Upgrade Your CNC

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Introduction: Upgrade Your CNC

CNC machines are more accessible than ever, with the large range of cheap CNC machine kits from China. The most common type are the 1610, 2416 or 3018 types, referring to the dimension of their machine bed. While they are great machines for their price, their performance is not that terrific. With a few upgrades however, the quality and safety can greatly be improved to turn it into a very potent CNC machine!

In this instructable, I will walk you through the upgrades I made to my machine, including:

  • Adding safety features
  • Upgrading the spindle to cut aluminium
  • Adding bluetooth control
  • Adding an enclosure
  • Adding manual control

We will start this guide with an assembled CNC kit. There is enough documentation already for the assembly of these kits, so I will focus on the upgrades only.

Most upgrades will be 3D printed. The necessary files are included in each step, as well as a wiring diagram. Besides a 3D printer, we'll also need a soldering iron and some basic tools.

Let's get started!

Step 1: Cable Management

As a first step, we will put the electronics in an enclosure and nicely route the cables to the main board. This protects the PCB from dust, and shorts in the case of milling aluminium.
Furthermore, we will add a drag chain for the wires.

Parts in this step

  • Drag chain 15 mm x 25 cm
  • 40 mm fan 12V
  • Zip ties

Electronics box
Start by printing Electronics_box.stl and Electronics_lid.stl and install it on the CNC. Add a fan to the inside and connect it to the 12V powersupply. Neatly route all stepper motor cables to the box and secure with zip ties.
Cableguide.stl is a part which fits in the channel of the extruded aluminium and allows for even nicer cable management.

Drag chain
Print DragchainCoupler.stl and place it on the Z stepper motor. The drag chain can be bolted to this part and also secured to the aluminium rails. When routing the wires through the dragchain, it is a good time to add 2 extra pairs of red and black wires for the next steps.

Step 2: Add Homing Switches and Soft Limits

Now that the wiring is neat, we can start with the real upgrades. Homing switches will allow us to home the machine and soft limits will prevent from crashes.

Parts in this step

  • 3 micro switches + M2 bolts
  • Cables + dupont connectors

Homing switches

The X and Y limit switches are mounted on the brackets which hold the M8 rods by means of LimitSwitchHolder.stl. Print this piece twice and mount it on the locations indicated in the pictures.

The Z axis switch is simply screwed into the Z axis mount. Use one of the extra wires we ran through the dragchain in the previous step to connect this limit switch to the main board.

Solder a red and black wire to the limit switch and add dupont connectors to the other end. Plug them into the PCB according to the wiring diagram.

Updating GRBL

The homing switches and soft limits must now be enabled in the GRBL settings (GRBL is the software which runs on the microcontroller on the PCB). Soft limits prevent the CNC to crash into its own frame by halting moves which would cause a crash.

To do this, connect your CNC to a PC with a USB cable. Use the Arduino IDE (or any other terminal) to connect to the CNC by opening a new serial monitor (make sure you select the correct baud rate).

Type $$ to view the current settings
Type $22=1 to enable homing
Type $27=5 to adjust the homing pull off
Type $20=1 to enable soft limits
Type $130=300 to set the maximal x dimension (for CNC3018)
Type $131=180 to set the maximal y dimension (for CNC3018)
Type $132=40 to set the maximal z dimension
Type $$ again to verify the changes.

Step 3: 48V Spindle and Speed Controller

The spindle is one of the weakest points of this CNC machine. Upgrading it will allow us to cut aluminium quite easily! We will also add a speed controller, which is necessary for softer materials such as acrylic.

Parts in this step

  • 300W 48V 52mm spindle motor
  • 48 V power supply
  • DC spindle speed controller
  • Thick red and black wire
  • Line laser modules

New Z axis spindle mount

To accommodate the large spindle, we will have to make a new spindle mount. Start by taking apart the original carriage: remove the stepper motor, leadscrew, M8 rods and spindle mount. Print Spindlemount.stl, SpindlemountLaser.stl and Z_leadscrew_stop.stl and reassemble the carriage according to the pictures. Finally, mount the carriage back on the CNC and insert the new spindle motor.

At this point, we can also add 2 line lasers to indicate the position of the router bit. Install them in holders and connect the cables to the remaining wires we routed through the drag chain.

Add the powersupply and speed controller

We can now install the 48V powersupply on the back of the CNC with some screws. To mount the speed controller, I removed the 2 outer fins of the heatsink, such that it fits perfectly in between the aluminium frame. Print MotorControllerBox.stl to cover the speed controller. Wire the speed controller according to the diagram.

Some versions of the woodpecker PCB might not have the PWM motor speed control signal brought out to the header pins. In that case, you can solder the wires directly to the original motor control MOSFET, as shown in the last diagram.

By changing the motor controller, the motor might not turn when the speed setting from candle is too high. This has to do with the PWM signal that is generated. To get around this, decrease the speed setting in candle. Another option would be to change the GRBL max speed value via the $30 command.

Step 4: Emergency Button and Z Probe

Two more features are essential for a full-fledged CNC machine: an emergency stop button and Z probe.

Parts in this step

  • Emergency button
  • Cables + dupont connectors
  • Crocodile clips
  • DC barrel jack and receptacle

Emergency Stop Button

Emergency stop buttons can cheaply be bought online and provide a very useful upgrade. Sooner or later your router bit will crash into your material or CNC in a way you didn't intend. Stopping your machine is essential for the safety of you and your machine.

Solder wires to the Normally Open side of the button and the other side to dupont headers. Then, connect it to pin A0 of the main board.

Z probe

Z probing allows you to probe the height of your workpiece. This makes it more easy to set the height of your router bit and allows for making so-called height maps, which are essential when milling PCBs. Since we don't need this all the time, we will connect the Z probe via a DC jack.

The first cable goes from a female DC jack to dupont wires and is connected to pin A5. A male DC jack can then be soldered to two crocodile clips. One is attached to the bit, while the other one is clipped to a (metal) workpiece, like a PCB.

Step 5: Manual Control

CNC stands for Computer Numerical Control, but in some cases manual control is beneficial. Therefore, we'll add knobs to the X and Y axis.

Parts in this step

  • M3 screws
  • M3 nut or threaded insert

Making the knobs

First, print the handles. If you plan on using threaded inserts, print CNChandleInsert.stl; otherwise print CNChanleNut.stl. Both options are shown in the picture. Also print CNChandlehandle.stl and assemble the pieces. Install them on the X and Y lead screws of the CNC machine.

Step 6: Bluetooth Control

As a final modification, I added bluetooth control to the CNC. This allows me to control it through my phone, but is a more advanced step and completely optional. I use the G-code2GRBL android app.

Parts in this step

  • HC-05 bluetooth module
  • 1k Ohm and 2k Ohm resistors
  • Switch

Hooking up the bluetooth module

The HC05 bluetooth module should be connected to the TX and RX pins of the microcontoller. Since the module is 3V3 rated and the microcontroller runs at 5V, a voltage divider is added between the TX pin of the microcontroller and RX pin of the bluetooth module. Furthermore, a switch is added to disable the module, as it otherwise intervenes with the USB communication. Hook up everything according to the diagram.

Step 7: Case

We now have a CNC machine with a lot more capabilities. As a final touch, we will give it a nice case to keep dust and sound under control. It will also make it look neat and professional!
The case is designed to be laser cut; I used 3 mm MDF for all sides and the top, and acrylic for the lid.

The files are specifically for the CNC3018 and will not fit the smaller variants! However, the fusion 360 file is included such that you can adjust it to your needs.

Parts in this step

  • IEC socket with switch
  • M3 bolts and nuts
  • LED strip
  • Carbon filter

Assemble the front and sides

First, add the sides and front to the CNC and bolt them together. The manual control knobs and emergency switch can also be added at this point. An IEC inlet and switch are installed for the 48V spindle powersupply.

Assemble the lid

Next, connect the top to the lid with bolts and nuts. Add an LED strip to the underside of the lid and plug it into the 12V supply on the main board.

Assemble the back

The back of the case has cutouts for the air inlets, to which a piece of carbon filter is added. To prevent dust from leaving though the Y axis stepper motor cutout, print StepperCover.stl and snap it in place.

Lastly, connect all the wires to the main board and close the enclosure for the electronics. The back can now be bolted in place to finish the case.

Step 8: Enjoy

Our basic CNC kit has now been upgraded to a very capable machine, capable of milling aluminium, PCBs or anything in between. Furthermore, the case provides sound and dust isolation, which makes it perfectly usable in my office. If you have gotten inspiration to make your own, please vote for me in the Epilog contest!

I hope you liked the project! Feel free to check out my other Instructables: https://www.instructables.com/member/ThomasVDD/

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    102 Comments

    0
    KerryJapan
    KerryJapan

    6 months ago on Step 7

    Awesome upgrades! I’m curious if you could add more detail/code for the Bluetooth setup. I have a 3018 Prover and would love to add a BC-05 for it.

    0
    codebeat
    codebeat

    Tip 6 months ago

    Hai, great tut you made. Love the manual control, really a simple and clever idea. I have an additional feature I like to mention. A trash tray at the bottom of the case.

    It is easier to use a brush to push dirt down, instead of using a vacuum cleaner (tube) or such to clean up the mess in such smart case. All dirt will end up underneeth in the removable trash tray. Also a great addition could be a soft blow system that blows the dirt gently away from the mill surface and off the bed surface and guide it into the trash tray.

    So you need some wide and small blow pipe at the front of the bed and some dirt guiders at the backside of the bed. Sucking dirt could be better however it needs more power to do this and produces more air/fan noise. A gently wave of air push all the dirt to the backside of bed and to support/help the falling off dirt to flow into the right direction, you can use two or more little fans underneeth the bed. Last option also helps to keep the bed guiders clean.

    The idea is that much air strongness (and noise) isn't required because of vibrations, the dirt of the cut 'jumps' when cut and a gentle airflow push it gently away from the surface. Sucking dirt requires a way more power (and noise) to do this. Maybe it is not as clean like sucking however has some other benefits just explained. It will never blow into your face, it is not strong enough to do this and it blows the dirt in opposite direction (away from you) into the trash tray. Less mess and easier to clean and you can see the cut while operating (not covered with dirt).

    Hopefully you understand what I mean, it could be a great addition to your already great design. ;-)


    0
    loopedit
    loopedit

    Question 7 months ago

    can the upgraded laser mount hold a 40mm laser module?

    0
    LongLiveCHIEF
    LongLiveCHIEF

    Question 8 months ago on Step 2

    How is the Y Limit Switch extender meant to be used? Is it meant to be fit over one of the cap screws on the carriage so it moves with the carriage and the extender itself hits the switch at max travel?

    0
    ThomasVDD
    ThomasVDD

    Answer 8 months ago

    Exactly!

    0
    AriNurcahyo
    AriNurcahyo

    2 years ago on Step 2

    Hi Thomas,
    I had 3018 PRO, and feel that the spindle somehow terrible even to cut a 3mm acrylic.
    Unfortunately, the vendor said that there's no way to upgrade the spindle since the more powerful one has a different diameter.

    It's a good thing you wrote this useful article so I can upgrade mine.

    One question: is the new spindle you used capable to cut 1.2mm stainless steel plate?

    0
    ThomasVDD
    ThomasVDD

    Reply 2 years ago

    Thanks :)
    I have not tried this yet, but I think it's doable with a good endmill.
    And ofcourse, begin by lowering the feeds and speeds.

    0
    neoflame
    neoflame

    Reply 2 years ago

    Thank you for the answer.
    By the way Thomas,
    read on other comment that you use PLA instead of ABS for the printed material.
    Is PLA strong enough? did you have any trouble in using them especially on those spindle mount?
    Well, I tried to go for ABS, but no local 3D Printing here accepted my order, they just offered me to use PLA.

    0
    ThomasVDD
    ThomasVDD

    Reply 2 years ago

    I think PLA is plenty strong, simply use >25% infill. This is not a professional grade machine anyways.

    0
    brettjanaway
    brettjanaway

    Reply 9 months ago

    Ah ha. I was searching for what infill you used. >25% is good. I have it set to 30% and it is all printing now. That would be good info to put in to the article. :-D

    Thanks for all the suggestions.....

    0
    KenR82
    KenR82

    Reply 1 year ago

    I can't imagine ever needing more strength than what I got with my PLA printed at 0.2mm. It is very strong and has a very solid fill at 25% cubic fill.

    0
    KenR82
    KenR82

    Reply 1 year ago

    and adding a controlled coolant mist and catch tray under it? My 2¢ if you want to keep the heat down and save on expensive bits

    0
    ThomasR129
    ThomasR129

    1 year ago

    Hey there... I'm looking to buy a CNC 3018 machine for doing some parts for guitars (pickguards) but can't find one with a bed that does 300x300mm... all seem to be 300x180mm. Is there a way to (easily) extend the bed by 120mm? Thanks.

    0
    ThomasVDD
    ThomasVDD

    Reply 1 year ago

    Since the system is made from makerbeams, you could buy longer 20x20mm beams and M8 rod to make your frame bigger. Let us know if you manage to achieve it!

    0
    geordie54
    geordie54

    Reply 1 year ago

    i extended the bed on mine 400 mm but i had trouble obtaining the right t8 lead screw i was lucky i had some 10 mm round bar lying around just had to drill and tap the ends then order some 20x40 etrusion for the frame

    0
    mjdp01
    mjdp01

    Reply 1 year ago

    Thanks your for your share about increasing the bed on your 3018 to 400
    mm. That's really great! And now you a workarea of 300 x 400 mm?

    Do
    you have a pic you can share please. I would like to get the 3018 and
    modify it and any information you can share about the exact lenght of
    extrusion you needed to cut for extending the 400 mm on the y-axis. Many
    thanks!

    0
    geordie54
    geordie54

    Reply 11 months ago

    hi the extrusion i used was 2040 with 6mm slots i also changed my lead screws to single start

    0
    mjdp01
    mjdp01

    Reply 11 months ago

    I got myself a CNC 3018 Pro and just got it all assembled. This Y axis alu profiles are 300mm long, shaft screw is only 8mm and the two linear rails are 10mm diameter so not so rigid.

    As soon as I become familiar with using the cnc, I would like to tincker with increasing the size to preferably 300 x 300 mm work area. From what @cncholic mentioned below the Y-axis shaft, linear rods and bearings would also need to be upgraded but I am not quite sure as to what size alu profiles (lenght) would I need to get the y-axis extended to 300mm from the current 160mm. And the best diameter for the shaft screw and linear rods/bearings in order to make it sturdy??

    2020-11-10 10.06.21.jpg
    0
    geordie54
    geordie54

    Reply 1 year ago

    basically it just means that i can get the full 200 mm rather than just 180mm extending too far would create more problems i have already upgraded the motor to the bigger 500 w one but because of the method i used it in its self has also created problems for me solve i will add some pictures when i have a bit more time

    0
    mjdp01
    mjdp01

    Reply 1 year ago

    Thank you for your reply. From what I am finding out, the z-axis assembly of the 3018 is very poorly designed and hanging from 2 T8 steel rods is not rigid enough when you fit those heavier spindles. I think it would require a total redesign of the x-axis to have T12 Steel rods.

    I was looking to get this low cost starter machine for learning about CNC and to do some prototype cutting and milling 3 mm acrylic material and maybe milling and engraving wood. But I felt the 180 mm y-axis is too small and having at least 300 mm x 300 mm would work well because the smallest size the acrylic sheets are sold is 1 sq ft.

    Here is what I was thinking would work in terms of increasing the y-axis workarea.
    (a) Replace the two from left and right side Y-axis aluminium profiles with the same size as the X- axis profiles which I think are 15 inches.
    (b) Replace the Y-axis motor thread screw to be the same as the X-axis screw
    (c) Replace the 2 T8 Steel rods for the y-axis bed.

    I could be entirely wrong in my above assumptions and will invite your thoughts and of others who might have tried to so this.