Solar Water Pump




Introduction: Solar Water Pump

About: I'm an Electronics Engineer who likes to make Doze Lamps, Lumen Powered Thingamajigs, Almighty Brainy Buttons, Tweeting Weather Stations and share them on Instructables.

This Instructable will help you to setup a fully functional Solar Water Pumping System. The Solar Water Pump System can be used for residential water requirements and also for commercial uses. This system can also be used for irrigation of Agricultural Land. The Solar Panel Array can also be used without the water pump and can power your house or apartment. The Instructable will act as a guide in helping you understand the principles required to pump water using solar energy.

Solar Power

Photovoltaic(Solar) systems do not use any Fuel. They last for 20+ years. They are cost effective and are independent from a countries electricity grid. The cost of installation is almost the only cost. Solar Power is a Green Renewable energy that will produce electricity as long as the Sun rises every morning. Solar systems require low maintenance.

Why go for a Solar Water Pump System?

Well sunlight is free and abundant. Humans are dependent on water for survival. Inorder to obtain their daily water requirements we pump our water from wells, dams, rivers, ponds,etc. Since the system is OFF-Grid, it can always pump water even in an apocalypse.

Step 1: Economics, Viability & Applications

Solar Energy is a giant leap in the field of science which has enabled humans to produce clean energy. In this step I am going to give you a brief introduction into real economics, viability and applications of this Instructable.


Agriculture in developing nations isn't as efficient as it really should be. One of the main problems of agriculture is water management. Even developing nations which receive a good amount of water through rainfall fail to be efficient in the field of agriculture.

The initial investment of solar energy is high. Buts lets put it in a developing nation's agriculturists/farmers perspective. I have chosen my country India as the perfect example of the best beneficiary from the use of solar energy. EXAMPLE based on past experience:

The common farmer over here has to pay approximately Rs 50,000 to setup an electrical connection to his/her farm depending on how far the nearest village transformer/power distributor is from the farm. The farmer then has to buy a pump to irrigate his land which could cost the farmer between Rs 5,000 -35,000. The problem is in such areas Maintenance of Power lines is not carried out and there is high variation in the supplied voltage. This causes the pumps coil and windings to get damaged. This can lead to loss of efficiency or even total damage to the pump. Farmers who have batteries and inverters for their farms also suffer losses from the damage caused by voltage fluctuations to the inverters,etc. Therefore the farmer has to also spend additional revenue in buying replacement Pumps, inverters,etc.

Maintenance of the power lines has to be sometimes carried out by the farmer. Irregular power failures and power shortages causes major losses of agricultural output. Consider a 10 acre Cucumber crop plantation which should ideally yield a harvest of approximately 1000kg/day. Lets say due to a power outage, there is no power supplied to the farm for an entire day. This would lead to the crop not being watered for a day and could result in significant weight loss of the cucumbers. In country's such as India, farmers sell vegetables based on weight and hence any weight loss would result in significant losses. But all these problems can be solved by the implementation of a Solar Water Pump System.

In India, there are mainly two crops: Kharif(Monsoon Crops) & Rabi(Winter Crops). With the help of solar energy, I have been able to plant 4 different crops. i.e. 2 additional crops excluding the Kharif and Rabi crops. I have been able to irrigate a cucumber and watermelon crop in the middle of summer which also has significantly increased my profits from agriculture, something I wouldn't have been able to do without solar energy.

What about farmers belonging to developed nations?

Well apart from the above, farmers in developed nations can use solar energy for their sprinkler systems in their greenhouses. You can check out the graphs above to get an overview of the efficiency of solar water pump systems. They can also use for artificial lighting to grow saplings. I have also seen a Solar water pump systems being used in poultry(chicken) applications to cool the sheds and provide drinking water to the poultry birds.

Household/Domestic Applications

The solar water pump system can be used to pump drinking water in societies and buildings. The concept of 'Green Buildings' includes the use of solar water pump systems for the purpose of drinking water and other sanitary uses of water.

If you do not wish to use solar energy to pump water but instead to power your house, check out some of my other Instructables:

DIY Solar+Wind House

Apartment Solar System

Apocalypse Preparedness

Imagine if their is an apocalypse & aliens attack all power stations! Protect yourself from such events and install a Solar Water Pump System.

P.S: This application was included in view of the Apocalypse Preparedness Contest :)

Step 2: Parts & Skill List

Standard System

The specifications of the Metal Stand (Angle), Solar Capacity, Pump output have been optimised to my desired requirements and location. Hence depending on your purpose (Residential, Commercial or Agricultural) you can either change the output of the system by adding or subtracting the solar panels inorder to increase or decrease the production of electricity. Depending on the requirement and capacity of the system, the specifications and quantity of each part could defer. This Instructable will act as a standard guide which help you in understanding how to build the Solar Panel Stand, Estimating the Number of Panels & Other Parts required, Electrical Connections,etc. Hence you may have to buy parts according to your specific requirements. The main factors involved in choosing parts are: Solar Output, Cable Size, Pump: Power,voltage,current,speed,flow rate,efficiency and Pipe: Length, Diameter.


  1. Anti-Corrosion Paint.
  2. 4X 11ft I-beams.
  3. 2X 7ft I-beams.
  4. 3X 24.46ft C-channels.
  5. 2X19.63ft C-channels.
  6. 5X 20.84ft C-channels.
  7. 6X20.18ft C-channels.
  8. 21X Solar Panels
    • 280W
    • 35V
    • 1960X990X42 (mm)
  9. Solar Pump System Controller
    • Max Input Voltage: 238V
    • Output: 3-phase(60-240V0, 3kW)
  10. Solar Pump
    • Submersible
    • 3-phase
    • Output:22m^3/hr
  11. Cable (Depending on depth of well,etc)
  12. 6X Circuit Breakers.
  13. Concrete/Cement Mixture.


  1. Welding machine and welding rods.
  2. Screwdrivers.
  3. Drills.
  4. Wire Cutters.
  5. Digital Multimeter.
  6. Spirit Level Bottle.


  1. Basic Understanding of Electrical Wiring and Electronics.
  2. Basic Understanding of Structural Design.
  3. Basic Welding.

Step 3: Solar Panel Stand

The Solar Panel is a Metal framework consisting of I-beams and C-channel that help support the solar panel and keep them inclined at the required angle. In the next couple of steps, the Instructable will teach you how too setup the metal framework.

Solar Angle

But before you start building the metal stand or framework you must determine the optimum angle at which you must place you solar panels inorder to get the maximum efficiency from the solar system.

To get the best out of your photovoltaic panels, you need to angle them towards the sun. The optimum angle varies throughout the year, depending on the seasons and your location and this calculator shows the difference in sun height on a month-by-month basis.

Inorder to calculate the optimum angle I have used an online calculator which uses the location of the Solar Panel Array. Solar Panel Angle Calculator

Anti-Corrosion Paint

Before you start building the metal stand, you must paint all metal parts including I-beams, C-channel,etc with a layer of Anti-Corrosion/ Anti-Rust Paint. After doing so, you can add a layer of coloured paint to enhance the look of the Solar Panel Stand. By painting the metal stand you will prevent the metal from getting damaged due to corrosion.

3D Models/Layout Diagrams

Inorder to understand the design of the Solar Panel Stand, I have attached the 3D model and Layout diagram files.

Step 4: I-Beam Placement & Foundation

Once you have determined the optimum angle at which the solar panels must be placed at, you can start building the metal stand. In this step you will need to mix concrete for the foundation.

  1. Start by digging a hole into the ground of the dimensions: 2ft X 2ft X 2ft.
  2. Add some concrete into the hole and spread it evenly.
  3. Place the I-beam into the hole such that it is perpendicular to the surface. Ensure that the I-beam is vertical by using a Level Bottle.
  4. Once 2ft of the I-beam is placed inside the hole vertically, fill the hole completely with cement.
  5. Do the same for another I-beam separated from the first I-beam at a distance of 24.46ft
  6. The total height of each I-beam from the ground surface is 11ft.

Step 5: Adding Lower C-channel

In this step, you will attach a 24.46ft C-channel to the two I-beams.

  1. Ensure the C-channel is parallel to the ground surface with the help of a Level Bottle.
  2. Bolt each end of the C-channel to the I-beams.
  3. Make sure you use Stainless Steel nuts and bolts.

Step 6: Adding 7ft I-beam & Top C-channel

In this step you will add 2 X 7ft I-beams on top of the two 11ft I-beams. You will also attach a 24.46ft C-channel to the I-beams. The procedure is specified in the layout diagram. If you do not wish to add an '11ft+7ft' I-beam design you can instead add an 18ft I-beam.

  1. Place the lower Base-plate of the 7ft I-beam on top of the higher Base-plate of the 11ft I-beam.
  2. Make sure that the 7ft I-beam is perpendicular to the ground surface with the help of a Level Bottle.
  3. Follow the same steps for the placement of the Second 7ft I-beam.
  4. Bolt the Base-plates of the I-beams with Stainless Steel nuts and bolts or weld them together.
  5. Attach both sides of the 24.46ft C-channel to the top of the two 7ft I-beams respectively with the help of Stainless Steel nuts and bolts.

Step 7: Adding the Remaining I-beams

In this step you will place 2 X 11ft I-beams at the remaining two corners.

  1. The procedure for the placement and foundation is same as that of the first two I-beams.
  2. Ensure that the I-beams are perpendicular to the ground surface using a Level Bottle.

Step 8: Adding Lower C-channel

In this step you will be using 2X 19.63ft C-channels and also 1X 24.46ft C-channel.

  1. Start by attaching either side of one 19.63ft C-channel to the top of the Lower I-beams by bolting them together. Refer to the Layout diagram.
  2. Do this for the other 19.63ft C-channel.
  3. Next attach either side of the 24.46ft C-channel to the the top of the Lower I-beams by bolting them together. Refer to the Layout Diagram.
  4. Ensure that the C-channel are parallel to the ground surface with the help of a Level Bottle.

Step 9: Adding the Inclined C-channel

In this step you will be using 5X 20.84ft C-channel. This step also involves welding.

  1. Start by placing one of the C-channel at each end as shown in the layout diagram.
  2. Next place one of the C-channel at the centre as shown in the layout diagram.
  3. Place one C-channel between the Centre and outermost C-channel on either side.

Weld all the joints using a Welding Machine. Use all necessary welding and safety equipment. Keep a fire extinguisher around incase of a fire.

Note: If you do not wish to weld, you can attach the inclined C-channel by bolting it to the entire structure.

Step 10: Additional Supporting C-channel

In this step you can either use C-channel or Aluminium Box Channel. In this step you will be using 6x 20.18ft C-channel.

  1. Start by placing the C-channel from one side of the structure horizontally such that they are parallel to each other as shown in the layout diagram.
  2. The spacing between two C-channel should be 3ft.
  3. One placed and aligned properly as shown in the layout diagram, weld or bolt them to the structure.

Step 11: Adding the Solar Panels

In this step you will be using 21 solar panels.

Solar Panel Specifications:
1. Power: 280W.
2. Voltage at Pmax: 35V.
3. Length X Breadth X Height(mm): 1960 X 990 X 42.

Detailed specifications of the solar panels are given in the solar panel datasheet.

1. Start by bolting the solar panels to the C-channel.

2. The distance between two panels on each side will be 0.25ft.

3. Refer to the Layout Diagram for more details.

Step 12: Connecting the Solar Panels

1. Start by opening the Solar Panel connector Box.
2. Use a multimeter to determine the polarity of the solar panel.
3. Form one string of solar panels by connecting 7 solar panels in series. Form 3 such strings.

Step 13: Electrical Connections

Before connecting the Solar array to the Solar Pump System Controller we must connect a Circuit Breaker(CB) between them.

1. Place 6 Circuit Breakers(CB) in a PVC Box.
2. Connect the Positive wire from each string to one end of a separate CB.(Input of CB)
3. Connect the Negative wire from each string to one end of a separate CB.(Input of CB)
4. Connect the output of the 3 Positive CB's together.
5. Connect the output of the 3 Negative CB's together.
6. Now connect these to the inputs of a screw terminal.
7. Connect additional wires from the output of the screw terminals to the input 'Power IN' of the Solar Pump System Controller.
8. Connect wires from the 'L1,L2,L3' & 'Ground' terminals of the solar pump system controller to the matching numbers on the pump leads. Note: Other combinations may cause reverse rotation!
9. Some pumps come along with additional connections such as Low Water Probe, Float Switch, Battery System,etc. Follow the manual instructions for more details.
10. Connect the Water output of the pump to a long pipe and ensure that it is secured properly. Lower the pump into the water source and switch it on.3

Step 14: Solar Pump System Controller

The Solar Pump System controller is the brain of the entire project. It basically regulates the current supplied to the pump from the solar panels.

The Power IN,L1,L2,L3 and Ground connector terminals are in the controller.

Most Solar Pump System Controllers come along with LED indicators. Given below are the descriptions of the LED indicator functions of the controller that I have used.


When the LED is Green, the controller is switched on and the power source is present. In low-power conitions, the light may show even if there is not enough power to run the pump.

Pump ON(green)

Motor is turning. Sequence of flashing indicates pump speed. Pump speed (RPM) can be read of the flashing sequence of the Pump ON LED as follows:

LED ON > 900

1 flash > 1,200

2 flashes > 1,600

3 flashes > 2,000

4 flashes > 2,400

5 flashes > 2,800

If the Pump Overloads, the LED will change to red.

Source Low(red)

If the water source has dropped below the level of the low water probe. After the water level recovers, the pump will restart, but this light will slowly flash until the sun goes down, power is interrupted, or the power switch is reset. This indicates that the water source ran low at least once since the previous off/on cycle.

Tank Full(red)

Pump is turned off by action of the remote float switch.

Step 15: Solar Water Pump

Pump Specifications:

  1. Submersible Pump.
  2. 3-Phase.
  3. Flow Rate: 22m^3/hr

The pump basically uses the power supplied from the solar panel array inorder to pump water from the source. Mostly the pumps come with four wires: 3 wires for each phase and one wire for Ground.

The Motor Power, Motor Voltage, Motor current, Motor Speed, Flow Rate, Efficiency, etc are vary from different pumps and manufacturers. Choose a suitable pump depending on your requirement.

Explore Science Contest

Participated in the
Explore Science Contest

Pi/e Day Contest

Participated in the
Pi/e Day Contest

Apocalypse Preparedness Contest

Participated in the
Apocalypse Preparedness Contest

Automation Contest

Participated in the
Automation Contest

Be the First to Share


    • Block Code Contest

      Block Code Contest
    • Clocks Contest

      Clocks Contest
    • Make it Glow Contest

      Make it Glow Contest



    3 years ago

    Thank you for sharing the knowledge...


    7 years ago

    how much this cost.

    can this system power a above ground pump with a well depth of 80-100


    Reply 4 years ago

    The total cost is variable from country to country. It depends on factors such as the cost of C-channel, Solar Panel Manufacturers, Government Subsidiaries on Solar Powered Water pumps, etc.

    The panels can supply the power needed for a non-submersible pump, but you may need another type of charge controller.


    Reply 4 years ago

    The total cost is variable from country to country. It depends on factors such as cost of C-channel, Solar Panel Manufacturers, Government Subsidiaries on Solar Powered Water pumps,etc.


    7 years ago on Introduction

    By the way, whether this solar panels expensive?
    I think solar panel will reduce waste also and good for third world countries, also good for remote areas. Many of them are near the equator and have plenty of sunlight year round.


    7 years ago on Introduction

    You could use a lot less solar if you used a made for solar DC direct powered pump like Grunfos, Dankoff or SunCentric makes.


    7 years ago on Introduction

    What Solar Panel Manufacturers, do you purchase from. They are usually expensive here in the USA. I called a installer here in the Midwest and to solar power a small home starts around $65000, Those panels are expensive. i.e. > The house isn't worth too much more than that and I could never sell the home for the value. The cost of electric energy would only cost around half of that budgeted over 20 years.


    Reply 7 years ago on Introduction

    That is the problem with these "great ideas." No one is willing to go into prices, cost of maintenance, and life expectancy of the various parts to run the system. Nor do they say if the solution is good for all earth latitudes and weather year round. I priced the 21 x 230 watt panels today. The price (not including shipping charges) was $3,948 USD. That does not include the pump which is probably another $1,000. There is still the price of the controller and other materials. Unless you have a welder and other tools then you have even more expenses renting or buying them. Then there is the labor involved, are you capable of doing it yourself or will you need to hire someone to help or do it for you? The R50,000 he stated is as of today is $831 and the cost of the pump he mentioned is a non-issue. A solar pump that will pump the equivalent amount of water is cost as much if not more than a standard electrical water pump. Price wise solar makes no sense unless you are located 5 or more miles from a grid source of power. Even that will not solve the transportation of your crops so far from a market. If solar was so great an idea and solution then farmers would be using it now. Using a wind mill would be a much better solution.


    Reply 7 years ago on Introduction

    I have been installing solar since 1999 in the Midwest (across 8 states and we are based in Carbondale IL) and have never installed a residential system that expensive. Grid tied systems usually cost half that and I just installed a system that does over 60% of the house's needs for 11,000. Having lived off grid for 18 years gives me some knowledge also.


    Reply 7 years ago on Introduction

    I agree Deb the cost of a professional installation does not make allot of sense unless you are going off grid. And off grid in a area that getting power to is not practical. I have toyed with the idea of doing a small system just for my shop and find that even beyond my financial reach.


    7 years ago on Introduction

    DebRinger300, thus being a DIY page, I suggest you build your own solar panels. You can buy solar cells on eBay, they are extremely easy to assemble and by following this instructable you really can do this sort of stuff yourself. If not, you can find trades people on CraigsList very easily who will do a fine job for you. Good luck.


    Reply 7 years ago

    Thanks. Do follow for more such Instructables.


    7 years ago on Introduction

    How close to the water source do the solar panels have to be?