know about how to align everything when putting it back together. Just make sure to take some time to inspect it before disassembling.
In the pictures you can see where the area is that needs to come off. I just used a hacksaw blade and held it flush to the rest of the edge of the housing and cut off the part that was going to be in the way. With that removed, the pot for the throttle can be installed.
When installing the throttle pot, make sure to reinstall the metal clip that retains the pot in the throttle housing, and make sure the stop. Then align the gear and throttle handle as it was when you took it apart, and screw everything back together.
Step 8: Install and Adjust Pots
After installing the throttle pot, the other 3 will be basically the same. The pots in the base of the stick get the metal retaining clips in the post to help hold them in place, and the top one for the rudder control does not. Connect each sensor to its respective connector. Reminder to possibly use an angle base instead of a straight one on the pot near the left hand buttons so the sensor wires don't interfere with the board - test and verify.
After installing all 4 pots, you will need to adjust the angular sensitivity of each axis as well as the center point. To do this, you will need to power the joystick. If preferred, this can be done by connecting the joystick to any USB charger adapter, as all we really need is power for the sensors. Otherwise, connecting it to your computer should be OK - just be sure not to short the 5VDC to GND for any reason.
These are the targets for adjustment:
Axis centered: 2.3 VDC ± 0.1
Axis voltage low: 0.6 VDC ±0.1 (Pitch axis pulled back towards throttle handle, R-L Axis pushed all the way to the right, handle twist all the way CCW, throttle to full "-" or 0%)
Axis voltage high: 4.0 VDC ±0.1 (Pitch axis pushed forward towards away from throttle handle, R-L Axis pushed all the way to the left, handle twist all the way CW, throttle to full "+" or 100%)
In my testing, these represented approximately the limits where I was able to maximize the sensitivity of the joystick. Taking it all the way to 5 VDC or 0 VDC for the signal did not seem to work....it stopped responding to changing voltage below about 0.4 V, and above about 4.5 V. Further, when I first tested the system with the original pots, 0.5 and 4.3 V were the extremes I observed across all 4 circuits.
Connect a multimeter to the system, with the GND of the meter connected to the GND (Black) power header, and the + terminal of the meter reading the signal of the sensor (it can be read in parallel with any connections to the joystick). Begin with the slide of the pot in the middle of its range. Using a needlenose pliers, gently twist the magnet until the voltage from the sensor is about 2.5 V. Then move the joystick or throttle to one of the stops, and determine if the range of the sensor is too high or too low. If moved to a high voltage position and the reading exceeds 4.3 V, the sensor will need to be moved away from the magnet. If in high voltage and the reading is less than 4.1 V, move the sensor closer to the magnet. Adjust and repeat testing in both directions until the voltage is in range. If one side is in range but the other side goes out of range, the center may need to be adjusted by slightly turning the magnet to shift the centerpoint. The adjustment will be an iterative process, and probably took me about an hour to get all 4 pots adjusted to my satisfaction. Rudder adjustment is the most time consuming, as it requires at least partial reassembly of the handle each time to get a true feel for the adjustment of the pot.
Once adjusted, before reassembling the joystick, I recommend connecting the joystick to the computer and running a calibration. This will confirm that all axis are moving in the direction you intend and that none of them are reversed (with a magnet rotated 180º from where it should be).
Step 9: Final Reassembly and Test
After pot adjustment, double check the functionality of all axes through a calibration of the joystick on your computer, making sure that each movement corresponds to the direction you intend to go.
Once everything is good to go, tape down all of the wires so that they won't move around as you're putting things together.
As you are installing the main cover that has the throttle and buttons board, keep an eye on the wires coming out of the left side pot - on my joystick the wires from this sensor stuck out and interfered with the board, and I had to bend the sensor wires out of the way. As I mentioned in the intro, had I known this would happen I may have used an angle base here instead, though I was able to get it to work as it was.
After final assembly, give it a final calibration and test! Enjoy!
If you have questions about anything, feel free to leave comments and I'll answer them as best I can, or upload additional pictures.
Question 1 year ago
hello i didnt understand the jump wire part maybe need more pictures or more explanation.
and for some reason i cant get the ss495 i can only find the ss495A is there another hall sensor you can recommend?
also can u make a video show casing the whole thing if possible thank you
Answer 1 year ago
From what I can tell from the SS495A datasheet, it should be functionally identical to what I used....but double check the datasheet before you order and build. As for the jumper wires, these are literally the same as breadboard jumpers so that I didn't have to cut and solder the existing connectors and wires in the joystick. If you don't want to build them, you can order breadboard jumpers from many different sources (eBay, etc). If you do order them instead of making them, I reccomend trying to get jumpers with sturdy square pins on the ends vs smaller round pins.
Question 2 years ago
I'm on my 3rd 3d Pro and the twist is going.... Am ready to try thins. Please make it stop.
Answer 2 years ago
Let me know if you have any questions or need any additional details. Mine is still working great.
Reply 2 years ago
Will do. Just ordered the sensors and 3d printed the pot. I'm just so used the the 3d Pro I can't quit it even though it treats me so bad. If this works I'll be stoked. They've gone up in price recently and it works great with a CH pro & Elite Dangerous.
Question 2 years ago on Step 8
Looks good, I am eager to try it out.
Is the f3d available for the angled version?
Answer 2 years ago
Answer 2 years ago
*.f3d's added. I only ever made the "assembly" with the straight, but all of the pieces should have the same joints to make the angle assembly. Let me know if anything doesn't work for you.
2 years ago
Your Wiring+ pdf in Step 6 disappeared.
Luckily, I downloaded it.
Maybe you're editing?
Reply 2 years ago
Please check Step 3....the portion you have given the SS495 HES pin orientation.
HES flat side facing you...I think Pin1 is on the right!
I'd have sent a pic but not simple.
Consider email, whatsapp?
By the way this Step3...Making the Sensor I found to be the most lucid Step of all!! I particularly appreciated how clearly you showed in the pics, how Pins 2 and 3 are transposed. Also the pain taken in making the plugging-in orientation right!
PS....Wiring pdf still missing from top of Step 3.
Reply 2 years ago
It's possible that the sensors I had were reversed from what you have - they were not the brand name sensor but a clone. I would recommend that you verify everything against the wiring diagram and your datasheet for the sensor you are using.
2 years ago on Step 6
I am indeed sorry to have reported that the Wiring pdf was not visible.
It is.....but one has to go through the loading of your Instructable via the intimation that one had received a Comment response.
My progress is good having worked through some of the areas I was seeing a bit grey.
Also since I had deviated from the basic design, things were a bit different for me.
If the posting of pics was simpler, I would by now have shared my experience and design deviations with this great project. But I will get to it.
2 years ago on Step 9
Oh, how I love this wonderful project by which the Logitech Extreme 3D Pro is given practically eternal life.
Well I got halfway there but found it didn't work.
This Instructable straightaway homed in on the problem. I wasn't getting the required 5VDC at the all the pot sockets.
The brilliant solution was to tap off 5V from the USB input on the PCB and use it, properly oriented, polarity-wise to supply the Hall Sensors.
Stuck again! In spite of your nice pics and description, I missed just one vital thing. A couple of schematic/circuit diagrams showing where the jumpers must be taken from the board, and then taken to each HES!
This will help me a lot, and others who cannot fullt understand English text, no matter how well it's written! And kudos....this is beautifully written.
I feel these schematics, or circuit of
diagrams, even just pencilled sketches, will get me going again.
I thank you in anticipation.
Reply 2 years ago
Hi! I'm working on this - hoping to get it done by the end of the weekend.
Reply 2 years ago
Thanks and look forward to this.
Reply 2 years ago
Please see the wiring diagram added to step 6. If you need additional info, let me know.
Reply 2 years ago
Wiring diagram perfectly clear!!
There is a gap however in how you got the 5V+(red) and 5V- (black) wires to the board connectors for axes x+y, and z, and the throttle.
I recall you had mentioned 'jumpers' in the text. Some more pics with the extra added jumpers would help others a lot, I think from the practicalities standpoint.
Since my rudder and throttle/collective go outside the stick, I will work that out.
(By the way (courtesy lockdown!), I am using stereo plugs and sockets and shielded cable (red, black, shield) to take the "new" 5V+(tip) black-(center) and shield(output) to the external rudder pedals and the switchable throttle-or-collective levers. For the latter(carbon
pots right now) I will be using two separate Hall sensors+magnets.
This last part is just by the way!!).
Reply 2 years ago
Once I learn how to post pics, I would like to share with you pics of how I made up a Test Jig....and later how I will use a similar setup for the x and y axes.
Reason? I live in the electronic boondocks as far as 3D printing goes. Costs the earth right now.
Also could not get the magnets you specified. So I use very powerful neodyminium 10x10x2 magnets,
(9c each!! ), which work perfect in the Hall AH49E (40c each) Jig.
Great for hobbyists on tight budgets!
Reply 2 years ago
Will wire up accordingly.
Though my hardware deviates, wiring will be very similar.
2 years ago
Not sure which of my posts/comments you'll get to first, one posted below this one, or the one sent yesterday by clicking on your name, as mentioned there in the Project introduction.
I went a common-to-us route, in wanting to use Hall Sensors for all axes of the Logitech Extreme 3D Pro,but as mentioned hit a block since my AH49E sensors would not work. they worked in a very crude Test Jig I made with an external 5V supply, but in the 'stick...no!
Your brilliant solution has now, hopefully, solved that. Remains to be done.
However, I needed more from this 'stick, as to fly X-Plane helicopters demanded not only the sensitivity and precision of Hall sensors, but the basic 'stick needed to have a longer shaft for finer control, a separate Collective Lever which would also double as a Throttle Control, and Rudder Pedals . So my ambitious plan was to design in all these extras using the host E3DPro to acccommodate all this. And that's all now done now, alas still using carbon pots.
Thanks to you, all that will change now!!!
I started off with an overly long 'stick extension making the "new" "stick 32" long, base to tip, but finalised it down to a less insane level.....17"!!. Extending all the wires was a huge pain!
3D printing never occurred to me. In any case I needed only Roll and Pitch Hall sensors inside the stick. The other two were external on the Rudder Pedals and Throttle-cum-Collective. (A DPDT switch selects on or the other, since we have only 4 axes).
i intend to build the Hall system on all the axes, using a similar design as I used on the Test Jig, No way slick, but 'twill serve methinks, as a simpler alternative.
Nothing that this $30 Masterpiece, with suitable modifications is not capable of!!
Your USB tapping off solution has been the icing on my cake.
I have some captioned pics I will post here after I hear from you. You are most welcome to use the pics and ideas as you see fit, though I daresay you have your own thoughts and if I know you, they will be slick!!!!