THE GAZEBO

3,062

77

3

Introduction: THE GAZEBO

12’ 4” Wide x 12’ 8” Long x 8’ High

Supplies

THE MATERIALS

The materials needed for this particular project were as follows :

FOOTINGS :

(36) bags 80lb redi-mix cement

(48) 3/8” x 2’ rebar

(2) yards of ¾” stone

(4) 6” X 10’ PVC PIPE

TEMPORARY WOOD :

(16) 2x4x8 boards (Braces for Posts)

(4) ¾” x 4 x 8 plywood (patio paver cover while digging and pouring cement)

(2) 9/12 Plastic Tarps (patio paver coverage while digging and pouring cement)

POSTS :

(12) 6x6x12 pressure treated Beams

(6) 2x4x8 pressure treated boards (post ground caps)

(12) ¼” x 3” x 20” steel straps

(48) 8” galvanized bolts with washers & nuts --- (anchor straps & header boards to posts)

(10) ½” x 10” galvanized bolts with washers & nuts --- (Post Headers)

HEADER BEAMS :

(6) 2x10x14 or 16 pressure treated boards --- (main headers)

(10) 2x8x14 or 16 pressure treated boards --- (interior headers)

(1) 2x8x14 or 16 pressure treated board --- (Ridge Beam)

(16) 10” galvanized bolts with washers & nuts --- (anchor interior headers to posts)CEILING RAFTERS :

CEILING RAFTERS :

(34) 2x6x10 or 12 pressure treated boards --- doubles up on outer ends, and one on each side of all posts

(2) 2x6x14 or 16 pressure treated boards (Ceiling rafter end-caps)

(1) 2x6x12 pressure treated board --- (ceiling fan support)

ROOFING :

(12) sheets ¾” x 4 x 8 plywood

20 lbs. of 3” galvanized nails (to nail down plywood)

(1) Roll of 100’ weather-shield roofing

(3) square shingles (usually 1 bundle = 1/3 square … fancier shingles = ¼ square)

Galvanized Roofing Nails (to nail down shingles)

(4) 2x4x12 pressure treated boards (roof perimeter molding)

(8) aluminum drip cap edging

(50) hurricane straps – standard straight shape

(40) hurricane straps – flat diamond shape

RAILINGS :

(10) 2x2x14 pressure treated boards (fence spindles … can cut out of 2x4’s)

(4) 2x6x12 pressure treated boards (outer railing tops & bottoms)

(4) 2x4x8 pressure treated boards --- (inner railing tops & bottoms)

ELECTRIC CONTROL BOX :

(1) square deep electric box & closed cover --- (receiving box for initial electric run)

ELECTRIC CEILING FAN :

(1) Ceiling Fan

(1) Electric Outlet Box --- (for Fan)

(1) Electric Double Outlet Box --- (for fan light and fan switches)

(1) Fan Dimmer Switch

(1) Fan Light Dimmer Switch

(1) Double Switch Exterior Cover --- (Fan Lights and Fan)

ELECTRIC LIGHTS :

(4) Exterior Lights --- (lights)

(4) Electric Outlet Box --- (for lights)

(1) Light Dimmer Switch --- (Lights)

(1) Single Switch Exterior Cover --- (Lights)

ELECTRIC OUTLET BOX :

(1) Electric Outlet Box --- (electric outlets)

(1) GFI Receptacle --- (electric outlets)

(1) Outlet Exterior Box Cover --- (for receptacles)

ELECTRIC LINES :

(1) 20Amp breaker --- (for main electric panel in house --- for GFI receptacle)

(1) 20Amp breaker --- (for main electric panel in house --- for Fan & Lights)

(1) square deep electric box & closed cover --- (receiving box coming out of house for electric lines)

(1) 250’ roll of BLACK # 12 wire --- (electric)

(1) 250’ roll of WHITE # 12 wire --- (electric)

(1) 250’ roll of RED # 12 wire --- (electric)

(1) 250’ roll of GREEN # 12 wire --- (electric)

(10) 1” x 10’ Electric PVC pipes --- (electric lines)

(6) PVC electric box connectors --- (connect PVC pipe to electric boxes)

(12) 1” 90° PVC elbows --- (electric lines)

(6) 1” 45° PVC elbows --- (electric lines)

(1) Quart of PVC Cement (glue) --- (electric lines)

(24) 1” pipe clamps

1 lb. 1+½” galvanized nails

GUTTERS & LEEDERS :

(3) 10’ gutters

(18) gutter braces

(2) boxes of gutter brace screws

(2) downspout connections

(2) 10’ leeders

(6) 45° elbows

(6) Leeder clamps

(1) box ¾” galvanized screws

STAIN : 2 Gal. Stain ... Rollers ... Paint Brushes

TOOLS NEEDED :

Cement Mixer ... Cement Mixing Tub ... Post Hole Digger (or backhoe)

Shovel ... Pick ... Rake How ... Breaker Bar ... Broom

Hand Level – small (10”) & Large (3’) ... Laser Level

Square – Large ... Square – Small ... Crowbar ... Hose for Waterline

Hammer ... Ratchet Set ... Pliers ... Pipe Clamps ... Wrench

Step Ladders (2) ... Scaffold Walkway ... Buckets ... Box Cutter

Caulk Gun ... Screwdrivers (Phillips) ... Rasp ... Hand Chisels

Sander ... Paint Roller ... Paint Brushes ... Stapler (½” staples)

Chalk Line ... Circular Saw ... Miter Saw ... Reciprocal Saw

Jig Saw ... Hand Saw ... Router ... Drill

Tape Measure ... Straight Edge 3’ ruler ... Angle Ruler

Drill Bits : ½” x 12” long

Framing Nail Gun --- for 3” nails

Roof Nail Gun – 1+¼” nail stapler for Roof Shingles (alternative : you can use a hammer)

3” Nail Gun – for Roof Plywood (alternative : you can use a hammer)

3+½” Palm Nailer (for hard to hammer nail areas)

Compressor (to run Palm Nailer, Framing Gun and Roof Nail Gun )

Step 1: THE SRART

A gazebo is a pavilion structure, sometimes square, rectangular, octagonal or turret-shaped, often built in a park, garden or spacious public area. Gazebos are freestanding or attached to a garden wall, roofed, and open on all sides. They provide shade, shelter, ornamental features in a landscape, and a place to rest.

Gazebos may have screens to aid in the exclusion of flying insects.

Location is a key to a nicely placed Gazebo. It can be attached to a house or free-standing.

We located ours just off the open deck area on an existing patio, which facilitated close proximity to the open sun of the deck for ‘sun lovers’ versus the shade of the gazebo for others … a good alternative for visitors.

Size is another key to a comfortably spaced gazebo.

The gazebo should be large enough to comfortably sit 6-to-8 or more people, yet sized according to its location and the surrounding structures so that it does not appear too small or too big. Many ‘temporary’ gazebos you can buy in the store and quickly set-up are nice, and approximate 10’ x 12’ … a decent size.

With heavier timber construction for a permanent structure, I suggest it be a little larger size to conform to the lumber size, otherwise it may appear non-conforming and too small.

Start by planning the size table, chairs, foot comforters, end-tables and possibly lounges that will be ‘squeezed’ into it, and then expand a little on the gazebo size.

The finished Gazebo in the picture is 12’4” Wide x 12’8” Long x 8’ High (actually 7’+2½” High to bottom of Header Beam) … it is an ‘open’ design (no screens, and it was later found they were not needed due to the installation of a ceiling fan which basically kept the bugs away) … a good size that conformed to our existing patio dimensions ... anything larger would look too big for its location … (if we had the room it would have been 14’ x 16’).

It has 12 posts … 3 in each corner … but only the 4 ends are load bearing posts. The other 8, while primarily installed to accent the gazebo design, do have secondary load bearing responsibilities, like providing additional support to accommodate the 5’8” wide entry spans on each of the 4 sides of the Gazebo.

A Building Permit from my town was required because this is a permanent structure. Accordingly, 36” deep x 12” wide cement footings were required for EACH of the 12 posts (fun-n-games), regardless of the fact that only the 4 corner posts were primarily load bearing, while the other 8 posts were primarily cosmetic.

A compromise was struck :

For the cement footings of each of the 12 posts, I would put cement 15” to 18” high on a pad 12” wide x 18” long with rebar at the bottom of a 42” hole (not filling the entire hole with cement). The posts would sit on top of this cement pad, with 6x6 PVC pipes around the posts rising 4” above the ground to resist water. The town approved the cement base idea as long as PVC pipes were installed to provide protection of the posts from the ground rot concern.

Overbuilding again, 6x6 posts were used with 2x10 headers notched into the top of the posts.

The purpose of the other support ceiling header beams is discussed below.

Step 2: THE STEPS IN a NUTSHELL

Secure the Basic Structure :

1) Remove existing Patio Pavers around locations where you will dig (no need to remove entire patio)

2) Lay plywood and Tarps down on Patio to protect the other pavers

3) Dig all 12 Holes

4) Pour Cement and insert the rebar … and let cure for 1 to 2 days

5) Insert only the 4 corner 12’ Posts in holes, and secure them with temporary 2x4 supports

6) Laser Level and mark all 4 posts where Header Boards will intersect

7) Remove the 4 posts and only cut the header board notches (leaving 12’ post length … will be trimmed later)

8) Re-insert the 4 corner 12’ Posts with their PVC sleeves into the holes

9) Re-verify level accuracy with Laser Level

10) Tentatively connect the main Headers to these 4 Posts

11) Re-verify level accuracy with Laser Level

12) Bolt the main Headers to these 4 Posts using their custom made Steel Straps

13) Insert the remaining side 8 posts in holes

14) Laser Level and mark all 8 posts where Header Boards will intersect

15) Remove the 8 posts and only cut the header board notches (leaving 12’ post length … will be trimmed later)

16) Re-insert the 8 corner 12’ Posts with their PVC sleeves in holes

17) Re-verify level accuracy with Laser Level

18) Bolt these 8 Posts to the main Headers using the custom made Steel Straps

19) Fill holes with ¾” stone (or dirt)

20) Re-install pavers

FINISH THE STRUCTURE :

21) Install the 4 double sets of Interior Headers, along with the 2 single outer Interior Headers

22) Install and measure the Ridge Posts (aligning the height with both the main outer and the interior headers)

23) Install the Ridge Beam (verify its height is in line with the main outer and interior headers)

24) Install the Roof Rafters

25) Install the Roof Rafter end caps

26) Cut the tops of the 12 6x6 Posts flush with the Roof Rafters

27) Install all hurricane straps

28) Install the Plywood

29) Install the Roof all-weather shield

30) Install the Roof Shingles

31) Install the Gutters and Leeders

32) Install the Railings

33) Run the electric lines

34) Install the Fan

35) Install the other electric : Outlet, Light Dimmer, Fan Dimmer and Speed Regulator

36) Stain the Gazebo

37) Turn on the fan, sit down and have some lemonade !

Step 3: THE FOOTINGS

Picture # 1

Remove existing Patio Pavers around locations where you will dig (no need to remove entire patio)

Lay plywood and Tarps down on Patio to protect the other pavers.

Dig all 12 Holes : 42” hole was dough out with a small backhoe

Picture # 2

Pour Cement :

Cement, fortified with rebar, was filled 15” to 18” deep on a cement pad 12” wide x 18” long with rebar for extra strength.

If a backhoe is used, it might be feasible to dig just 1 “L” shaped hole for each of the 4 sets of 3 posts, then pour the cement all at once for each set of 3 posts.

Step 4: THE FRAME

Once the cement pads are in place, only the 4 end Posts are manually dropped into the holes where, held by temporary supports, they are all laser leveled with each other (see Measuring and Leveling Beams below) and marked where the Header Beams will intersect. Then they are removed, the header beam notches cut (leaving the 12’ post length … will be trimmed later), then the posts are reinserted into their holes with their 6” PVC sleeves.

The 2x10 headers are then connected and bolted to the 4 end posts along with their metal straps.

The remaining 8 side posts are similarly installed (posts are 37” center-to-center distant from each other on the 12’8” Long side, and 34” on the 12’4” Wide side) … they connect very easily to the already secure headers. All holes are then filled with ¾” stone (or dirt).

This entire framework is now very ‘solid’ and secure where it is safe to throw up the remaining structure.

Note : double 2x10 headers are installed on the lower roof ends for roof load bearing purposes.

3” wide x 20” long x 3/8” thick steel straps ($17 each … and easily fabricated) are also used to bolt the headers to the posts to secure and for design.

Step 5:

See the picture above for instructions on squaring the project.

IT IS CRITICAL THAT THE 4 CORNER POSTS ARE LEVEL AND ‘SQUARE’ … I.E. THEIR DIAGONAL MEASUREMENTS BETWEEN OPPOSITE POSTS ARE THE SAME.

IF THEY ARE NOT, YOUR PROJECT WILL BE LOPSIDED !

Step 6:

Picture # 1

Close-up view of the 3” wide x 20” long x 3/8” thick steel straps. (The steel fabricator laughed when he saw my design, and made the straps to accent the size of the Gazebo !)

Picture # 2

View of 12” Overhang resting on double-headers notched into posts.

Picture # 3

View of double 2x10 headers on the load-bearing roof ends (only single headers were installed on the peak sides). 2x6 Ceiling Rafters are notched and rest on headers with required hurricane straps installed (to prevent wind lift of the roof).

Step 7: THE ROOF PITCH

The Pitch of a roof is its vertical 'rise' over its horizontal 'span' … i.e. : the higher the Ridge Beam the steeper the roof Pitch will be.

The Pitch is expressed in terms of the # of inches a roof rises Vertically over a 12” Horizontal span … ex: a 4” rise = a 4/12 Pitch

For proper water drainage, a Pitch of 2/12 is the minimum required for shingles and roll roofing, with 4/12 and higher being standard.

Ridge Beam height is really whatever your design calls for, as long as it’s above the minimum required Pitch. The desired height of the Ridge Beam often determines the Pitch … the desired Pitch can also determine the height of the Ridge Beam Generally both are considered in determining a reasonable Roof height. My desired height was 36”.

Calculating the Roof Pitch :

Ridge Beam is 37+ ½” high (its vertical rise) above the post header beam, and is located 6’ + 3”, or 6.25’ (its horizontal span) from the far outer edge of the main post load bearing header beams … the Pitch is calculated as 37+ ½” / 6.25 = 6” … = 6” vertical rise for each 12” horizontal span … for a 6/12 Pitch.

I am above the required minimum Pitch of 2/12 and the standard minimum Pitch of 4/12, wherein my 6/12 Pitch is acceptable to me. Let’s erect the high Ridge Beam …

Step 8: THE RIDGE POSTS

THE RIDGE POSTS :

Ridge Beam sits on top of Ridge Posts, which were installed to support the Ridge Beam. It provides for a secure and easy installation. Ridge Post height is generally measured from the top of the support wall it rests on … to the bottom of the Ridge Beam it supports.

Here a basic Ridge Post of 30” is needed (37+ ½” from post header beam to top of Ridge Beam, less 7+ ½” for height of Ridge Beam)

This basic measurement of 30” was extended by 17” to 47” to accommodate : 1) the bottom of the Ridge Post is extended 9+½” down the side of the post header beam, and 2) the Ridge Post is extended 7+½” to the top of the Ridge Beam in order for the Ridge Beam to sit flush in notches cut in the center of the Ridge Posts for extra support.

Thereafter it is very easy to simply lay the Ridge Beam in the notches of the 2 Ridge Posts to be easily secured.

Therefore, measurement, leveling and securing the Ridge Posts are the key to a very easy Ridge Beam installation.

My over-built but very secure Ridge Posts now measures 47” (30” basic height + an extra 9+½” down + an extra 7+½” up). Note : the 30” basic Ridge Post height still supports the Ridge Beam, with the extra 17” only providing extra support and design.

Picture # 1
View of the 2nd set of interior headers resting on top of the 1st set of interior headers. They protrude out of the Gazebo by 12”, and are design to support the 12” side overhangs of the Gazebo. Caps for design were installed.

All interior headers were bolted to their posts.

Ridge Posts, one at each end of the Gazebo, were installed and bolted to both the main Post headers as well as the interior additional end headers (described previously).

Picture # 2

The Ridge Post … one on each side of the Gazebo … is 37+ ½” tall from the top of the main post header beam … but is 46+ ½” tall since it sits down into the entire 9+ ½” width of the main header beam.

The Ridge Post is first leveled and then bolted to both the main post header beam as well as the additional end header beam which sits in 5+ ½” and immediately above the main post header beam.

It is comprised of 6 2x6 boards, with 2 of the boards resting directly on top of each of the 2 header beams for roof load support. They are notched so that the top of the 2x8 Ridge Beam sits ‘flush’ with the top of the Ridge Posts. The Ridge Beam is then an easy drop-in into the Ridge Posts. Adjust level as needed.

2x6 Ceiling Rafters are then notched and laid on the load bearing main header beams of both the posts and the secondary interior header, and cut to join the Ridge Post.

Hurricane straps everywhere.

The center of the Ridge Posts are located 6’ 3” in from the ends of the main double post header beams.

Step 9: THE INTERIOR

The structural interior of the Gazebo is quite elaborate and was basically done for design purposes, with some structural support.

Two sets of two 2x8 headers (shown going left to right), the 1st board of each set being placed 32” from the main post single header, were placed 5+½” apart, and rest on the roof’s load bearing double headers and are in line with and bolted to their posts.

Two sets of two 2x8 headers (7+¼” each) (shown on top of the above 2x8 headers going front to back), the 1st board of each set being placed 3’ from the main post double header (parallel to it), were again placed 5+½” apart, and are bolted to their posts.

These headers are used not only for design purposes, but also for additional roof support … overbuilding at its best !

The 14+½” combined height of the double headers (7+¼ & 7+¼ ) with their top 1st header location of 3’ from the outer edge of the main double headers, now determines a tentative ‘Pitch’ of approx. 5/12 (14.5” / 3’) … but since the Ceiling Rafters were notched to sit on and into the edge of the main double header beam, this generates a greater ‘rise’ to the rafters, and actually raises the Pitch to 6/12 (see below).

Everything received a set of hurricane straps to prohibit lifting by any blowing wind.

The space between all these interior header boards where th fan is hanging, provides 5’ 6” clearance between all the boards. Again for design, but also to allow an open-air feeling for the gazebo, as well as the hanging fan (which actually hangs below the upper set of headers, while being flush with the bottom set of headers.

The spacious design between the 1st double set of double 2x8’s was planned for lighting and running their electric lines.

Note the additional 2x8 header, one on each end of the Gazebo, in line with the 1st double set of 2x8’s bolted to the posts for additional support of the ends of the 2nd double set of 2x8 headers above it. This was done to prevent the ends of the 2nd double set of headers above it from warping.

Step 10:

The interior center of the Gazebo.

Note the 2nd set of double interior beams sitting on top of the 1st set of double interior header beams, which in turn sit on top of the main post beams.

Note the additional 2x8 header, one on each end of the Gazebo, in line with the 1st double set of 2x8’s. These are bolted to the posts for additional support of the 2nd double set of 2x8 headers above it. This was done to prevent the ends of the 2nd double set of headers above it from warping … but also to provide support to the Ridge Posts.

The space between all these interior header boards where the fan is hanging, provides 5’ 6” clearance between all the boards. Again for design, but also to allow an open-air feeling for the gazebo, as well as the hanging fan (which actually hangs below the 2nd set of double interior beams, while being flush with the 1st set of double interior beams).

The spacious design between the 1st double set of double 2x8’s was planned for lighting and running their electric lines.

Special note : only an interior type outlet box or special interior fan outlet box is strong enough to support the weight and movement of a fan. The traditional exterior outlet boxes are not strong enough. Check local building permit specifications.

Step 11:

Pictures # 1 & 2

View of the fan support construction … two 2x6’s with additional design boards were placed in middle and on ends. Electric wires are run inside electric PVC pipes to prevent little critters from chewing on the electric lines.

Picture # 3

View of the light support construction … two 2x6’s with design boards were placed in middle and on ends. Electric is run inside electric PVC pipes to prevent little critters from chewing on the electric lines.

Picture # 4

Electric was run underground, from the house to the far corner of the Gazebo, where an outlet was installed, then run over to the light controls you see here. These controls control the light and fan dimmers and fan speed. Weather resistant electric covers were installed.

Step 12: FINISHING TOUCHES

¾” plywood was installed for the roof, all weather ice shield was installed on the entire roof, then the shingles were then installed … note the white aluminum edge guards around the perimeter of the shingles … this protects both the plywood underlayment, as well as the trim boards.

Trim Boards were installed around the perimeter of the Gazebo (before the plywood was installed to insure roofing would cover it).

Fencing is added between all the posts. Sitting 6” above the ground, the fence rises to 40” high.

1+ ½” posts (cut from 2x4’s) are inserted between a 2+ ½” bottom and top header … this structure then rests on a beveled 2x4 on the bottom, and is capped with a beveled 2x6 on the top.

Patio blocks were reset in place, making sure they are slightly beveled away from the posts.

Note the electric outlet in the corner which is used for various needs like a radio, tv connection, cooking utensils, etc.

Step 13:

Picture # 1

Gutters and leaders on both sides of the Gazebo were later installed as a necessity to channel the water away from the sloping ends of the Gazebo since the water accumulation was both a moss attractant on the patio side and cut gouges in the grass on the other side of the Gazebo.

A 6’9” wide x 5’9” deep patio extension was a nice addition where a chiminea could be placed to provide some heat in the winter for those adventurous souls who ventured out in the cold … or just simply a nice fall lounging in the cool evening.

Picture # 2

The patio extension offers a little privacy and ‘heat’.

Step 14:

Picture # 1

The roominess desired in the Gazebo is a multiple of the size and quantity of the furniture you intend to put in it.

While the table and chairs in this picture fit well, it’s a little tight and clumsy when you get 8 or more people in it.

Thinking of a smaller table and lounge.

Picture # 2

Close proximity off the deck was a key factor in locating the Gazebo.

Now people can easily walk from one to the other.

Conversations can still be held with each other while sitting on both the porch and in the Gazebo.

An added feature is that both the Porch and the Gazebo are close to the Kitchen !

Step 15:

Picture # 1

Finished Gazebo before staining.

Picture # 2

Finished Gazebo after staining.

White PVC sleeves were available to put around the 6x6 posts, and white PVC fencing was available, but with the wood header design and all the wood in the interior of the Gazebo, it would have looked out of place … so an all wood Gazebo was constructed.

Step 16: The Hired Help

The hired-help after a long day ! ( She did most of the work … or at least directed it ! )

Note the spaciousness of the Gazebo with an oversized table and 6 chairs in it. There is room for end-tables.

Note the post caps on top of the patio pavers … this is a nice design that also serves the purpose of covering the PVC pipes above ground level, as well as the base support for the fence..

Be the First to Share

    Recommendations

    • Space Contest

      Space Contest
    • Lamps and Lighting Contest

      Lamps and Lighting Contest
    • Organization Contest

      Organization Contest

    3 Comments

    0
    KenS66
    KenS66

    Question 1 year ago on Step 13

    Can you provide an estimate on materials cost needed to build a gazebo like this?

    0
    excelkeenan
    excelkeenan

    Reply 1 year ago

    $8,000 in 2011 ... (remember, the patio was already there)
    Broken down as follows :


    Permits 120


    Lumber 1950


    Railings 650


    Recycling 180


    Hardware 2000


    Cement 500


    Electric 1350


    Roofing 1000


    Paint 250
    You can really make your own railings (these were a little custom wood, but really not necessary), and you don't need electric (but its nice) ... that would cur the costs down by $2,000 ...
    The 6x6's really make the Gazebo ...
    I am always amazed the Hardware is the most expensive part of the project ...
    Tnis project, although massive, was really easy to build once the 4 corner posts were in ... then after the headers were installed to make the basic 4-post structure rigid, the rest was pretty easy ...
    and with the placement of the 2 ridge posts and the placement of the ridge beam on these 2 posts, what seems like a formidable chore to install a roof was actually the easiest and quickest part.
    Let me know what you do, and if you decide to build something like this and need any help, let me know.
    Thanks

    0
    Penolopy Bulnick
    Penolopy Bulnick

    1 year ago

    Looks like a lovely design and a very relaxing place to hang out :)