Introduction: Water Electrolysis
Dear Colleagues, please watch my video to find a deeper understanding of the Electrolysis of water.
Step 1: Problem and Purpose
We use fossil fuels in most of our industries. These fuels cause pollution and are destructive. Our use of these fuels are nonsustainable for our planet. That's why we should look and use clean energy. Water is a resource available in the world. It is made of 2 elements: Hydrogen and Oxygen. My goal is to attempt to separate Hydrogen and Oxygen from water through electrolysis so that Hydrogen can be used as clean energy source.
Step 2: Hypothesis
In a molecule of water there is 2 atoms of Hydrogen and 1 atom of Oxygen. If I separate the gases then I will have double the amount of Hydrogen versus oxygen. I think that the negative pole will attract the Hydrogen and the positive pole will attract the Oxygen.
Step 3: Variables
3. 9V battery
4. graphite pencils.
Step 4: Background Research
Step 5: Materials
3. 9V battery
4. 2 glass test tubes
5. Glass vessel
8. Electrical wires
9. Battery connector
10. Alligator clips
Step 6: Procedure
1. Dissolve salt in water in order to increase the conductivity of water.
2. Pour water into a vessel.
3. I submerged the test tube in the solution and removed all the air and bubbles from it.
4. I attached the screws to the alligator clips.
5. I attached the alligator clips to the battery connector.
6. Then I attach the battery connector to the actual battery.
7. I slip the screws into the test tubes.
8. I anchor the test tubes in place using cardboard.
9. Bubbles begin to accumulate in the test tubes at different speeds.
7. I lifted the Hydrogen test tube and I put a flame next to it and there was a popping sound and that proves that burning Hydrogen emits energy.
8. I did a second experiment using two-sided pencils as a conductor instead of screws. It is clear that the Hydrogen is bubbling (extracted) at twice the speed of Oxygen.
Here you can find a video of the entire procedure:
Step 7: Data
Those pictures and examples above explain the charts and progression and statistics related to my project.
In addition to my research I know that:
Each cup of water has 8360000000000000000000000 molecules of H2O.
For every 90 grams of water, I need 10 grams of salt to make it a good conductor. A good conductor is an Electrolyte. Which is a substance that has extra ions that allow it to transfer energy in the form of electricity.
Step 8: Data Analysis
From the equation in the images, you will find that Hydrogen gas is the most substance that was extracted. You will see in the image above that the tube with the hydrogen gas displaced the most water.
There were other products as a result of the electrolysis and the variables such as salt and the screws. The salt caused the creation of Cl2 and NaOH which is a base. You will see that the NaOH and the material of the screws reacted to create the brown colored water. This is called a precipitate. It is a substance formed during a reaction, a metal oxide. That is why you will see that the screw producing Hydrogen remained silver and produced a lot of gas. The screw on the positive pole oxidized with the oxygen it was producing, which is why the oxygen gas didn't accumulate and the screw changed color.
As a result of this impurity, I did the second experiment using pencil graphite as the conductor. it was a pure material which is why you can clearly see bubbles on both pencil ends. The hydrogen bubbles were double the amount of oxygen bubbles.
I then took the gathered Hydrogen gas and lit a lighter next to it. I clearly heard a POP which means the Hydrogen gas burned and created energy.
Step 9: Result
The experiment separated Hydrogen gas and oxygen gas. The Hydrogen gas was in a large quantity and it was accumulated at the negative pole. The oxygen gas showed bubbles at the positive pole. But the quantity was at a minimum because the Oxygen released reacted with the metal of the screw. Which proves that the screw was not of pure metal. This also caused a brown precipitate to show in the water. This is NaOH which is a base. I had to add vinegar and acid to neutralize it before I could throw it out. Then, I took out the test tube carefully with the Hydrogen gas. I then lit a lighter, with a small flame, next to it. The gas caught fire and created the sound of a POP. This pop is proof that the Hydrogen gas was gathered, lit, and that it released energy.
Step 10: Conclusion
We are getting more efficient in creating clean energy and electricity sourced from, Nuclear, wind, and solar. If we are able to make this clean electricity, then it is only rational to use this clean electricity to produce hydrogen, that will allow us to use our appliances, machines, and operate our factories in an environmentally friendly way. Electrolysis is an easy method to produce Hydrogen. It can be made on a large scale and small scale. which helps with different methods of using it. So in my experiment, I prove that you could produce Hydrogen through electrolysis while Oxygen produced pollution due to impure material. That's why you need to be using pure material to get the best results.
Step 11: Application
If we can produce clean energy from Hydrogen we can use it for the following industries:
1. Car Engines
2. Trucks Engines
3. Public transport engines
4. Hydrogen lift Cranes
5. Household lighting
6. Household heating
This will allow us to depend less on fossil fuels.
Step 12: Evaluation
I used research skills by looking for any type of information and websites to improve and help my work develop which I did while also researching for pictures to use. I decided that pollution is a problem so I researched what projects help support and describe pollution.
I used self-management skills by trying my experiment every time I failed I got back and tried until I completed it. I also think I managed myself by arranging my time to know when I work and when to take a break.
I used thinking skills to know and estimate how some events will go and how will the experiment takes path and what might happen and why it happened with reasons.
I communicated with other people asking them what and how should we do something in a way or how to write it or what to find on the internet or what to do to help my project grow and develop for the better.
2 years ago
Nice writeup! :)
"because the Oxygen released reacted with the metal of the screw. Which proves that the screw was not of pure metal."
Not necessary. A pure iron screw or nail would also "bond" the oxygen. As long as the exposed metal can easily be oxydised, it will use up the generated O and build the oxide of the metal. In case of iron, thats Fe2O3 or simply called rust. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rust
Thats also likely the source of your discoloration opf the screw and the brown percipitate in the water.
If you take a metal as electrode which is hard to oxydise (Like platinum, Gold and to a certain extend also titanium as cheaper alternative) the oxide-generation will be none or at least MUCH less.
Saltwater used in electrolysis also can generate chlorine (Detectable by this bleach-smell or swimming-pool-smell): https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salt_water_chlorinat...
"Each cup of water has 8360000000000000000000000 molecules of H2O." :) Someone found the number of a mole ot matter :) Nice!