Introduction: Sensor Based Automatic Targeting System

About: Working in Bharti Airtel Ltd. as Executive Trainee. My core skillset includes Networking, Python Scripting , Automation telecommunication, optical networks.

Sensor Based Automatic Targeting System for Border Area is an automated gun target and firing system if found an object within a range of sensors. The project is primarily based on PIR Sensors, Microcontroller, and a wireless transmitter and receiving units using FSK. The Project is required because till today, the border is protected by Iron Spike wires, and a watch tower containing a person continuously flashing the light over the border area day and night. Those persons are fully responsible for any intrusion.This project will not fully remove the responsibility from their soldiers, but minimize the responsibility and human mistakes on the border. The sensors will sense any living object inside the range, provide the s/g to microcontroller, in response, microcontroller generates the code on the site and send to the watch tower where the receiver receives the code, provides code to microcontroller, interprets the location of the object corresponding to received code, activates targeting system, alarming system, and targeting system.

Step 1: Hardware Requirements

1) 8051 Microcontroller (Now Arduino and another microcontroller can be used)

2)RF Module (433 Mhz)

3)PIR Sensors


5)Stepper Motor


7)Power Supply 5V

8)Resistors,Capacitors etc.

9)Connecting Wires

Step 2: Block Diagram

This project consist of two units:



Transmitter unit transmit the data to receiver section then according to the data the targeting unit and alarming system activates.

Step 3: Circuit Diagram and Working

Working of Transmitter section:

According to the block diagram, it consists of the Passive IR Sensor 9PIR Sensor/Motion Sensor) that detects the invisible IR radiations of any living object and generates a weak (small) signal which goes to the OPAMP for amplification. The OPAMP hereby, amplify the signal, makes it readable to the microcontroller and then microcontroller generates a code corresponding to the sensor detection. As the code is generated which looks like something as 1100 0100 0001, 0010 0110 0001, etc is transmitted to the encoder. The code is transmitted to the encoder at every 1ms to the RF Transmitter section for modulation of signal and transmission of signal wirelessly Each passive IR sensor senses and generates the signal at a different port of the microcontroller and it then depends on the microcontroller to generate a unique corresponding code related to the passive IR sensor detection. Multiple passive IR sensors can detect a single object and generate codes which in result generates a signal on the multiple ports of the microcontroller. Under such situation, it depends on the microcontroller to take the input of multiple sensors at a time and then decide the correct location of the object on the basis of received data.

Working of Reciever Section:

The receiver contains RF Receiver, 8051 Microcontroller, DC motor, Firing Laser gun, H- bridge function, Buzzer Alarm and the decoder IC. The signal transmitted via transmitter is received by the FSK receiver, demodulated by a demodulator and then the signal is decoded by a decoder IC. Then the s/g is transmitted to the microcontroller and microcontroller retains the code transmitted by a transmitter and performs the function accordingly.
The signal received and code regenerates is called obtained code. The format of the obtained code is the 00110001, 00110101, 11111011 etc. Each code regenerated is destined to perform some target function. It depends on the code, how much degree will the motor rotate and targets itself to the object location and then, as the targeting function is completed, the buzzer module activates and buzzer alarm system activates that alarm everyone present into the watch tower. As the buzzer system gets activated, after a very small delay, the firing control system gets activated, and laser gun starts firing over the destined location. The fire lasts until the sensor stops sensing the IR radiations. It is a complete destruction program of the discovered living object near the border area range. The rotation can vary accordingly to the sensation of the sensors as the code transmitted will rapidly change. The transmitter and receiver can be at 200m from each other. If more distant, the receiver will create a problem in the reception of code which is an extremely important part of the program. The transmitter and receiver work on 443 MHz frequency.

Step 4: Software Used

The Software Used for programming the 8051 microcontroller AT89C51 is Kiel Microvision 5 or 4.The software is capable to program the microcontroller and then generate the .hex file which is the hardware programming assembly language file. The file generates is applied to the microcontroller to function as specified in the file.

How to program the microcontroller using Kiel Microvision 4 or 5.


1) Install evaluation version of Kiel Microvision 4 or 5 into the computer. Install the specific serial drivers for the connectivity from the PC to the PCB.

2) Open Kiel Microvision 4/5, it supports the programming in C language. Select appropriate settings related to the specified Microcontroller and then a window of program editing pops out.

3) Write the specified logic into the window in C language.

4) To embed that logic into the microcontroller, a hardware file .hex file is required to be generated

5) Go to Run>Generate .hex file and click on it to generate the .hex code of the specified C code.

6) As the .hex code is generated, embed it to the microcontroller to program it using Kiel.

7)Once code embedded to microcontroller, switch the controller on and it will function as per the embedded code.

If you are using Arduino then use Arduino IDE for programming and Uploading the code.

Step 5: ​Future Enhancements

Following few future enhancements can be implemented on this project to make the system more accurate.

· Instead of using Passive IR sensors, we can use Infrared Cameras and IR sensors that detect human and their distance from sensors more accurately.

· GPS module can be used instead of FSK transceiver to find exact location of the object.

· Advanced microcontrollers can be used to reduce the processing time and thus improve efficiency.

· IOT Technology can be used for better processing and more advanced features.

Step 6: ​Conclusion

Thus, sensor basedthe sensor-based automatic targeting system is feasible for highly secure area such as border the system consist of Arduino, RF module targeting sensor-based automatic targeting system is based on PIR sensor. This system helps produce the responsibility and efforts of soldier in border security. This system can further implemented by using IOT technology and face recognition system.

The system is economical. The sensor based automatic targeting system is not taking full responsibility of security. The sensor based automatic targeting system can be easily implemented for the home security also. This system shows better result in highly secured region.

Sci-Fi Contest 2016

Participated in the
Sci-Fi Contest 2016