Introduction: How to Use a Wood Chisel
For every type of builder, there are very few indispensable tools. For the woodworkers, the chisel is the simple, multifaceted tool you just can't live without.
Here are some basic techniques on making the most of the chisel, a tool that can take on everything from cleaning up large chunks of waste wood when constructing a porch glider, to carefully paring away thin shavings for a tight fit when you're, say, building a fence.
A few tips before you get started: Make sure to keep your chisel sharp, have a few chisels of varying sizes (if you're getting only one, make it a 3/4"), and, finally, don't go for the cheapest tools --always buy sturdy, solid chisels with life-time warranties.
Step 1: Two-handed Control
For careful paring, use a 2-handed grip. One hand guides the cutting edge while the other hand provides driving power.
For extremely precise work, brace your guide hand up against the material and use it as a fulcrum to pivot on throughout the motion. You'll be surprised at how much control and accuracy you gain using this method.
Step 2: With Force
When greater cutting force is required, wrap one hand around the handle and use a mallet to drive the chisel. Be careful when striking older, wood handled chisels, as a wood handle is much more likely to split than a plastic one. Also, avoid using a metal hammer for striking --a hard plastic mallet will do less damage to your chisels, and if you happened to miss the chisel head, less damage to your fingers and knuckles.
Step 3: With the Grain
Cutting against the grain will cause the chisel edge to dig in and split the wood. This is due to the combination of downward sloping grain and the downward sloping beveled edge of the chisel. To make an ideal cut, in this case, you would flip the board over to orient the grain properly. Quite simply, always cut with the grain.
Step 4: Heavy or Light Cuts
While most light cuts are made bevel up, heavier cuts or confined spaces may require the chisel to be used bevel down. In this photo, the recess forces you to hold the chisel at a greater angle. Holding the bevel side down helps prevent gouging.
Step 5: Beginning a Notch
To cut a notch, face the bevel toward the waste area and define the perimeter with vertical cuts. Then, with the bevel still facing inward, make slanted cuts from the stock face to the bottom of the perimeter incisions. This should form the notch walls.
Step 6: Removing Notch Waste
With the walls of the notch finished, you can begin removing the remaining waste with paring cuts. Keep the bevel up and hold the chisel flat, trimming until you reach the desired depth. Now you can mount your hinge and handle flush against the surface of the wood.
Step 7: End-grain Paring
When paring thin slices from end-grain, orient the chisel bevel up, and use a swiveling motion for smooth cutting. Using a wide chisel will give you more stability and let you finish the job quicker. Be sure your chisel is extra sharp before you attempt to pare end-grain. A dull chisel makes it difficult to cut, and even possibly dangerous, as you have less traction on the cut and the chisel can more easily slip.
Step 8: Cutting Rabbets
To accurately trim the depth of a rabbet, use a block that matches the rabbet lip as a guide. Make sure the block is clamped to your bench, and then rest the chisel on it as you cut. Rabbet cuts are commonly found in the joints of drawers and cabinets because they are relatively easy cuts to make and when made right, they can form a very strong framework.
Step 9: Deep Mortises
Deep mortises are best made by first boring a series of overlapping holes. Be sure the drill bit is slightly smaller than the width of the cavity you want to make. Then, use a chisel, bevel side toward the waste to remove material. When you get to the corners, make the cross-grain cuts first to prevent long-grain splitting.
Step 10: Concave Cuts
To trim along a concave curve, use a chisel that is slightly wider than the thickness of the stock, and face the bevel downwards. Gradually press the handle down as the blade is advanced through the wood. Steady pressure and movement will assure a symmetric curve when you are finished.