Introduction: Make a Pocket-Size Theremin With ESP32

Theremin are those unique instruments use to make those alien show theme songs or sound effect. You may have also heard it in Star Trek, Big Bang Theory, or even a haunted house. They produced a unique sound from the electromagnetic effects between wires.

Here we will duplicate a similar sound digitally using a buzzer controlled by Pulse Width Modulations and an Light Dependent Resistor (LDR) for the input of reading values as the hand moves over it.

Step 1: BoM

* ESP32

* Light Dependent Resistor (LDR)

* Buzzer

* Jumper Wires

* Breadboard

Step 2: Soldering

We will solder a voltage divider onto the LDR to make the wiring simpler.

* Take a 10kΩ resistor and solder it to one of the pins of the LDR.

* Then take two different coloured wires and solder it to each pin of the LDR.

That's it! Now you have a voltage divider!

Step 3: Wiring

Follow the following table when wiring the LDR and Buzzer to the ESP32:

I/OPin #ESP32 Pin #

* Order is arbitrary

Step 4: Code

int photopin = 5; // Pin where the photo resistor is connected to
int photValue; // The analog reading from the photoresistor
int buzzerPin = 4; // Connect Buzzer to Pin 4
long buzzerFreq; // The frequency to buzz the buzzer
// You can experiment with these values:
long buzzMAX = 2500; // Maximum frequency for the buzzer
long photoMAX = 1023; // Maximum value for the photoresistor
void setup() {
    pinMode(buzzerPin, OUTPUT); // set a pin for buzzer output
void loop() {
    // read the values of the potentiometer
    photValue = analogRead(photopin); // Values 0-1023
    // normalize the readings of a photoresistor to thatof the buzzer and photoresistor
    buzzerFreq = (photValue * buzzMAX) / photoMAX;
    buzz(buzzerPin, buzzerFreq, 10);
void buzz(int targetPin, long frequency, long length) {
    long delayValue = 1000000/frequency/2;
    long numCycles = frequency * length/ 1000;
    for (long i=0; i < numCycles; i++){

Step 5: Enjoy!

It's easy to use but takes a lifetime to master and to play good music. Move your hands over the LDR to change the tone.

Enjoy your pocket sized theremin!

Makerspace Contest 2017

Participated in the
Makerspace Contest 2017