## Introduction: What Is the Best Material for Earthquake Prone Areas

In my project, I did an experiment where I bought 3 different materials concrete wood and brick and I placed a small bucket of water on top then I swung a metal ball to each material to see what does that effect of the water tray . And my goal for this project is to find the best material to withstand earthquakes because earthquakes are a major natural disaster that can lead to a lot of harm or even death.

## Step 1: Problem

The problem is that there are Many populated cities around the world are now located in earthquake-prone areas. The outcome of an earthquake can be very devastating, especially when it occurs in a populated city. An earthquake can cause loss of lives, injuries to people,

## Step 2: Hypothesis

The material Timber is suitable for use as a building material, in earthquake areas to protect them from earthquakes

## Step 3: Materials

1 transparent plastic or glass tray ( at least 50mm in depth)

-1 Tap water

- 1 spherical metal ball with hook

- 1-meter long string - 1 concrete slab-

-1 piece of timber, about the same size as the concrete slab

- 1 small table

## Step 4: Procedure

1. For this experiment, the independent variable is the type of building material used – timber, brick or concrete. The dependent variable is the amount of vibration absorbed by the building material. This is determined by measuring the height of the waves which form inside the tray of water. The constants (control variables) are the size of the tray, the depth of the water, the weight of the ball and the length of the string.

2. The string is used to tie the metal ball and suspend it from the ceiling or from a coat hanger. The suspended metal ball should be able to swing freely as shown. 3. The timber is placed on the small table. The length of the string is adjusted so that when the metal ball swings towards the table, it will knock against the side of the timber

3. The timber is placed on the small table. The length of the string is adjusted so that when the metal ball swings towards the table, it will knock against the side of the timber

4. The transparent tray is filled with water up to 2 cm deep. The tray is then placed on top of the timber. Once the water is calm and settled, swing the metal ball and allow it to knock against the side of the timber. Observe and record the height of the wave in the water during impact. Repeat the test 4 times and record the results in the table given below. 5. Procedures 3 and 4 are repeated using the bricks and the concrete slab. All the measured results are recorded in the table given below.

5. Procedures 3 and 4 are repeated using the bricks and the concrete slab. All the measured results are recorded in the table given below.

## Step 6: Conclusion

The hypothesis that timber is suitable for use as building materials in earthquake-prone areas, is proven to be true. The wood allowed the vibration from the impact to "pass-through" and reach the water tray causing waves in the water. This means that less energy from the impact has been actually absorbed by the wood. Conversely, fewer vibrations were "passed through" by the brick and concrete - this means that they absorbed more energy from the impact and are hence more vulnerable to damage due to the impact.

## Step 7: Why Did I Do This Project

Many populated cities around the world are now located in earthquake-prone areas. The outcome of an earthquake can be very devastating, especially when it occurs in a populated city. An earthquake can cause loss of lives, injuries to people, the collapse of buildings, damaged roads and broken pipelines carrying water and flammable/toxic gas.