Rewinding a Brushless Motor

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Introduction: Rewinding a Brushless Motor

About: I AM ELECTRICAL ENGINEER

Introduction

If you fly brushless you've probably cooked a motor or two. You also probably know there are many different types of motors. Similar motors when wound differently performs very differently. Whether you've burned the motor up, or just want to alter performance, rewinding is a cheap solution for a patient modeller.

Step 1: Rewinding Brushless Motors WYE or Delta

For this tutorial, I will be using Dynam E-Razor 450 Brushless Motor 60P-DYM-0011 (2750Kv). It is a Delta wound 8T (It means 8 turns) quad wind. The winding pattern described in this tutorial (called an ABC wind - ABCABCABC as you go around the stator) works for any brushless motor with 9 stator teeth and 6 magnets.

Step 2: Knowing Our Motor

First, obviously you'll need to remove the old wires from the motor. Be sure to count the number of turns around the armatures as this will give you an idea of how to rewind the motor. The direction is not particularly important at this point.

You will also want to note whether it is Delta or Wye terminated. A Wye terminated motor will have three wires going to a central point called the neutral, which is not connected directly to a motor lead. A delta has no such connection, just three motor wires. Often the neutral point one WYE has a piece of heat shrink over it to keep it from shorting to the stator. Our motor is Delta Connected.

Step 3: Starting the Rebuild

Before you do anything, I highly recommend insulating the stator. Take it from the king of stator shorts, a stator short can easily destroy your speed control. I cannot stress enough how much easier your rewind will be if you do this.

Most stators will be already insulated, but if you cooked your motor as well as I do that coating is toast, in which case you'll need to reinsulate it. Start by using a small hobby file to smooth all the rough corners on your stator. I used Black Rubber Paint.

Step 4: Insulating Stator

1. Deep the stator in black paint and take off.

2. Wait till paint set off.

3. This is procedure is optional.

4. If you burned the motor then it's mandatory.

5. If you want to change motor specification or your motor didn’t cook then it is optional

Step 5: Rewinding

1. Ok, now to rewind. First, you must choose the number of turns you want. My motor was 8 turns, and I liked it, so I'm going to rewind it with 8 as well.

2. Here 8 Turns means, 8 strands of enamel coted copper wire are connected in parallel which is wound on stator pole 8 times.

3. Here 36 AWG copper wire is used.

4. Rule of Thumb - fewer turns is a hotter motor and will yield a higher kV and current draw. Go too low on this, however, and the motor may not run as the speed control may not detect the motor's position. You'll also have to choose whether you want a Delta or WYE termination.

5. We are using delta connection as it was factory default.

Step 6: Getting Winding Pattern

Now you need the winding pattern. This motor is a 9N6P (9 stator pole, 6 magnet ). Therefore the winding pattern is ABCABCABC (each wire is wound every third tooth). This winding pattern will not work with the very common 12N14P motor.

So before you start winding, count your magnets and stator poles and determine the winding pattern from the list below. Lower case letters indicate winding that tooth in the reverse direction.


Common stator pole/magnet pole configurations:

N denotes number of stator "wire wound" poles, P denotes number of rotor "permanent magnet" poles.

9N, 6P - Common for helicopter motor, EDFs, and other high speed applications. The winding pattern is ABCABCABC

9N,12P - very common to many small outrunners. This is also the most common CD-ROM motor configuration. Winding Pattern is ABCABCABC

12N, 14P - Common for higher torque applications. Noted commonly for its smooth and quiet operation. Winding Pattern is AabBCcaABbcC (lowercase implies reverse in winding direction) OR AaACBbBACcCB (I find this winding easier)

Other configurations:
9N, 8P - Magnetically imbalanced motor configuration occasionally found in high speed applications. This configuration is best terminated as WYE to minimize vibration. (very rare) - AaABbBCcC

9N, 10P - Highly magnetically imbalanced motor that often makes for noisy running. This configuration is usually only built by do it yourself motor builders. This motor is best terminated WYE. Winding pattern is AaABbBCcC

12N, 16P - A not so common but still used style. It has been overshadowed by the 12N, 14P. Winding pattern is ABCABCABCABC

12N, 10P - Higher speed variant of the DLRK motor. Occasionally found in helicopter motors. Winding Pattern is AabBCcaABbcC (lowercase implies reverse in winding direction).

12N, 8P - Even higher speed than the 12N, 10P. Winding pattern is ABCABCABCABC

Step 7: Winding Design

As we are planning on terminating Wye, mark the ending terminal of the wire. We'll need to join the ending terminals of all three phases when it comes time to terminate the motor as shown in following.

Step 8: Start Winding

1. Now you can start winding.

2. I used New-b wire (36 AVG) from a nearby winding shop.

3. It has extra insulation to prevent shorts. I chose three strands of 36 gauge wire. So it will be an 8 turn of 8 wire bundle wind.

4. Start winding with any pole you like. Go only in one direction (I went clockwise). Once you complete the number of turns you decided on earlier, skip two poles and continue winding the next. Repeat this process until one third of the poles are wired. It should look like the picture below when you are done.

5. Here third winding is to be done.

6. Now before you begin with your next set of armatures, check for stator shorts with an ohm meter (multi tester). The resistance between the wire and the metal of the stator should be infinite (i.e. not continuity).

7. If you don't get a short, good job. Move on to the next set of armatures. If you have a short, unwind that entire phase get a new wire and start over.

8. Side note: When winding, do not tug on the wires too hard. 1-2 lbs is plenty. Winding too tight will result in a shorted winding to the stator. If you find that your wires are not snug against your stator you can use a non-metallic object such as a broken prop, flat carbon rod, or my favourite, a credit card to slide between the stator poles.

9. Do tag the start and end of winding.

10. Here start tag is S1 and end of 1st winding is E1 as seen in picture.

Step 9: Ready for Another Set?

1. Ready for another set? Start with a new wire on any other pole and repeat the above process. Make sure to test for shorts after each phase.

2. You'll notice the stator becomes crowded very quickly. You can clear some room with a dull object such as a credit card.

3. Don’t forget to tag other winding start and end points.

Step 10: Connecting Windings

1. Now we have 6 wire ends tagged S1,E1,S2,E2,S3,and E3.

2. Connect E3 S1, E1 S2 and E2 S3.

3. Now we have 3 end which are motor terminals A,B,C

Step 11: Wire Insulation & Bullet Connector

1. Add wire insulation to copper wire. Here I used insulation sleeve of Multicore wire to insulate them as shown in a picture.

2. Add bullet connector to motor terminals as shown in a picture.

3. Add heat shrink tube coating for extra strength and insulation.

4. Done our motor is ready.

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    17 Comments

    0
    luxettenebrum
    luxettenebrum

    Question 5 months ago on Introduction

    Hi! Don't know if you will answer but I'll ask anyway. I've built an in-runner bldc with 9N8P configuration. The coils are wound on iron cores (M5x15 bolts) with tripple 0.35mm wire (~27AWG, 40 turns on each pole) as AaABbBCcC and connected in Delta. The 3d-printed rotor is placed on zirconia bearing and has 8 pieces of 8x8x3mm N42 magnets. The gap between the magnets and iron cores is about 3-4mm. The ESC I am using is based on JY01 chip and capable of producing 15A 12-36V (~500W power).
    The problem is that the rotor doesn't rotate. When I apply the current it starts to jerk back and forth. The torque is huge, when I try to turn the rotor by hand I just can't apply enough force to push it further. The iron cores get hot (I will replace them with sheet iron plates later). However there is no way I can get it moving.

    0
    udaywankar
    udaywankar

    Answer 5 months ago

    I think,Delta termination causes excessive vibration and makes a nasty whine.the WYE connection has worked really well for me.

    Try WYE connection

    1
    luxettenebrum
    luxettenebrum

    Reply 5 months ago

    Thank you for the reply. I actually tried the Y connection as well - no difference, it's not running. Yes, the whine is present but the motor is still rocking back and forward...

    0
    udaywankar
    udaywankar

    Reply 5 months ago

    As I said its very rare combination. the winding scheme for 9n8p was given by me is AaABbBCcC which I thought it was wrong but it's not.
    This slot/magnet pole combination will have 72 cogging steps per turn.
    And its winding factor is: 0.94521
    theoretically, it is a good combination and should work. but currently I didn't find the fault.
    refer below link for any bldc motor rewinding.
    http://www.bavaria-direct.co.za/scheme/calculator/

    check your winding, is there is any fault or you may wound motor wrong.

    Capture.PNG
    1
    luxettenebrum
    luxettenebrum

    Reply 5 months ago

    Thank you for this calculator and your help in resolving my issue. I can't express how I am grateful for this!
    My winding is completely different though, I used the one shown in your instruction. It's great that you decided to update it, so I will read it carefully. Then I am going to re-wind it and see the result.

    Perhaps you can advice a configuration that suits my purpose better... I am building a water pump for a PC watercooling system with a propeller being central part of the rotor. I am completely flexible with magnets count, poles arrangement and sizes. I have a 3d printer to create any configuration and a reasonably unlimited bugdet.
    What I would like to achieve is quiet operation, high torque and low Kv (well below 500) but with an inrunner. So this design comes down to the winding, I guess?

    Cheers!

    0
    udaywankar
    udaywankar

    Reply 5 months ago

    You are welcome. Can you please share ur motor pictures?

    0
    luxettenebrum
    luxettenebrum

    Reply 4 months ago

    Greetings, Mr Udaywankar.
    So my motor is running in 14p/12s configuration when the air gap is narrow enough. Currently the coils are coreless but I'm considering placing the cores inside. Phenomenologically I totally understand it should help but to what extent? I also understand that solving this task mathematically will involve quite complex calculations. Maybe you can tell me if a thin rod (2-3mm) core made of mu-metal, ~50000 permeability, will be enough to increase the air gap allowance by several millimeters?

    photo5213002537202987682.jpgphoto5213002537202987683.jpg
    0
    luxettenebrum
    luxettenebrum

    Reply 4 months ago

    So I just found an incredibly powerful tool for this kind of calculations.
    http://onelab.info/
    There is a model of 8 pole engine that can be altered however you like. Increasing air gap and changing the permeability is just a single keypress.

    0
    luxettenebrum
    luxettenebrum

    Reply 5 months ago

    Greetings!

    Today I tried to rewind the coils to make AaABbBCcC in Y pattern but the result is pretty much the same, the rotor tries to rotate and gets stuck. Could you please tell me how critical it is to balance the rotor on the bearing? Perhaps some tolerances just make the rotor stick to one position...

    0
    luxettenebrum
    luxettenebrum

    Reply 5 months ago

    Sure, please take a look. The windings can't be clearly seen though, I can tell you that I made it ABCabcABC (silly me :S). I am going to rewind it this weekend but first thing to do is to print new parts. If you suggest 12N14P for my task then so be it. Or I can stick to AaABbBCcC and see what happens. Also, Isn't the current too high with these 3 wires? I am having 1 Ohm at terminals, so it will be about 144 W at 12V (some sick power for a water pump)

    bldc2.jpgbldc3.jpgbldc1.jpg
    0
    luxettenebrum
    luxettenebrum

    Reply 5 months ago

    So after taking a vacation I finally got the positive results! I ended up winding 12 coils and arranging them in plane with magnetic induction vector perpendicular to the plane. The rotor consists of 14 magnets (same 8x8x3 N42 magnets) placed in one plane in the impeller body. Now I am going to print a proper impeller with bearings for balance and then I can start doing my own distribution plate with impeller placed inside.

    assembly1.jpgassembly2.jpg
    0
    saadland
    saadland

    5 months ago

    Hi, can someone tell me one to rewire a brushless motor that got a stator with 4 tooth please, maybe a picture, would be nice.
    And does it need a special device after, or can I get it to spin as normal motor, connecting + and - to a power source??
    Thx

    0
    luxettenebrum
    luxettenebrum

    Reply 5 months ago

    First, take another magnet or a compass and see how many poles your rotor has. Based on that check the winding pattern on http://www.bavaria-direct.co.za/scheme/calculator/ as Mr Udaywankar mentioned above. If your motor has circuit for driving the motor and has only + and - then it will be enough. Otherwise you'll have to get a ESC to run it.

    0
    mukhlis1010
    mukhlis1010

    3 years ago

    wht's your wire size..? is it more than 2000kv, bro?

    0
    Swansong
    Swansong

    3 years ago

    Great first Instructable, thanks for sharing! :)

    0
    udaywankar
    udaywankar

    Reply 3 years ago

    Thanks

    0
    udaywankar
    udaywankar

    Reply 3 years ago

    thanks, will try to post more